Reorganization of chromosome architecture in replicative cellular senescence.
ABSTRACT: Replicative cellular senescence is a fundamental biological process characterized by an irreversible arrest of proliferation. Senescent cells accumulate a variety of epigenetic changes, but the three-dimensional (3D) organization of their chromatin is not known. We applied a combination of whole-genome chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C), fluorescence in situ hybridization, and in silico modeling methods to characterize the 3D architecture of interphase chromosomes in proliferating, quiescent, and senescent cells. Although the overall organization of the chromatin into active (A) and repressive (B) compartments and topologically associated domains (TADs) is conserved between the three conditions, a subset of TADs switches between compartments. On a global level, the Hi-C interaction matrices of senescent cells are characterized by a relative loss of long-range and gain of short-range interactions within chromosomes. Direct measurements of distances between genetic loci, chromosome volumes, and chromatin accessibility suggest that the Hi-C interaction changes are caused by a significant reduction of the volumes occupied by individual chromosome arms. In contrast, centromeres oppose this overall compaction trend and increase in volume. The structural model arising from our study provides a unique high-resolution view of the complex chromosomal architecture in senescent cells.
Project description:Eukaryotic chromosomes are folded into higher-order conformations to coordinate genome functions. In addition to long-range chromatin loops, recent chromosome conformation capture (3C)-based studies have indicated higher levels of chromatin structures including compartments and topologically associating domains (TADs), which may serve as units of genome organization and functions. However, the molecular machinery underlying these hierarchically three-dimensional (3D) chromatin architectures remains poorly understood. Via high-throughput assays, including in situ Hi-C, DamID, ChIP-seq, and RNA-seq, we investigated roles of the Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein U (HNRNPU), a nuclear matrix (NM)-associated protein, in 3D genome organization. Upon the depletion of HNRNPU in mouse hepatocytes, the coverage of lamina-associated domains (LADs) in the genome increases from 53.1% to 68.6%, and a global condensation of chromatin was observed. Furthermore, disruption of HNRNPU leads to compartment switching on 7.5% of the genome, decreases TAD boundary strengths at borders between A (active) and B (inactive) compartments, and reduces chromatin loop intensities. Long-range chromatin interactions between and within compartments or TADs are also significantly remodeled upon HNRNPU depletion. Intriguingly, HNRNPU mainly associates with active chromatin, and 80% of HNRNPU peaks coincide with the binding of CTCF or RAD21. Collectively, we demonstrated that HNRNPU functions as a major factor maintaining 3D chromatin architecture, suggesting important roles of NM-associated proteins in genome organization.
Project description:In meiotic prophase, chromosomes are organized into compacted loop arrays to promote homolog pairing and recombination. Here, we probe the architecture of the mouse spermatocyte genome in early and late meiotic prophase using chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C). Our data support the established loop array model of meiotic chromosomes, and infer loops averaging 0.8-1.0?megabase pairs (Mb) in early prophase and extending to 1.5-2.0?Mb in late prophase as chromosomes compact and homologs undergo synapsis. Topologically associating domains (TADs) are lost in meiotic prophase, suggesting that assembly of the meiotic chromosome axis alters the activity of chromosome-associated cohesin complexes. While TADs are lost, physically separated A and B compartments are maintained in meiotic prophase. Moreover, meiotic DNA breaks and interhomolog crossovers preferentially form in the gene-dense A compartment, revealing a role for chromatin organization in meiotic recombination. Finally, direct detection of interhomolog contacts genome-wide reveals the structural basis for homolog alignment and juxtaposition by the synaptonemal complex.
Project description:Although mammalian genomes are diploid, previous studies extensively investigated the average chromatin architectures without considering the differences between homologous chromosomes. We generated Hi-C, ChIP-seq, and RNA-seq data sets from CD4 T cells of B6, Cast, and hybrid mice, to investigate the diploid chromatin organization and epigenetic regulation. Our data indicate that inter-chromosomal interaction patterns between homologous chromosomes are similar, and the similarity is highly correlated with their allelic coexpression levels. Reconstruction of the 3D nucleus revealed that distances of the homologous chromosomes to the center of nucleus are almost the same. The inter-chromosomal interactions at centromere ends are significantly weaker than those at telomere ends, suggesting that they are located in different regions within the chromosome territories. The majority of A|B compartments or topologically associated domains (TADs) are consistent between B6 and Cast. We found 58% of the haploids in hybrids maintain their parental compartment status at B6/Cast divergent compartments owing to <i>cis</i> effect. About 95% of the <i>trans</i>-effected B6/Cast divergent compartments converge to the same compartment status potentially because of a shared cellular environment. We showed the differentially expressed genes between the two haploids in hybrid were associated with either genetic or epigenetic effects. In summary, our multi-omics data from the hybrid mice provided haploid-specific information on the 3D nuclear architecture and a rich resource for further understanding the epigenetic regulation of haploid-specific gene expression.
Project description:How chromosomes are folded, spatially organized and regulated in three dimensions inside the cell nucleus are among the longest standing questions in cell biology. Genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) technique allowed identifying and characterizing spatial chromatin compartments in several mammalian species. Here, we present the first genome-wide analysis of chromatin interactions in chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF) and adult erythrocytes. We showed that genome of CEF is partitioned into topologically associated domains (TADs), distributed in accordance with gene density, transcriptional activity and CTCF-binding sites. In contrast to mammals, where all examined somatic cell types display relatively similar spatial organization of genome, chicken erythrocytes strongly differ from fibroblasts, showing pronounced A- and B- compartments, absence of typical TADs and formation of long-range chromatin interactions previously observed on mitotic chromosomes. Comparing mammalian and chicken genome architectures, we provide evidence highlighting evolutionary role of chicken TADs and their significance in genome activity and regulation.
Project description:The chromosome conformation capture (3C) technique and its variants have been employed to reveal the existence of a hierarchy of structures in three-dimensional (3D) chromosomal architecture, including compartments, topologically associating domains (TADs), sub-TADs and chromatin loops. However, existing methods for domain detection were only designed based on symmetric Hi-C maps, ignoring long-range interaction structures between domains. To this end, we proposed a generic and efficient method to identify multi-scale topological domains (MSTD), including cis- and trans-interacting regions, from a variety of 3D genomic datasets. We first applied MSTD to detect promoter-anchored interaction domains (PADs) from promoter capture Hi-C datasets across 17 primary blood cell types. The boundaries of PADs are significantly enriched with one or the combination of multiple epigenetic factors. Moreover, PADs between functionally similar cell types are significantly conserved in terms of domain regions and expression states. Cell type-specific PADs involve in distinct cell type-specific activities and regulatory events by dynamic interactions within them. We also employed MSTD to define multi-scale domains from typical symmetric Hi-C datasets and illustrated its distinct superiority to the-state-of-art methods in terms of accuracy, flexibility and efficiency.
Project description:Understanding the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of chromatin and its relation to gene expression and regulation is fundamental to understanding how the genome functions. Advances in Hi-C technology now permit us to study 3D genome organization, but we still lack an understanding of the structural dynamics of chromosomes. The dynamic couplings between regions separated by large genomic distances (>50 Mb) have yet to be characterized. We adapted a well-established protein-modeling framework, the Gaussian Network Model (GNM), to model chromatin dynamics using Hi-C data. We show that the GNM can identify spatial couplings at multiple scales: it can quantify the correlated fluctuations in the positions of gene loci, find large genomic compartments and smaller topologically-associating domains (TADs) that undergo en bloc movements, and identify dynamically coupled distal regions along the chromosomes. We show that the predictions of the GNM correlate well with genome-wide experimental measurements. We use the GNM to identify novel cross-correlated distal domains (CCDDs) representing pairs of regions distinguished by their long-range dynamic coupling and show that CCDDs are associated with increased gene co-expression. Together, these results show that GNM provides a mathematically well-founded unified framework for modeling chromatin dynamics and assessing the structural basis of genome-wide observations.
Project description:How chromosomes fold into 3D structures and how genome functions are affected or even controlled by their spatial organization remain challenging questions. Hi-C experiment has provided important structural insights for chromosome, and Hi-C data are used here to construct the 3D chromatin structure which are characterized by two spatially segregated chromatin compartments A and B. By mapping a plethora of genome features onto the constructed 3D chromatin model, we show vividly the close connection between genome properties and the spatial organization of chromatin. We are able to dissect the whole chromatin into two types of chromatin domains which have clearly different Hi-C contact patterns as well as different sizes of chromatin loops. The two chromatin types can be respectively regarded as the basic units of chromatin compartments A and B, and also spatially segregate from each other as the two chromatin compartments. Therefore, the chromatin loops segregate in the space according to their sizes, suggesting the excluded volume or entropic effect in chromatin compartmentalization as well as chromosome positioning. Taken together, these results provide clues to the folding principles of chromosomes, their spatial organization, and the resulted clustering of many genome features in the 3D space.
Project description:The spatial organization of chromosomes is critical in establishing gene expression programs. We generated in situ Hi-C maps throughout zebrafish development to gain insight into higher-order chromatin organization and dynamics. Zebrafish chromosomes segregate in active and inactive chromatin (A/B compartments), which are further organized into topologically associating domains (TADs). Zebrafish A/B compartments and TADs have genomic features similar to those of their mammalian counterparts, including evolutionary conservation and enrichment of CTCF binding sites at TAD borders. At the earliest time point, when there is no zygotic transcription, the genome is highly structured. After zygotic genome activation (ZGA), the genome loses structural features, which are re-established throughout early development. Despite the absence of structural features, we see clustering of super-enhancers in the 3D genome. Our results provide insight into vertebrate genome organization and demonstrate that the developing zebrafish embryo is a powerful model system to study the dynamics of nuclear organization.
Project description:Deciphering the rules of genome folding in the cell nucleus is essential to understand its functions. Recent chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) studies have revealed that the genome is partitioned into topologically associating domains (TADs), which demarcate functional epigenetic domains defined by combinations of specific chromatin marks. However, whether TADs are true physical units in each cell nucleus or whether they reflect statistical frequencies of measured interactions within cell populations is unclear. Using a combination of Hi-C, three-dimensional (3D) fluorescent in situ hybridization, super-resolution microscopy, and polymer modeling, we provide an integrative view of chromatin folding in Drosophila. We observed that repressed TADs form a succession of discrete nanocompartments, interspersed by less condensed active regions. Single-cell analysis revealed a consistent TAD-based physical compartmentalization of the chromatin fiber, with some degree of heterogeneity in intra-TAD conformations and in cis and trans inter-TAD contact events. These results indicate that TADs are fundamental 3D genome units that engage in dynamic higher-order inter-TAD connections. This domain-based architecture is likely to play a major role in regulatory transactions during DNA-dependent processes.
Project description:Chromosomes in proliferating metazoan cells undergo marked structural metamorphoses every cell cycle, alternating between highly condensed mitotic structures that facilitate chromosome segregation, and decondensed interphase structures that accommodate transcription, gene silencing and DNA replication. Here we use single-cell Hi-C (high-resolution chromosome conformation capture) analysis to study chromosome conformations in thousands of individual cells, and discover a continuum of cis-interaction profiles that finely position individual cells along the cell cycle. We show that chromosomal compartments, topological-associated domains (TADs), contact insulation and long-range loops, all defined by bulk Hi-C maps, are governed by distinct cell-cycle dynamics. In particular, DNA replication correlates with a build-up of compartments and a reduction in TAD insulation, while loops are generally stable from G1 to S and G2 phase. Whole-genome three-dimensional structural models reveal a radial architecture of chromosomal compartments with distinct epigenomic signatures. Our single-cell data therefore allow re-interpretation of chromosome conformation maps through the prism of the cell cycle.