5-Hydroxymethylcytosine discriminates between parathyroid adenoma and carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: Primary hyperparathyroidism is characterized by enlarged parathyroid glands due to an adenoma (80-85 %) or multiglandular disease (~15 %) causing hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and generally hypercalcemia. Parathyroid cancer is rare (<1-5 %). The epigenetic mark 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is reduced in various cancers, and this may involve reduced expression of the ten-eleven translocation 1 (TET1) enzyme. Here, we have performed novel experiments to determine the 5hmC level and TET1 protein expression in 43 parathyroid adenomas (PAs) and 17 parathyroid carcinomas (PCs) from patients who had local invasion or metastases and to address a potential growth regulatory role of TET1.The global 5hmC level was determined by a semi-quantitative DNA immune-dot blot assay in a smaller number of tumors. The global 5hmC level was reduced in nine PCs and 15 PAs compared to four normal tissue samples (p?
Project description:BACKGROUND:Small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) originate from enterochromaffin cells scattered in the intestinal mucosa of the ileum and jejunum. Loss of one copy of chromosome 18 is the most frequent observed aberration in primary tumors and metastases. The aim of this study was to investigate possible involvement of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), TET1 and TET2 in SI-NETs. METHODS:The analysis was conducted using 40 primary tumors and corresponding 47 metastases. The level of 5hmC, TET1 and TET2 was analyzed by DNA immune-dot blot assay and immunohistochemistry. Other methods included a colony forming assay, western blotting analysis, and quantitative bisulfite pyrosequencing analysis. The effect of the exportin-1 nuclear transport machinery inhibitors on cell proliferation and apoptosis was also explored using two SI-NET cell lines. RESULTS:Variable levels of 5hmC and a mosaic staining appearance with a mixture of positive and negative cell nuclei, regardless of cell number and staining strength, was observed overall both in primary tumors and metastases. Similarly aberrant staining pattern was observed for TET1 and TET2. In a number of tumors (15/32) mosaic pattern together with areas of negative staining was also observed for TET1. Abolished expression of TET1 in the tumors did not seem to involve hypermethylation of the TET1 promoter region. Overexpression of TET1 in a colony forming assay supported a function as cell growth regulator. In contrast to 5hmC and TET1, TET2 was also observed in the cytoplasm of all the analyzed SI-NETs regardless of nuclear localization. Treatment of CNDT2.5 and KRJ-I cells with the exportin-1 (XPO1/CRM1) inhibitor, leptomycin B, induced reduction in the cytoplasm and nuclear retention of TET2. Aberrant partitioning of TET2 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm seemed therefore to involve the exportin-1 nuclear transport machinery. Reduced cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis were observed after treatment of CNDT2.5 and KRJ-I cells with leptomycin B or KPT-330 (selinexor). CONCLUSIONS:SI-NETs are epigenetically dysregulated at the level of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine/ TET1/TET2. We suggest that KPT-330/selinexor or future developments should be considered and evaluated for single treatment of patients with SI-NET disease and also in combinations with somatostatin analogues, peptide receptor radiotherapy, or everolimus.
Project description:The TET family of dioxygenases catalyze conversion of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), but their involvement in establishing normal 5mC patterns during mammalian development and their contributions to aberrant control of 5mC during cellular transformation remains largely unknown. We depleted TET1, TET2, and TET3 by siRNA in a pluripotent embryonic carcinoma cell model and examined the impact on genome-wide 5mC and 5hmC patterns. TET1 depletion yielded widespread reduction of 5hmC, while depletion of TET2 and TET3 reduced 5hmC at a subset of TET1 targets suggesting functional co-dependence. TET2 or TET3-depletion also caused increased 5hmC, suggesting they play a major role in 5hmC removal. All TETs prevent hypermethylation throughout the genome, a finding dramatically illustrated in CpG island shores, where TET depletion resulted in prolific hypermethylation. Surprisingly, TETs also promote methylation, as hypomethylation was associated with 5hmC reduction. TET function was highly specific to chromatin environment: 5hmC maintenance by all TETs occurred at polycomb-marked chromatin and genes expressed at moderate levels; 5hmC removal by TET2 is associated with highly transcribed genes enriched for H3K4me3 and H3K36me3. Importantly, genes prone to hypermethylation in cancer become depleted of 5hmC with TET deficiency, suggesting the TETs normally promote 5hmC at these loci, and all three TETs are required for 5hmC enrichment at enhancers, a condition necessary for expression of adjacent genes. These results provide novel insight into the division of labor among TET proteins and reveal an important connection of TET activity with chromatin landscape and gene expression. Methylation and hydroxymethylation profiling by affinity-based high throughput sequencing
Project description:Genome hypomethylation is a common epigenetic alteration in human tumors, where it often leads to aberrant activation of a group of germline-specific genes, commonly referred to as "cancer-germline" genes. The cellular functions and tumor promoting potential of these genes remain, however, largely uncertain. Here, we report identification of a novel cancer-germline transcript (CT-GABRA3) displaying DNA hypomethylation-dependent activation in various tumors, including melanoma and lung carcinoma. Importantly, CT-GABRA3 harbors a microRNA (miR-105), which has recently been identified as a promoter of cancer metastasis by its ability to weaken vascular endothelial barriers following exosomal secretion. CT-GABRA3 also carries a microRNA (miR-767) with predicted target sites in TET1 and TET3, two members of the ten-eleven-translocation family of tumor suppressor genes, which are involved in the conversion of 5-methylcytosines to 5-hydroxymethylcytosines (5hmC) in DNA. Decreased TET activity is a hallmark of cancer; here, we provide evidence that aberrant activation of miR-767 contributes to this phenomenon. We demonstrate that miR-767 represses TET1/3 mRNA and protein expression and regulates genomic 5hmC levels. Additionally, we show that high CT-GABRA3 transcription correlates with reduced TET1 mRNA levels in vivo in lung tumors. Together, our study identified a cancer-germline gene that produces microRNAs with oncogenic potential. Moreover, our data indicate that DNA hypomethylation in tumors can contribute to reduced 5hmC levels via activation of a TET-targeting microRNA.
Project description:Mammalian somatic cells can be directly reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by introducing defined sets of transcription factors. Somatic cell reprogramming involves epigenomic reconfiguration, conferring iPSCs with characteristics similar to embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Human ESCs (hESCs) contain 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), which is generated through the oxidation of 5-methylcytosine by the TET enzyme family. Here we show that 5hmC levels increase significantly during reprogramming to human iPSCs mainly owing to TET1 activation, and this hydroxymethylation change is critical for optimal epigenetic reprogramming, but does not compromise primed pluripotency. Compared with hESCs, we find that iPSCs tend to form large-scale (100 kb-1.3 Mb) aberrant reprogramming hotspots in subtelomeric regions, most of which exhibit incomplete hydroxymethylation on CG sites. Strikingly, these 5hmC aberrant hotspots largely coincide (~80%) with aberrant iPSC-ESC non-CG methylation regions. Our results suggest that TET1-mediated 5hmC modification could contribute to the epigenetic variation of iPSCs and iPSC-hESC differences.
Project description:The 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmc) is a newly identified epigenetic modification thought to be regulated by the TET family of proteins. Little information is available about how ethanol consumption may modulate 5hmC formation and alcoholic liver disease (ALD) progression. A rat ALD model was used to study 5hmC in relationship to hepatocyte apoptosis. Human ALD liver samples were also used to validate these findings. It was found that chronic ethanol feeding significantly reduced 5hmC formation in a rat ALD model. There were no significant changes in TET2 and TET3 between the control- and ethanol-fed animals. In contrast, methylcytosine dioxygenase TET1 (TET1) expression was substantially reduced in the ethanol-fed rats and was accompanied by increased hepatocyte apoptosis. Similarly, knockdown of TET1 in human hepatocyte-like cells also significantly promoted apoptosis. Down-regulation of TET1 resulted in elevated expression of the DNA damage marker, suggesting a role for 5hmc in hepatocyte DNA damage as well. Mechanistic studies revealed that inhibition of TET1 promoted apoptotic gene expression. Similarly, targeting TET1 activity by removing cosubstrate promoted apoptosis and DNA damage. Furthermore, treatment with 5-azacitidine significantly mimics these effects, suggesting that chronic ethanol consumption promotes hepatocyte apoptosis and DNA damage by diminishing TET1-mediated 5hmC formation and DNA methylation. In summary, the current study provides a novel molecular insight that TET1-mediated 5hmC is involved in hepatocyte apoptosis in ALD progression.-Ji, C., Nagaoka, K., Zou, J., Casulli, S., Lu, S., Cao, K. Y., Zhang, H., Iwagami, Y., Carlson, R. I., Brooks, K., Lawrence, J., Mueller, W., Wands, J. R., Huang, C.-K. Chronic ethanol-mediated hepatocyte apoptosis links to decreased TET1 and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine formation.
Project description:The Tet family of enzymes (Tet1/2/3) converts 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) highly express Tet1 and have an elevated level of 5hmC. Tet1 has been implicated in ESC maintenance and lineage specification in vitro but its precise function in development is not well defined. To establish the role of Tet1 in pluripotency and development, we have generated Tet1 mutant mESCs and mice. Tet1(-/-) ESCs have reduced levels of 5hmC and subtle changes in global gene expression, and are pluripotent and support development of live-born mice in tetraploid complementation assay, but display skewed differentiation toward trophectoderm in vitro. Tet1 mutant mice are viable, fertile, and grossly normal, though some mutant mice have a slightly smaller body size at birth. Our data suggest that Tet1 loss leading to a partial reduction in 5hmC levels does not affect pluripotency in ESCs and is compatible with embryonic and postnatal development.
Project description:Germ cell tumors and particularly seminomas reflect the epigenomic features of their parental primordial germ cells (PGCs), including genomic DNA hypomethylation and expression of pluripotent cell markers. Because the DNA hypomethylation might be a result of TET dioxygenase activity, we examined expression of TET1-3 enzymes and the level of their product, 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), in a panel of histologically characterized seminomas and non-seminomatous germ cell tumors. Expression of TET dioxygenase mRNAs was quantified by real-time PCR. TET1 expression and the level of 5hmC were examined immunohistochemically. Quantitative assessment of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and 5hmC levels was done by the liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy technique. We found highly increased expression of TET1 dioxygenase in most seminomas and strong TET1 staining in seminoma cells. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 mutations were not detected, suggesting the enzymatic activity of TET1. The levels of 5mC and 5hmC in seminomas were found decreased in comparison to non-seminomatous germ cell tumors and healthy testicular tissue. We propose that TET1 expression should be studied as a potential marker of seminomas and mixed germ cell tumors and we suggest that elevated expression of TET dioxygenase enzymes is associated with the maintenance of low DNA methylation levels in seminomas. This "anti-methylator" phenotype of seminomas is in contrast to the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) observed in a fraction of tumors of various types.
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the SubSeries listed below. The neurodegenerative disease known as ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is caused by the absence of the ATM (A-T mutated) protein. A long-standing mystery surrounding A-T is why cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) appear uniquely vulnerable to ATM-deficiency. Here, we present that 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), a newly recognized epigenetic marker found at high levels in neurons, is substantially reduced in human A-T and Atm-/- mouse cerebellar PCs. TET1, an enzyme that converts 5mC to 5hmC, responds to DNA damage. Manipulation of TET1 activity directly affects neuronal cell cycle reentry and cell death after the induction of DNA damage. Quantitative, genome-wide analysis of 5hmC of samples from human cerebellum showed that in ATM-deficiency there is a remarkable genome-wide reduction of 5hmC enrichment at both proximal and distal regulatory elements. These results reveal a role of TET1-mediated 5hmC in DNA damage response, and provide insights into the basis of a PC-specific DNA demethylation alteration in ATM-deficiency. Refer to individual Series
Project description:Hypoxia in tumors is primarily a pathophysiologic consequence of structurally and functionally disturbed microcirculation with inadequate supply of oxygen. Tumor hypoxia is strongly associated with tumor propagation, malignant progression, and resistance to therapy. Aberrant epigenetic regulation plays a crucial role in the process of hypoxia-driven malignant progression. Convert of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) by ten-eleven translocation (TET) family enzymes plays important biological functions in embryonic stem cells, development, aging and disease. Recent reports showed that level of 5hmC and TET proteins was altered in various types of cancers. There is a strong correlation between loss of 5hmC and cancer development but research to date indicates that loss of TET activity is associated with the cancer phenotype but it is not clear whether TET proteins function as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. While loss of TET1 and TET2 expression is associated with solid cancers, implying a tumor suppressor role, TET1 exhibits a clear oncogenic role in the context of genomic rearrangements such as in MLL-fusion rearranged leukemia. Interestingly, hypoxia increases global 5hmC levels and upregulates TET1 expression in a HIF1?-dependent manner. Recently, hypoxia-induced TET1 has been demonstrated to play another important role for regulating hypoxia-responsive gene expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by serving as a transcription co-activator. Furthermore, hypoxia-induced TET1 also regulates glucose metabolism and hypoxia-induced EMT through enhancing the expression of insulin induced gene 1 (INSIG1). The roles and mechanisms of action of 5hmC and TET proteins in ES cell biology and during embryonic development, as well as in cancer biology, will be the main focus in this review.