Effects of Whole-Body Electromyostimulation versus High-Intensity Resistance Exercise on Body Composition and Strength: A Randomized Controlled Study.
ABSTRACT: High-intensity (resistance) exercise (HIT) and whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) are both approaches to realize time-efficient favorable changes of body composition and strength. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of WB-EMS compared with the gold standard reference HIT, for improving body composition and muscle strength in middle-aged men. Forty-eight healthy untrained men, 30-50 years old, were randomly allocated to either HIT (2 sessions/week) or a WB-EMS group (3 sessions/2 weeks) that exercised for 16 weeks. HIT was applied as "single-set-to-failure protocol," while WB-EMS was conducted with intermittent stimulation (6?s WB-EMS, 4?s rest; 85?Hz, 350?ms) over 20 minutes. The main outcome parameters were lean body mass (LBM) as determined via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and maximum dynamic leg-extensor strength (isokinetic leg-press). LBM changes of both groups (HIT 1.25 ± 1.44% versus WB-EMS 0.93 ± 1.15%) were significant (p = .001); however, no significant group differences were detected (p = .395). Leg-extensor strength also increased in both groups (HIT 12.7 ± 14.7%, p = .002, versus WB-EMS 7.3 ± 10.3%, p = .012) with no significant (p = .215) between-group difference. Corresponding changes were also determined for body fat and back-extensor strength. Conclusion. In summary, WB-EMS can be considered as a time-efficient but pricy option to HIT-resistance exercise for people aiming at the improvement of general strength and body composition.
Project description:Whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS), an innovative training technology, is considered as a joint-friendly, highly customizable and particularly time-effective option for improving muscle strength and stability, body composition and pain relief. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of 16 weeks of once-weekly WB-EMS on maximum isometric trunk (MITS), leg extensor strength (MILES), lean body mass (LBM) and body-fat content. A cohort of 54 male amateur golfers, 18 to 70 years old and largely representative for healthy adults, were randomly assigned to a WB-EMS (<i>n</i> = 27) or a control group (CG: <i>n</i> = 27). Bipolar low-frequency WB-EMS combined with low-intensity movements was conducted once per week for 20 min at the participants' locations, while the CG maintained their habitual activity. The intention to treat analysis with multiple imputation was applied. After 16 weeks of once-weekly WB-EMS application with an attendance rate close to 100%, we observed significant WB-EMS effects on MITS (<i>p</i> < 0.001), MILES (<i>p</i> = 0.001), LBM (<i>p</i> = 0.034), but not body-fat content (<i>p</i> = 0.080) and low-back pain (LBP: <i>p</i> ≥ 0.078). In summary, the commercial setting of once-weekly WB-EMS application is effective to enhance stability, maximum strength, body composition and, to a lower extent, LBP in amateur golfers widely representative for a healthy male cohort.
Project description:To date, there has been no study on the long-term effects of resistance exercise on sarcopenia and obesity indices for people with sarcopenia. The present study thus aimed to determine the effect of 18 months of periodized, high-velocity/intensity/effort progressive resistance training (HIT-RT) on body composition and strength in older men with osteosarcopenia. Using a single-blind, two-group parallel design, 43 community-dwelling men, 72 years and older, with osteopenia and sarcopenia in Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany, were randomly assigned to two study arms by drawing lots: (1) an exercise group that conducted a consistently supervised periodized high-velocity/intensity/effort protocol (HIT-RT; n = 21) on machines twice a week for 18 months or (2) a control group (CG; n = 22) that maintained their physical activity/exercise habits. Both groups were supplied with protein, cholecalciferol, and calcium according to current recommendations. The study outcomes were lean body mass (LBM), total and abdominal body fat as determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and maximum hip/leg extensor strength as assessed on an isokinetic leg press at baseline and after 8, 12, and 18 months of follow-up. The intention-to-treat principle and multiple imputation were applied to calculated study outcomes. After 18 months of HIT-RT, altogether five participants were lost to follow up (HIT-RT: n = 2, CG: n = 3). The attendance rates (95%) for HIT-RT were high; relevant adverse effects were not observed. Significant effects (i.e., differences between HIT-RT vs. CG) in favor of HIT-RT were determined for LBM (+1.73 kg, 95% CI: +1.13 to +2.32 kg), total body fat mass (-2.44 kg, 95% CI: -1.28 to 3.60 kg), abdominal body fat percentage (-2.68, 95% CI: -1.70 to -3.66), and maximum hip/leg extensor strength (+533 N, 95% CI: +397 to +670 N; all p < 0.001). Even after adjusting for multiple testing, all effects remained significant. Of note, after 8 months of HIT-RT, only slight (LBM and fat indices) to moderate (maximum strength) ongoing effects were observed. Carefully introduced, continuously supervised HIT-RT is an effective, attractive, feasible, and safe method to improve body composition and muscle strength in older community-dwelling men with sarcopenia. However, even when consequently applying principles of exercise intensity progression within the RT protocol, only slight further positive changes were observed after 8 months of exercise.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of dynamic superimposed submaximal whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) training on maximal strength and power parameters of the leg muscles compared with a similar dynamic training without WB-EMS. Eighteen male sport students were randomly assigned either to a WB-EMS intervention (INT; n = 9; age: 28.8 (SD: 3.0) years; body mass: 80.2 (6.6) kg; strength training experience: 4.6 (2.8) years) or a traditional strength training group (CON; n = 9; age: 22.8 (2.5) years; body mass: 77.6 (9.0) kg; strength training experience: 4.5 (2.9) years). Both training intervention programs were performed twice a week over a period of 8 weeks with the only difference that INT performed all dynamic exercises (e.g., split squats, glute-ham raises, jumps, and tappings) with superimposed WB-EMS. WB-EMS intensity was adjusted to 70% of the individual maximal tolerable pain to ensure dynamic movement. Before (PRE), after (POST) and 2 weeks after the intervention (FU), performance indices were assessed by maximal strength (Fmax) and maximal power (Pmax) testing on the leg extension (LE), leg curl (LC), and leg press (LP) machine as primary endpoints. Additionally, vertical and horizontal jumps and 30 m sprint tests were conducted as secondary endpoints at PRE, POST and FU testing. Significant time effects were observed for strength and power parameters on LE and LC (LE Fmax +5.0%; LC Pmax +13.5%). A significant time × group interaction effect was merely observed for Fmax on the LE where follow-up post hoc testing showed significantly higher improvements in the INT group from PRE to POST and PRE to FU (INT: +7.7%, p < 0.01; CON: +2.1%). These findings indicate that the combination of dynamic exercises and superimposed submaximal WB-EMS seems to be effective in order to improve leg strength and power. However, in young healthy adults the effects of superimposed WB-EMS were similar to the effects of dynamic resistance training without EMS, with the only exception of a significantly greater increase in leg extension Fmax in the WB-EMS group.
Project description:Considerably decreased muscle mass and function are subsumed under "sarcopenia," a geriatric syndrome. Dedicated exercise programs maintain muscle mass and function; however, due to the limited enthusiasm of older adults to exercise, it is important to generate low-threshold interventions for this vulnerable cohort. Thus, the primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of low volume/high intensity resistance exercise training (HIT-RT) combined with protein supplementation on body composition and strength in older men with sarcopenia and osteopenia (osteosarcopenia). Forty-three community-dwelling (cdw) older men (78 ± 4 years) with osteosarcopenia were randomly allocated to a consistently supervised HIT-RT (<i>n</i> = 21) or an inactive control group (CG, <i>n</i> = 22). HIT-RT scheduled a single set protocol with high intensity and effort applied twice a week for 36 weeks so far. Both groups were supplemented with Vit-D (800 IE/d), calcium (1,000 mg/d) and whey-protein (CG: 1.2 vs. HIT-RT: 1.5-1.7 g/kg/d). Study endpoints were body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and maximum isokinetic hip/leg-extensor strength (MIES) by leg-press. After 36 weeks, one participant who developed prostate cancer after inclusion in the study (HIT-RT) and two participants who lost interest (CG, HIT-RT) quit the study. Attendance rate for HIT-RT averaged 93 ± 5%. Total and thigh lean body mass (LBM) significantly (<i>p</i> < 0.001) increased in the HIT-RT and was maintained in the CG (<i>p</i> = 0.46 and 0.37). Differences between the groups for changes of total and thigh LBM were pronounced (<i>p</i> < 0.001; SMD d' = 1.17 and 1.20). Total and abdominal body fat percentage decreased significantly in the HIT-RT (<i>p</i> < 0.001) and increased in the CG (<i>p</i> = 0.039 and <i>p</i> = 0.097). Intergroup differences were significant (<i>p</i> < 0.001; SMD: d' = 1.35 and 1.28). Finally, MIES was maintained in the CG (<i>p</i> = 0.860), and improved significantly (<i>p</i> < 0.001) in the HIT-RT. Differences between the groups were significant (<i>p</i> < 0.001, SMD: d' = 2.41). No adverse effects of the intervention were observed. In summary, the HIT-RT/protein protocol significantly affected body composition and strength in cdw men 72 years+ with osteosarcopenia. In the absence of negative side effects, the intervention was feasible, attractive and time effective. Thus, we conclude that supervised HIT-RT might be an exercise option for older men.
Project description:Whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) has been shown to be effective in increasing muscle strength and mass in elderly women. Because of the interaction of muscles and bones, these adaptions might be related to changes in bone parameters. 76 community-living osteopenic women 70 years and older were randomly assigned to either a WB-EMS group (n = 38) or a control group (CG: n = 38). The WB-EMS group performed 3 sessions every 14 days for one year while the CG performed gymnastics containing identical exercises without EMS. Primary study endpoints were bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (thip) as assessed by DXA. After 54 weeks of intervention, borderline nonsignificant intergroup differences were determined for LS-BMD (WB-EMS: 0.6 ± 2.5% versus CG -0.7 ± 2.5%, P = .051) but not for thip-BMD (WB-EMS: -1.1 ± 1.9% versus CG: -0.8 ± 2.3%, P = .771). With respect to secondary endpoints, there was a gain in lean body mass (LBM) of 1.5% (P = .006) and an increase in grip strength of 8.4% (P = .000) in the WB-EMS group compared to CG. WB-EMS effects on bone are less pronounced than previously reported effects on muscle mass. However, for subjects unable or unwilling to perform intense exercise programs, WB-EMS may be an option for maintaining BMD at the LS.
Project description:Background: Whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) gained increasing interest in sports within recent years. However, few intervention studies have examined the effects of WB-EMS on trained subjects in comparison to conventional strength training. Objective: The aim of the present mini-meta-analysis of 5 recently conducted and published randomized controlled WB-EMS trails of our work group was to evaluate potentially favorable effects of WB-EMS in comparison to conventional strength training. Methods: We included parameter of selected leg muscle's strength and power as well as sprint and jump performance. All subjects were moderately trained athletes [>2 training sessions/week, >2 years of experience in strength training; experimental group (n = 58): 21.5 ± 3.3 y; 178 ± 8 cm; 74.0 ± 11 kg; control group (n = 54): 21.0 ± 2.3 y; 179.0 ± 9 cm; 72.6 ± 10 kg]. The following WB-EMS protocols were applied to the experimental group (EG): 2 WB-EMS sessions/week, bipolar current superimposed to dynamic exercises, 85 Hz, 350 ?s, 70% of the individual pain threshold amperage. The control groups (CG) underwent the same training protocols without WB-EMS, but with external resistance. Results: Five extremely homogenous studies (all studies revealed an I 2 = 0%) with 112 subjects in total were analyzed with respect to lower limb strength and power in leg curl, leg extension and leg press machines, sprint-and jump performance. Negligible effects in favor of WB-EMS were found for Fmax of leg muscle groups [SMD: 0.11 (90% CI: -0.08, 0.33), p = 0.73, I 2 = 0%] and for CMJ [SMD: 0.01 (90% CI: -0.34, 0.33), p = 0.81, I 2 = 0%]. Small effects, were found for linear sprint [SMD: 0.22 (90% CI: -0.15, 0.60), p = 0.77, I 2 = 0%] in favor of the EMS-group compared to CON. Conclusion: We conclude that WB-EMS is a feasible complementary training stimulus for performance enhancement. However, additional effects on strength and power indices seem to be limited and sprint and jump-performance appear to be benefiting only slightly. Longer training periods and more frequent application times and a slightly larger stimulus could be investigated in larger samples to further elucidate beneficial effects of WB-EMS on performance parameters in athletes.
Project description:Whole-body electromyostiulation (WB-EMS) has experienced a boom in recent years, even though its effectiveness is controversial. A sedentary lifestyle is deeply rooted in the European population, mainly in the elderly. This experimental study analyzed the impact of WB-EMS on the physical fitness of postmenopausal women. Thirty-four healthy sedentary women between 55 and 69 years followed an experimental design pre-post-test. Both groups conducted a ten-week aerobic and strength training program. The experimental group overlaid the WB-EMS during exercise. At the end of the intervention, both groups improved upper and lower body strength, lower extremity flexibility, agility, and speed levels (pBonferroni < 0.05). Significant interactions were observed at upper and lower body strength, agility, speed, and cardiovascular endurance (p < 0.05). The WB-EMS group scored better agility than the control group at the end of the intervention (pBonferroni < 0.05) and was the only group that improved cardiovascular endurance. WB-EMS shows a favorable isolate effect on the development of dynamic leg strength, agility, and cardiovascular endurance but did not in dynamic arm strength, gait speed, balance, or flexibility of postmenopausal women.
Project description:The aim of this study was to compare the effects of short-term strength training with and without superimposed whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) on straight sprinting speed (SSS), change of direction speed (CODS), vertical and horizontal jumping, as well as on strength and power in physically active females. Twenty-two active female participants (<i>n</i> = 22; mean ± SD: age: 20.5 ± 2.3 years; height: 171.9 ± 5.5 cm; body mass: 64.0 ± 8.2 kg; strength training experience 5.1 ± 3.6 years) were randomly assigned to two groups: strength training (S) or strength training with superimposed WB-EMS (S+E). Both groups trained twice a week over a period of 4 weeks and differed in the application of free weights or WB-EMS during four strength (e.g., split squats, glute-ham raises) and five sprinting and jumping exercises (e.g., side and box jumps, skippings). The WB-EMS impulse intensity was adjusted to 70% of individual maximal sustainable pain. SSS was tested <i>via</i> 30-m sprinting, CODS by a T-run, vertical and horizontal jumping using four different jump tests at pre-, post-, and retests. Maximal strength (F<sub>max</sub>) and power (P<sub>max</sub>) testing procedures were conducted on the Leg Press (LP), Leg Extension (LE), and Leg Curl (LC) machine. Significant time × group interaction effects revealed significant decreases of contact time of the Drop Jump and split time of CODS (<i>p</i> ? 0.043; ? p 2 = 0.15-0.25) for S (? 11.6%) compared to S+E (? 5.7%). Significant time effects (<i>p</i> < 0.024; ? p 2 = 0.17-0.57) were observed in both groups for SSS (S+E: ?6.3%; S: ?8.0%) and CODS (S+E: ?1.8%; S: ?2.0%) at retest, for jump test performances (S+E: ?13.2%; S: ?9.2%) as well as F<sub>max</sub> and P<sub>max</sub> for LE (S+E: ?13.5%; S: ?13.3%) and LC (S+E: ?18.2%; S: ?26.7%) at post- and retests. The findings of this study indicate comparable effects of short-term strength training with and without superimposed WB-EMS on physical fitness in physically active females. Therefore, WB-EMS training could serve as a reasonable but not superior alternative to classic training regimes in female exercisers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Physical exercise and nutritional treatment are promising measures to prevent muscle wasting that is frequently observed in advanced-stage cancer patients. However, conventional exercise is not always suitable for these patients due to physical weakness and therapeutic side effects. In this pilot study, we examined the effect of a combined approach of the novel training method whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) and individualized nutritional support on body composition with primary focus on skeletal muscle mass in advanced cancer patients under oncological treatment. METHODS:In a non-randomized controlled trial design patients (56.5% male; 59.9?±?12.7 years) with advanced solid tumors (UICC III/IV, N?=?131) undergoing anti-cancer therapy were allocated to a usual care control group (n?=?35) receiving individualized nutritional support or to an intervention group (n?=?96) that additionally performed a supervised physical exercise program in form of 20 min WB-EMS sessions (bipolar, 85 Hz) 2×/week for 12 weeks. The primary outcome of skeletal muscle mass and secondary outcomes of body composition, body weight and hand grip strength were measured at baseline, in weeks 4, 8 and 12 by bioelectrical impedance analysis and hand dynamometer. Effects of WB-EMS were estimated by linear mixed models. Secondary outcomes of physical function, hematological and blood chemistry parameters, quality of life and fatigue were assessed at baseline and week 12. Changes were analyzed by t-tests, Wilcoxon signed-rank or Mann-Whitney-U-tests. RESULTS:Twenty-four patients of the control and 58 of the WB-EMS group completed the 12-week trial. Patients of the WB-EMS group had a significantly higher skeletal muscle mass (0.53 kg [0.08, 0.98]; p?=?0.022) and body weight (1.02 kg [0.05, 1.98]; p?=?0.039) compared to controls at the end of intervention. WB-EMS also significantly improved physical function and performance status (p?<?0.05). No significant differences of changes in quality of life, fatigue and blood parameters were detected between the study groups after 12 weeks. CONCLUSIONS:Supervised WB-EMS training is a safe strength training method and combined with nutritional support it shows promising effects against muscle wasting and on physical function in advanced-stage cancer patients undergoing treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02293239 (Date: November 18, 2014).
Project description:Menopause is associated with losses in strength and power along with weight and fat mass gains, which may result from menopause-related hormonal changes, aging-associated diseases, and decreased physical activity time. The objective of this study is to analyze if whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS) is suitable for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal physical deterioration. Thirty-four healthy sedentary women between 55 and 69 years followed an experimental design pre-post test. Both groups conducted 10 weeks of aerobic and strength training program. The experimental group conducted the training with superimposed WB-EMS during exercise. At the end of the intervention, the experimental group obtained better power (Squat: mean difference (MD) = 38.69 W [1.75,75.62], d = 0.81; Bench press: MD = 25.64 W [17.48, 33.82], d = 2.39) and velocity (Squat: MD = 0.04 m·s-1 [0.01, 0.08], d = 0.98; Bench press: MD = 0.10 m·s-1 [0.06, 0.14], d = 1.90) score improvements than the other group (pBonferroni < 0.05). Furthermore, trivial to small effects were found in the body composition of the participants of both groups (p > 0.050). WB-EMS showed a favorable isolated effect on the development of power and velocity, but it induced negligible effects on the body composition of postmenopausal women.