ABSTRACT: A solid material possessing identical electromagnetic properties as air has yet to be found in nature. Such a medium of arbitrary shape would neither reflect nor refract light at any angle of incidence in free space. Here, we introduce nonscattering corrugated metallic wires to construct such a medium. This was accomplished by aligning the dark-state frequencies in multiple scattering channels of a single wire. Analytical solutions, full-wave simulations, and microwave measurement results on 3D printed samples show omnidirectional invisibility in any configuration. This invisible metallic mesh can improve mechanical stability, electrical conduction, and heat dissipation of a system, without disturbing the electromagnetic design. Our approach is simple, robust, and scalable to higher frequencies.
Project description:An ideal transformation-based omnidirectional cloak always relies on metamaterials with extreme parameters, which were previously thought to be too difficult to realize. For such a reason, in previous experimental proposals of invisibility cloaks, the extreme parameters requirements are usually abandoned, leading to inherent scattering. Here, we report on the first experimental demonstration of an omnidirectional cloak that satisfies the extreme parameters requirement, which can hide objects in a homogenous background. Instead of using resonant metamaterials that usually involve unavoidable absorptive loss, the extreme parameters are achieved using a nonresonant metamaterial comprising arrays of subwavelength metallic channels manufactured with 3D metal printing technology. A high level transmission of electromagnetic wave propagating through the present omnidirectional cloak, as well as significant reduction of scattering field, is demonstrated both numerically and experimentally. Our work may also inspire experimental realizations of the other full-parameter omnidirectional optical devices such as concentrator, rotators, and optical illusion apparatuses.
Project description:We describe two experiments demonstrating that a cylindrical cloak formerly introduced for linear surface liquid waves works equally well for sound and electromagnetic waves. This structured cloak behaves like an acoustic cloak with an effective anisotropic density and an electromagnetic cloak with an effective anisotropic permittivity, respectively. Measured forward scattering for pressure and magnetic fields are in good agreement and provide first evidence of broadband cloaking. Microwave experiments and 3D electromagnetic wave simulations further confirm reduced forward and backscattering when a rectangular metallic obstacle is surrounded by the structured cloak for cloaking frequencies between 2.6 and 7.0 GHz. This suggests, as supported by 2D finite element simulations, sound waves are cloaked between 3 and 8 KHz and linear surface liquid waves between 5 and 16 Hz. Moreover, microwave experiments show the field is reduced by 10 to 30 dB inside the invisibility region, which suggests the multi-wave cloak could be used as a protection against water, sonic or microwaves.
Project description:We experimentally observe the excitation of dark multipolar spoof localized surface plasmon resonances in a hybrid structure consisting of a corrugated metallic disk coupled with a C-shaped dipole resonator. The uncoupled corrugated metallic disk only supports a dipolar resonance in the transmission spectrum due to perfect symmetry of the structure. However, the dark multipolar spoof localized surface plasmon resonances emerge when coupled with a bright C-shaped resonator which is placed in the vicinity of the corrugated metallic disk. These excited multipolar resonances show minimum influence on the coupling distance between the C-shaped resonator and corrugated metallic disk. The resonance frequencies of the radiative modes are controlled by varying the angle of the C-shaped resonator and the inner disk radius, both of which play dominant roles in the excitation of the spoof localized surface plasmons. Observation of such a transition from the dark to radiative nature of multipolar spoof localized plasmon resonances would find potential applications in terahertz based resonant plasmonic and metamaterial devices.
Project description:Subwavelength-scale metal and dielectric nanostructures have served as important building blocks for electromagnetic metamaterials, providing unprecedented opportunities for manipulating the optical response of the matter. Recently, hyperbolic metamaterials have been drawing particular interest because of their unusual optical properties and functionalities, such as negative refraction and hyperlensing of light. Here, as a promising application of a hyperbolic metamaterial at visible frequency, we propose an invisible nanotube that consists of metal and dielectric alternating thin layers. The theoretical study of the light scattering of the layered nanotube reveals that almost-zero scattering can be achieved at a specific wavelength when the transverse-electric- or transverse-magnetic-polarized light is incident to the nanotube. In addition, the layered nanotube can be described as a radial-anisotropic hyperbolic metamaterial nanotube. The low scattering occurs when the effective permittivity of the hyperbolic nanotube in the angular direction is near zero, and thus the invisibility of the layered nanotube can be efficiently obtained by analyzing the equivalent hyperbolic nanotube. Our new method to design and tune an invisible nanostructure represents a significant step toward the practical implementation of unique nanophotonic devices such as invisible photodetectors and low-scattering near-field optical microscopes.
Project description:We propose a hybrid circuit for spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and spatial waveguide modes to develop new microwave devices. The hybrid circuit includes a spoof SPP waveguide made of two anti-symmetric corrugated metallic strips and a traditional substrate integrated waveguide (SIW). From dispersion relations, we show that the electromagnetic waves only can propagate through the hybrid circuit when the operating frequency is less than the cut-off frequency of the SPP waveguide and greater than the cut-off frequency of SIW, generating efficient band-pass filters. We demonstrate that the pass band is controllable in a large range by designing the geometrical parameters of SPP waveguide and SIW. Full-wave simulations are provided to show the large adjustability of filters, including ultra wideband and narrowband filters. We fabricate a sample of the new hybrid device in the microwave frequencies, and measurement results have excellent agreements to numerical simulations, demonstrating excellent filtering characteristics such as low loss, high efficiency, and good square ratio. The proposed hybrid circuit gives important potential to accelerate the development of plasmonic integrated functional devices and circuits in both microwave and terahertz frequencies.
Project description:Backward phase matching, which describes counterpropagating fundamental and harmonic waves in a negative-index medium, is one of the most intriguing phenomena in nonlinear metamaterials. Predicted theoretically decades ago, however, it is still a challenging task to be applied for efficient second harmonic (SH) generation in a nonlinear metamaterial with ultrathin geometry and ultralow loss. Here, a negative-index spoof plasmonic metamaterial is reported, which is composed of an ultrathin symmetrical corrugated metallic strips loaded with nonlinear active devices. The simulated and measured power spectra and surface near-field distributions show that a peak SH signal can be generated at the backward phase-matched frequency point in a 120° curved surface with high efficiency, thanks to the ultrathin flexible geometry, significant confinement effect, and large propagation length of the spoof surface plasmons. The results open new technological challenges from nano- and micro-nonlinear photonics to science and engineering of compact, broadband, and efficient frequency-mixing metamaterials and electromagnetic devices.
Project description:We propose an ultrathin metallic structure to produce frequency-selective spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) in the microwave and terahertz frequencies. Designed on a thin dielectric substrate, the ultrathin metallic structure is composed of two oppositely oriented single-side corrugated strips, which are coupled to two double-side corrugated strips. The structure is fed by a traditional coplanar waveguide (CPW). To make a smooth conversion between the spatial modes in CPW and SPP modes, two transition sections are also designed. We fabricate and measure the frequency-selective spoof SPP structure in microwave frequencies. The measurement results show that the reflection coefficient is less than -10 dB with the transmission loss around 1.5 dB in the selective frequency band from 7 to 10 GHz, which are in good agreements with numerical simulations. The proposed structure can be used as an SPP filter with good performance of low loss, high transmission, and wide bandwidth in the selective frequency band.
Project description:Backward wave with anti-parallel phase and group velocities is one of the basic properties associated with negative refraction and sub-diffraction image that have attracted considerable interest in the context of photonic metamaterials. It has been predicted theoretically that some plasmonic structures can also support backward wave propagation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), however direct experimental demonstration has not been reported, to the best of our knowledge. In this paper, a specially designed plasmonic metamaterial of corrugated metallic strip has been proposed that can support backward spoof SPP wave propagation. The dispersion analysis, the full electromagnetic field simulation and the transmission measurement of the plasmonic metamaterial waveguide have clearly validated the backward wave propagation with dispersion relation possessing negative slope and opposite directions of group and phase velocities. As a further verification and application, a contra-directional coupler is designed and tested that can route the microwave signal to opposite terminals at different operating frequencies, indicating new application opportunities of plasmonic metamaterial in integrated functional devices and circuits for microwave and terahertz radiation.
Project description:The invisibility cloak, a long-standing fantastic dream for humans, has become more tangible with the development of metamaterials. Recently, metasurface-based invisibility cloaks have been proposed and realized with significantly reduced thickness and complexity of the cloaking shell. However, the previous scheme is based on reflection-type metasurfaces and is thus limited to reflection geometry. In this work, by integrating the wavefront tailoring functionality of transparent metasurfaces and the wave tunneling functionality of zero-index materials, we have realized a unique type of hybrid invisibility cloak that functions in transmission geometry. The principle is general and applicable to arbitrary shapes. For experimental demonstration, we constructed a rhombic double-layer cloaking shell composed of a highly transparent metasurface and a double-zero medium consisting of dielectric photonic crystals with Dirac cone dispersions. The cloaking effect is verified by both full-wave simulations and microwave experimental results. The principle also reveals exciting possibilities for realizing skin-thick ultrathin cloaking shells in transmission geometry, which can eliminate the need for spatially varying extreme parameters. Our work paves a path for novel optical and electromagnetic devices based on the integration of metasurfaces and metamaterials.
Project description:A multigrid optimisation strategy is introduced to design passive metallic reflectors with corrugated shapes. The strategy is based on using genetic algorithms at multiple grids and shaping the metal sheets, starting from coarse details to fine tunings. This corresponds to a systematic expansion of the related optimisation space, which is explored more efficiently in comparison to a brute-force optimisation without using grid. By employing the multilevel fast multipole algorithm to analyse the electromagnetic problems corresponding to optimisation trials, we obtain accurately designed reflectors that provide focussing abilities with very high performances at single and multiple locations. The designed reflectors are also resistant to fabrication errors with less complex corrugations and simplified reflection mechanisms compared to those found by no-grid optimisation trials.