Self-assembled hydrophobin for producing water-soluble and membrane permeable fluorescent dye.
ABSTRACT: Low water solubility and poor membrane permeability are major disadvantages that compromise applications of most fluorescent dyes. To resolve these problems, herein, using Boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) as a model fluorescent dye, for the first time, we provide a new strategy for the rapid and efficient production of a water-soluble and membrane-permeable dye by mixing with an amphiphilic protein named hydrophobin. Data shows BODIPY could be effectively solubilized and dispersed in 200 ?g/mL hydrophobin by simple mixing and sonication. Subsequent experiments indicated that hydrophobin self-assembled into a protein film on the surface of BODIPY forming stable hydrophobin-BODIPY complexes with a size range of 10-30 nm. Furthermore, we demonstrated hydrophobin-functionalized BODIPY are toxicity free to cells. The hydrophobin-BODIPY complex could pass through both the cell plasma membrane and nuclear membrane efficiently. Our work opens a novel route to modify and functionalize fluorescent dyes and may be developed as a general strategy for broadening their applications.
Project description:Low water solubility and poor selectivity are two fundamental limitations that compromise applications of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes. Methods: Here, a simple strategy that can resolve these problems simultaneously was developed by using a novel hybrid protein named RGD-HFBI that is produced by fusion of hydrophobin HFBI and arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptide. This unique hybrid protein inherits self-assembly and targeting functions from HFBI and RGD peptide respectively. Results: Boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) used as a model NIR dye can be efficiently dispersed in the RGD-HFBI solution by simple mixing and sonication for 30 min. The data shows that self-assembled RGD-HFBI forms a protein nanocage by using the BODIPY as the assembly template. Cell uptake assay proves that RGD-HFBI/BODIPY can efficiently stain ?v?3 integrin-positive cancer cells. Finally, in vivo affinity tests fully demonstrate that the soluble RGD-HFBI/BODIPY complex selectively targets and labels tumor sites of tumor-bearing mice due to the high selectivity of the RGD peptide. Conclusion: Our one-step strategy using dual-functional RGD-HFBI opens a novel route to generate soluble and targeted NIR fluorescent dyes in a very simple and efficient way and may be developed as a general strategy to broaden their applications.
Project description:We report two novel functional dyes based on a boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) core displaying a panchromatic absorption with an extension to the near-infrared (NIR) range. An innovative synthetic approach for preparing the 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-BODIPY unit is disclosed, and a versatile way to further functionalize this unit has been developed. The optoelectronic properties of the two dyes were computed by density functional theory modelling (DFT) and characterized through UV-vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements. Finally, we report preliminary results obtained using these functional dyes as photosensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs).
Project description:(aza-)BODIPY dyes (boron dipyrromethene dyes) are well-established fluorophores due to their large quantum yields, stability, and diversity, which led to promising applications including imaging techniques, sensors, organic (opto)electronic materials, or biomedical applications. Although the control of the optical properties in (aza-)BODIPY dyes by peripheral functional groups is well studied, we herein present a novel approach to modify the 12??-electron core of the dipyrromethene scaffold. The replacement of two carbon atoms in the ?-position of a BODIPY dye by two nitrogen atoms afforded a 14??-electron system, which was termed BODIIM (boron diimidazolylmethene) in systematic analogy to the BODIPY dyes. Remarkably, the BODIIM dye was obtained with a BH2 -rigidifying entity, which is currently elusive and highly sought after for the BODIPY dye class. DFT-Calculations confirm the [12+2] ?-electron relationship between BODIPY and BODIIM and reveal a strong shape correlation between LUMO in the BODIPY and the HOMO of the BODIIM. The modification of the ?-system leads to a dramatic shift of the optical properties, of which the fluorescent emission is most noteworthy and occurs at much larger Stokes shift, that is, ?500?cm-1 in BODIPY versus >4170?cm-1 in BODIIM system in all solvents investigated. Nucleophilic reactivity was found at the meso-carbon atom in the formation of stable borane adducts with a significant shift of the fluorescent emission, and this behavior contrasts the reactivity of conventional BODIPY systems. In addition, the reverse decomplexation of the borane adducts was demonstrated in reactions with a representative N-heterocyclic carbene to retain the strongly fluorescent BODIIM compound, which suggests applications as fully reversible fluorescent switch.
Project description:Small molecule fluorophores are indispensable tools for modern biomedical imaging techniques. In this report, we present the development of a new class of BODIPY dyes based on an alkoxy-fluoro-boron-dipyrromethene core. These novel fluorescent dyes, which we term MayaFluors, are characterized by good aqueous solubility and favorable in vitro physicochemical properties. MayaFluors are readily accessible in good yields in a one-pot, two-step approach starting from well-established BODIPY dyes, and allow for facile modification with functional groups of relevance to bioconjugate chemistry and bioorthogonal labeling. Biological profiling in living cells demonstrates excellent membrane permeability, low nonspecific binding, and lack of cytotoxicity.
Project description:Real-time monitoring of newly acidified organelles during autophagy in living cells is highly desirable for a better understanding of intracellular degradative processes. Herein, we describe a reaction-based boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dye containing strongly electron-withdrawing diethyl 2-cyanoacrylate groups at the ?-positions. The probe exhibits intense red fluorescence in acidic organelles or the acidified cytosol while exhibiting negligible fluorescence in other regions of the cell. The underlying mechanism is a nucleophilic reaction at the central meso-carbon of the indacene core, resulting in the loss of ?-conjugation entailed by dramatic spectroscopic changes of more than 200?nm between its colorless, non-fluorescent leuco-BODIPY form and its red and brightly emitting form. The reversible transformation between red fluorescent BODIPY and leuco-BODIPY along with negligible cytotoxicity qualifies such dyes for rapid and direct intracellular lysosome imaging and cytosolic acidosis detection simultaneously without any washing step, enabling the real-time monitoring of newly acidified organelles during autophagy.
Project description:We introduce herein boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dyes as a new class of fluorophores for the design of reporter dyes for supramolecular host-guest complex formation with cucurbituril (CB7). The BODIPYs contain a protonatable aniline nitrogen in the <i>meso</i>-position of the BODIPY chromophore, which was functionalized with known binding motifs for CB7. The unprotonated dyes show low fluorescence due to photoinduced electron transfer (PET), whereas the protonated dyes are highly fluorescent. Encapsulation of the binding motif inside CB7 positions the aniline nitrogen at the carbonyl rim of CB7, which affects the p<i>K</i><sub>a</sub> value, and leads to a host-induced protonation and thus to a fluorescence increase. The possibility to tune binding affinities and p<i>K</i><sub>a</sub> values is demonstrated and it is shown that, in combination with the beneficial photophysical properties of BODIPYs, several new applications of host-dye reporter pairs can be implemented. This includes indicator displacement assays with favourable absorption and emission wavelengths in the visible spectral region, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, and noncovalent surface functionalization with fluorophores.
Project description:Fluorophores based on the BODIPY scaffold are prized for their tunable excitation and emission profiles, mild syntheses, and biological compatibility. Improving the water-solubility of BODIPY dyes remains an outstanding challenge. The development of water-soluble BODIPY dyes usually involves direct modification of the BODIPY fluorophore core with ionizable groups or substitution at the boron center. While these strategies are effective for the generation of water-soluble fluorophores, they are challenging to implement when developing BODIPY-based indicators: direct modification of BODIPY core can disrupt the electronics of the dye, complicating the design of functional indicators; and substitution at the boron center often renders the resultant BODIPY incompatible with the chemical transformations required to generate fluorescent sensors. In this study, we show that BODIPYs bearing a sulfonated aromatic group at the meso position provide a general solution for water-soluble BODIPYs. We outline the route to a suite of 5 new sulfonated BODIPYs with 2,6-disubstitution patterns spanning a range of electron-donating and -withdrawing propensities. To highlight the utility of these new, sulfonated BODIPYs, we further functionalize them to access 13 new, BODIPY-based, voltage-sensitive fluorophores (VF). The most sensitive of these BODIPY VF dyes displays a 48% ?F/F per 100 mV in mammalian cells. Two additional BODIPY VFs show good voltage sensitivity (?24% ?F/F) and excellent brightness in cells. These compounds can report on action potential dynamics in both mammalian neurons and human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Accessing a range of substituents in the context of a water-soluble BODIPY fluorophore provides opportunities to tune the electronic properties of water-soluble BODIPY dyes for functional indicators.
Project description:A concise synthetic route from methylmalonate to a tetravalent aliphatic scaffold has been developed. The ensuing tetra-tethered derivative is equipped with two hydroxyl groups, as well as orthogonal alkene and alkyne functionalities. The usefulness of the scaffold has been demonstrated with the preparation of two representative multivalent derivatives: (i) a tetravalent compound containing two D-mannose units, one fluorescent boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dye and a suitably functionalized amino acid and (ii) by way of dimerization and saponification, a water-soluble tetramannan derivative containing two fluorescent BODIPY units. Additionally, photophysical measurements conducted on these derivatives support the viability of the herein designed single and double BODIPY-labeled carbohydrate-based clusters as fluorescent markers.
Project description:Chemically synthesized near-infrared aza-BODIPY dyes displayed off-on fluorescence at acidic pH (pKa = 6.2-6.6) through the suppression of the photoinduced electron transfer and/or internal charge transfer process. The apparent pKas of the dyes were shifted well above physiological pH in a hydrophobic microenvironment, which led to "turned-on" fluorescence in micelles and liposomes at neutral and basic pH. Bovine serum albumin also activated the fluorescence, though to a much lesser extent. When these small molecular dyes entered cells, instead of being fluorescent only in acidic organelles, the whole cytoplasm exhibited fluorescence, with a signal/background ratio as high as ?10 in no-wash live-cell imaging. The dye 1-labeled cells remained highly fluorescent even after 3 days. Moreover, slight variations of the dye structure resulted in significantly different intracellular fluorescence behaviors, possibly because of their different cellular uptake and intracellular activation capabilities. After the separation of cellular components, the fraction of plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum showed the highest fluorescence, further confirming the fluorescence activation by membrane structures. The fluorescence intensity of these dyes at different intracellular pHs (6.80 and 8.00) did not differ significantly, indicating that intracellular pH did not play a critical role. Altogether, we showed here for the first time that the fluorescence of pH-sensitive aza-BODIPY dyes was switched intracellularly not by acidic pH, but by intracellular membranes (and proteins as well). The excellent membrane permeability, ultrahigh fluorescence contrast ratio, persistent fluorescent signal, and minimal biological interference of dye 1 make it an ideal choice for live-cell imaging and in vivo cell tracking. These findings also imply that the intracellular fluorescence properties of pH-sensitive dyes should be carefully examined before they are used as pH indicators.
Project description:Multishell fullerenes, known as carbon nano-onions (CNOs), have emerged as a platform for bioimaging because of their cell-penetration properties and minimal systemic toxicity. Here, we describe the covalent functionalization of CNOs with a ?-extended distyryl-substituted boron dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dye with on/off modulated fluorescence emission activated by an acidic environment. The switching properties are linked to the photoinduced electron transfer (PET) characteristics of the dimethylamino functionalities attached to the BODIPY core. The on/off emission of the fluorescent CNOs is fast and reversible both in solution and in vitro, making this nanomaterial suitable as pH-dependent probes for diagnostic applications.