Newcastle disease virus infection in chicken embryonic fibroblasts but not duck embryonic fibroblasts is associated with elevated host innate immune response.
ABSTRACT: Chickens and ducks are major hosts of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) with distinct responses to infection. However, whereas ducks are generally asymptomatic or exhibit only mild symptoms following NDV infection and are thus regarded as potential long-term reservoirs of the virus, chickens exhibit severe clinical lesions, transient infections and even death due to NDV infection. These differences may in part result from the host innate immune response to NDV infection.To better understand the host innate immune response to NDV infection in avian species, by using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method we examined the messenger RNA expression levels of immune-related genes in chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEFs) and duck embryonic fibroblasts (DEFs) when infected with NDV of different pathogenicities.Gene expression profiles showed that the expression of IL-1beta, TNF-?-like factor (LITAF) and interferon (IFN)-beta was upregulated in both CEFs and DEFs infected with SS-10 and NH-10 viruses or treated with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)], as well as that expression levels were greater in CEFs than in DEFs. The expression of TLR3, TLR7, IL-6, IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, MHC-I and MHC-II, except for IL-8, were also greater in CEFs than in DEFs in response to infection to both viruses or treatment with poly(I:C). However, unlike moderate virulent NH-10, highly virulent SS-10 induced greater pattern recognition receptors and cytokines, except for IFNs, in CEFs and DEFs.Results show distinct expression patterns of cytokines, Toll-like receptors and IFNs associated with inflammatory immune responses to NDV between species and by virulence.
Project description:Though previous studies have identified two strains of duck-origin Newcastle disease virus (NDV) with varying levels of pathogenicity, the relationship between the early-phase host innate immune response, and pathogenesis of ducks infected with these strains in the lungs and thymuses remains unclear. In this study, we compared the viral distribution and mRNA expression of immune-related genes in ducks following infection with two NDV strains, Duck/CH/GD/SS/10 (SS-10) and Duck/CH/GD/NH/10 (NH-10). Both NDV strains replicated systemically in tested tissues (i.e., small intestine, cecal tonsils, brain, lung, bursa of Fabricius, thymus, and spleen) and exhibited different biological properties in duck pathogenicity. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the expression of TLR3, TLR7, RIG-I, MDA5, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, IFN-gamma in the lungs was significantly greater than in the respective thymus genes during the early post infection stage. However, in the lungs, the expression of TLR3, TLR7, IL-1?, IL-2, IL-8, IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, and MHC II induced by SS-10 at 72 h post-inoculation (hpi) was less than with NH-10. Furthermore, the expression of IL-6 and IFN-beta in the lungs and thymuses following infection with SS-10 was greater than that with NH-10 at 24 and 48 hpi. These results highlight important differences in host innate immune responses, courses of infection, and pathogenesis following NDV infection. Further studies should work to expand understandings of the molecular mechanisms related to NDV infection.
Project description:Hydropericardium syndrome and inclusion body hepatitis, together called hydropericardium-hepatitis syndrome, are acute infectious diseases found in chickens. These diseases are caused primarily by fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) strains. In this study, we isolated a FAdV-4 strain (SD0828) from clinically diseased chickens and phylogenetically analyzed the L1 loops of the hexon protein sequences in 3-week-old specific pathogen-free chickens and ducks infected intramuscularly and orally, determining differences in the pathogenicity by observing clinical signs and gross and histological lesions. We also detected the viral load in tissue samples. Postinfection necropsy showed that all chickens but no ducks exhibited typical necropsy lesions. Additionally, all chickens infected intramuscularly died within 2 days postinfection (dpi), and all those infected orally died within 5 dpi, whereas no infected ducks died before 28 dpi. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to determine the viral load in the tissues of hearts, livers, spleens, lungs, and kidneys and in cloacal cotton swabs from infected chickens and ducks at 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 dpi. The greatest number of viral DNA copies was found in the livers of infected chickens, yet no virus was found in any samples from infected ducks. In addition, the viral load increased over time in both chicken and duck embryo fibroblasts (CEFs and DEFs, respectively); in the former, replication speed was significantly greater than in the latter. Innate immune responses were also studied, both in vivo and in vitro. In CEFs, DEFs, and chickens infected intramuscularly, but not in infected ducks, mRNA expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 and -8) and interferon-stimulated genes (Mx and OAS) were significantly upregulated. Although some cytokines showed significant upregulation in the oral chickens, most did not change significantly. Finally, the duck retinoic acid-inducible gene I and its caspase activation and recruitment domain both had significant antiviral functions in CEFs, particularly after 24 h postinfection. Taken together, this research provides new insights into the interactions between FAdV-4 and the innate immune systems of studied hosts (chickens and ducks).
Project description:Newcastle disease virus (NDV) causes severe economic losses through severe morbidity and mortality and poses a significant threat to the global poultry industry. Significant efforts have been made to develop novel vaccines and therapeutics; however, the interaction of NDV with the host is not yet fully understood. Interferons (IFNs), an integral component of innate immune signaling, act as the first line of defense against invading viruses. Compared with the mammalian repertoire of IFNs, limited information is available on the antiviral potential of IFNs in chickens. Here, we expressed chicken IFN-? (chIFN-?) using a baculovirus expression vector system, characterized its antiviral potential against NDV, and determined its antiviral potential. Priming of chicken embryo fibroblasts with chIFN-? elicited an antiviral environment in primary cells, which was mainly due to interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). A genome-wide transcriptomics approach was used to elucidate the possible signaling pathways associated with IFN-?-induced immune responses. RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data revealed significant induction of ISG-associated pathways, activated temporal expression of ISGs, antiviral mediators, and transcriptional regulators in a cascade of antiviral responses. Collectively, we found that IFN-? significantly elicited an antiviral response against NDV infection. These data provide a foundation for chIFN-?-mediated antiviral responses and underpin functional annotation of these important chIFN-?-induced antiviral influencers.
Project description:We have generated a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) that expresses the green fluorescence protein (GFP) in infected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs). This virus is interferon (IFN) sensitive, and pretreatment of cells with chicken alpha/beta IFN (IFN-alpha/beta) completely blocks viral GFP expression. Prior transfection of plasmid DNA induces an IFN response in CEFs and blocks NDV-GFP replication. However, transfection of known inhibitors of the IFN-alpha/beta system, including the influenza A virus NS1 protein and the Ebola virus VP35 protein, restores NDV-GFP replication. We therefore conclude that the NDV-GFP virus could be used to screen proteins expressed from plasmids for the ability to counteract the host cell IFN response. Using this system, we show that expression of the NDV V protein or the Nipah virus V, W, or C proteins rescues NDV-GFP replication in the face of the transfection-induced IFN response. The V and W proteins of Nipah virus, a highly lethal pathogen in humans, also block activation of an IFN-inducible promoter in primate cells. Interestingly, the amino-terminal region of the Nipah virus V protein, which is identical to the amino terminus of Nipah virus W, is sufficient to exert the IFN-antagonist activity. In contrast, the anti-IFN activity of the NDV V protein appears to be located in the carboxy-terminal region of the protein, a region implicated in the IFN-antagonist activity exhibited by the V proteins of mumps virus and human parainfluenza virus type 2.
Project description:Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strongly induces both type I and III antiviral interferons (IFNs-α/-β and IFN-λ, respectively) in tumor cells while it induces mainly type III IFN in normal cells. Impairment of antiviral type I IFN signaling in tumor cells is thought to be the reason for effective oncolysis. However, there is lack of clarity why lentogenic strain NDV can also induce oncolysis. NDV infection caused apoptosis in normal and tumor cells as demonstrated with the caspase-3 enzyme activation and annexin-V detection. The apoptosis response was inhibited by B18R protein (a type I IFN inhibitor) in tumor cells i.e. A549 and U87MG, and not in normal cells i.e. NB1RGB and HEK293. Similarly, UV-inactivated medium from NDV infection was shown to induce apoptosis in corresponding cells and the response was inhibited in A549 and U87MG cells with the addition of B18R protein. Treatment with combination of IFNs-α/-β/-λ or IFNs-α/-β or IFN-λ in NB1RGB, HEK293, A549 and U87MG showed that caspase activity in IFNs-α/-β/-λ group was the highest, followed with IFN-α/-β group and IFN-λ group. This suggests that tumor-selectivity of NDV is mainly because of the cumulative effect of type I and III in tumor cells that lead to higher apoptotic effect.
Project description:The stimulator of interferon genes (STING) protein has been shown to play a pivotal role in response to both cytosolic RNA and dsDNA to elicit interferon (IFN) production in mammals. However, the role of duck STING (DuSTING) in antiviral innate immunity, especially in anti-RNA virus infection, has yet to be elucidated. In this study, the function of DuSTING in IFN induction and its role in anti-RNA virus infections were studied. DuSTING was amplified via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from Pekin duck, showing that its cDNA sequence contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,149 bp and encodes 382 amino acids (aa). Sequence alignment showed that DuSTING protein shares 71.1, 43.4, and 33.3% identity with chickens, humans, and zebra fish, respectively. Overexpression of DuSTING in duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs) strongly activated IFN-? promotor activity. Deletion mutant analysis revealed that the first 42 aa containing the first transmembrane (TM) domains and the last 32 aa containing a part of the C-terminal tail (CTT) are essential for its IFN-? activation. In vitro experiments showed that the mRNA levels of DuSTING and IFNs were all upregulated when the DEFs were infected with H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) SH010, while overexpression of DuSTING inhibited the replication of this virus. In vivo studies showed that DuSTING mRNA was widely expressed in different tissues, and was up-regulated in the spleen and lung of ducks challenged with SH010. In conclusion, our results indicate that DuSTING is an essential IFN mediator and plays a role in anti-RNA virus innate immunity.
Project description:In mammals, tripartite motif 32 (TRIM32) is essential for regulating host innate immune responses to viral infections. However, the antiviral effect of TRIM32 in birds has not been reported. Here, we cloned the full-length duck TRIM32 (duTRIM32) cDNA from total spleen RNA of Peking duck. DuTRIM32 consists of 682 amino acids and has 95.5% similarity in amino acid sequences with chicken TRIM32 and 84.9% similarity with human TRIM32, respectively. DuTRIM32 mRNA was found to be ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues from healthy ducks. Overexpression of duTRIM32 significantly activated the IFN-? promoter and upregulated the mRNA levels of IFN-?, IRF7, and Mx, which indicates that duTRIM32 is involved in the type I IFN pathway. Furthermore, duTRIM32 was found to directly interact with duck STING (duSTING) and to contribute to the expression of IFN-? mediated by duSTING. The mRNA level of duTRIM32 was significantly upregulated in the lungs and spleens of H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infected ducks 3 days post-infection (DPI). Furthermore, overexpression of duTRIM32 could inhibit the replication of H5N6 HPAIV in duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs). Therefore, these results indicate that duTRIM32 is involved in the type I IFN pathway and exhibit an antiviral effect against H5N6 HPAIV infection.
Project description:Duck is a major waterfowl species in China, providing high-economic benefit with a population of up to 20⁻30 billion per year. Ducks are commonly affected by severe diseases, including egg-drop syndrome caused by duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV). The immune mechanisms against DTMUV invasion and infection remain poorly understood. In this study, duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs) were infected with DTMUV and harvested at 12 and 24 h post-infection (hpi), and their genomes were sequenced. In total, 911 (764 upregulated and 147 downregulated genes) and 3008 (1791 upregulated and 1217 downregulated) differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified at 12 and 24 hpi, respectively. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis revealed that DEGs were considerably enriched in immune-relevant pathways, including Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, Cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway, RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, Chemokine signaling pathway, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, and Hematopoietic cell lineage at both time points. The key DEGs in immune system included those of the cytokines (IFN α2, IL-6, IL-8L, IL-12B, CCR7, CCL19, and CCL20), transcription factors or signaling molecules (IRF7, NF-κB, STAT1, TMEM173, and TNFAIP3), pattern recognition receptors (RIG-I and MDA5), and antigen-presenting proteins (CD44 and CD70). This suggests DTMUV infection induces strong proinflammatory/antiviral effects with enormous production of cytokines. However, these cytokines could not protect DEFs against viral attack. Our data revealed valuable transcriptional information regarding DTMUV-infected DEFs, thereby broadening our understanding of the immune response against DTMUV infection; this information might contribute in developing strategies for controlling the prevalence of DTMUV infection.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Genotype VIId Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates induce more severe damage to lymphoid tissues, especially to the spleen, when compared to virulent viruses of other genotypes. However, the biological basis of the unusual pathological changes remains largely unknown. METHODS: Virus replication, cytokine gene expression profile and cell death response in chicken splenocytes infected with two genotype VIId NDV strains (JS5/05 and JS3/05), genotype IX NDV strain F48E8 and genotype IV NDV strain Herts/33 were evaluated. Statistical significance of differences between experimental groups was determined using the Independent-Samples T test. RESULTS: JS5/05 and JS3/05 caused hyperinduction of type I interferons (IFNs) (IFN-? and -?) during detection period compared to F48E8 and Herts/33. JS5/05 increased expression level of IFN-? gene at 6?h post-inoculation (pi) and JS3/05 initiated sustained activation of IFN-? within 24?h pi, whereas transcriptional levels of IFN-? remained unchanged at any of the time points during infection of F48E8 and Herts/33. In addition, compared to F48E8 and Herts/33, JS3/05 and JS5/05 significantly increased the amount of free nucleosomal DNA in splenocytes at 6 and 24?h pi respectively. Annexin-V and Proidium iodid (PI) double staining of infected cells showed that cell death induced by JS3/05 and JS5/05 was characterized by marked necrosis compared to F48E8 and Herts/33 at 24?h pi. These results indicate that genotype VIId NDV strains JS3/05 and JS5/05 elicited stronger innate immune and cell death responses in chicken splenocytes than F48E8 and Herts/33. JS5/05 replicated at a significantly higher efficiency in splenocytes than F48E8 and Herts/33. Early excessive cell death induced by JS3/05 infection partially impaired virus replication. CONCLUSIONS: Viral dysregulaiton of host response may be relevant to the severe pathological manifestation in the spleen following genotype VIId NDV infection.
Project description:Interferon gamma (IFN-?), an immunoregulatory cytokine, is known to control many microbial infections. In a previous study, chicken interferon gamma (chIFN-?) was found to be up-regulated following avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in specific pathogen-free chickens. We aimed to investigate whether the pre-immune state induced by chIFN-? could generate an antiviral response against influenza virus.We generated a chIFN-?-expressing plasmid and transfected it into chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) and then infected the cells with human origin H1N1 or avian origin H9N2 influenza viruses. Viral titers of culture medium were evaluated in MDCK cell and the viral RNA and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) were then quantified by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase. To further evaluate the role of the antiviral effect of chIFN-? by using a backward approach, synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNA) targeting chIFN-? were used to suppress chIFN-?.The chIFN-?-stimulated CEFs inhibited the replication of viral RNA (vRNA) and showed a mild decrease in the infectious virus load released in the culture medium. Compared to the mock-transfected control, the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of type I IFNs and IFN-stimulated genes were up-regulated in the cells expressing chIFN-?. After treatment with the siRNA, we detected a higher expression of viral genes than that observed in the mock-transfected control.Our results suggest that apart from the important role played by chIFN-? in the antiviral state generated against influenza virus infection, the pre-immune state induced by chIFN-? can be helpful in mitigating the propagation of influenza virus.