S- to N-Palmitoyl Transfer During Proteomic Sample Preparation.
ABSTRACT: N-palmitoylation has been reported in a number of proteins and suggested to play an important role in protein localization and functions. However, it remains unclear whether N-palmitoylation is a direct enzyme-catalyzed process, or results from intramolecular S- to N-palmitoyl transfer. Here, using the S-palmitoyl peptide standard, GCpalmLGNAK, as the model system, we observed palmitoyl migration from the cysteine residue to either the peptide N-terminus or the lysine side chain during incubation in both neutral and slightly basic buffers commonly used in proteomic sample preparation. Palmitoyl transfer can take place either intra- or inter-molecularly, with the peptide N-terminus being the preferred migration site, presumably because of its lower basicity. The extent of intramolecular palmitoyl migration was low in the system studied, as it required the formation of an entropically unfavored macrocycle intermediate. Intermolecular palmitoyl transfer, however, remained a tangible problem, and may lead to erroneous reporting of in vivo N-palmitoylation. It was found that addition of the MS-compatible detergent RapiGest could significantly inhibit intermolecular palmitoyl transfer, as well as thioester hydrolysis and DTT-induced thioester cleavage. Finally, palmitoyl transfer from the cysteine residue to the peptide N-terminus can also occur in the gas phase, during collision-induced dissociation, and result in false identification of N-palmitoylation. Therefore, one must be careful with both sample preparation and interpretation of tandem mass spectra in the study of N-palmitoylation. Graphical Abstract ?.
Project description:Palmitoylation enhances membrane association and plays a role in the subcellular trafficking and signaling function of proteins. Unlike other forms of protein lipidation, such as prenylation and myristoylation, palmitoylation is reversible and can therefore play a regulatory role. Enzyme activities have recently been described in mammals and yeast that carry out the palmitoylation of protein substrates. Protein acyltransferases (PATs) transfer a palmitoyl moiety derived from palmitoyl-CoA to a free thiol of a substrate protein to create a labile thioester linkage. Biochemical characterization and kinetic analysis of this new family of enzymes requires methods to purify PATs and their substrates, as well as methods to assay PAT activity. We describe a series of methods using yeast and bacterial expression systems to study protein acyltransferases.
Project description:Direct detection and quantification of protein/peptide palmitoylation by mass spectrometry (MS) is a challenging task because of the tendency of palmitoyl loss during sample preparation and tandem MS analysis. In addition, the large difference in hydrophobicity between the palmitoyl peptides and their unmodified counterparts could prevent their simultaneous analysis in a single liquid chromatography-MS experiment. Here, the stability of palmitoylation in several model palmitoyl peptides under different incubation and fragmentation conditions was investigated. It was found that the usual trypsin digestion protocol using dithiothreitol as the reducing agent in ammonium bicarbonate buffer could result in significant palmitoyl losses. Instead, it is recommended that sample preparation be performed in neutral tris buffer with tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine as the reducing agent, conditions under which palmitoylation was largely preserved. For tandem MS analysis, collision-induced dissociation often led to facile palmitoyl loss, and electron capture dissociation frequently produced secondary side-chain losses remote from the backbone cleavage site, thus discouraging their use for accurate palmitoylation site determination. In contrast, the palmitoyl group was mostly preserved during electron transfer dissociation, which produced extensive inter-residue cleavage coverage, making it the ideal fragmentation method for palmitoyl peptide analysis. Finally, derivatization of the unmodified peptides with a perfluoroalkyl tag, N-[(3-perfluorooctyl)propyl] iodoacetamide, significantly increased their hydrophobicity, allowing them to be simultaneously analyzed with palmitoyl peptides for relative quantification of palmitoylation.
Project description:The reversible thioester linkage of palmitic acid on cysteines, known as protein S-palmitoylation, facilitates the membrane association and proper subcellular localization of proteins. Here we report the metabolic incorporation of the palmitic acid analog 17-octadecynoic acid (17-ODYA) in combination with stable-isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and pulse-chase methods to generate a global quantitative map of dynamic protein palmitoylation events in cells. We distinguished stably palmitoylated proteins from those that turn over rapidly. Treatment with a serine lipase-selective inhibitor identified a pool of dynamically palmitoylated proteins regulated by palmitoyl-protein thioesterases. This subset was enriched in oncoproteins and other proteins linked to aberrant cell growth, migration and cancer. Our method provides a straightforward way to characterize global palmitoylation dynamics in cells and confirms enzyme-mediated depalmitoylation as a critical regulatory mechanism for a specific subset of rapidly cycling palmitoylated proteins.
Project description:Protein palmitoylation is the post-translational addition of the 16-carbon fatty acid palmitate to specific cysteine residues by a labile thioester linkage. Palmitoylation is mediated by a family of at least 23 palmitoyl acyltransferases (PATs) characterized by an Asp-His-His-Cys (DHHC) motif. Many palmitoylated proteins have been identified, but PAT-substrate relationships are mostly unknown. Here we present a method called palmitoyl-cysteine isolation capture and analysis (or PICA) to identify PAT-substrate relationships in a living vertebrate system and demonstrate its effectiveness by identifying CKAP4/p63 as a substrate of DHHC2, a putative tumor suppressor.
Project description:Protein S-acylation (palmitoylation) is a reversible lipid modification that is an important regulator of dynamic membrane-protein interactions. Proteomic approaches have uncovered many putative palmitoylated proteins however, methods for comprehensive palmitoylation site characterization are lacking. We demonstrate a quantitative site-specific-Acyl-Biotin-Exchange (ssABE) method that allowed the identification of 906 putative palmitoylation sites on 641 proteins from mouse forebrain. 62% of sites map to known palmitoylated proteins and 102 individual palmitoylation sites are known from the literature. 54% of palmitoylation sites map to synaptic proteins including many GPCRs, receptors/ion channels and peripheral membrane proteins. Phosphorylation sites were also identified on a subset of peptides that were palmitoylated, demonstrating for the first time co-identification of these modifications by mass spectrometry. Palmitoylation sites were identified on over half of the family of palmitoyl-acyltransferases (PATs) that mediate protein palmitoylation, including active site thioester-linked palmitoyl intermediates. Distinct palmitoylation motifs and site topology were identified for integral membrane and soluble proteins, indicating potential differences in associated PAT specificity and palmitoylation function. ssABE allows the global identification of palmitoylation sites as well as measurement of the active site modification state of PATs, enabling palmitoylation to be studied at a systems level.
Project description:Palmitoylation, the posttranslational thioester-linked modification of a 16-carbon saturated fatty acid onto the cysteine residue of a protein, has garnered considerable attention due to its implication in a multitude of disease states. The signature DHHC motif (Asp-His-His-Cys) identifies a family of protein acyltransferases (PATs) that catalyze the S-palmitoylation of target proteins via a two-step mechanism. In the first step, autopalmitoylation, palmitate is transferred from palmitoyl-CoA to the PAT, creating a palmitoyl:PAT intermediate and releasing reduced CoA. The palmitoyl moiety is then transferred to a protein substrate in the second step of the reaction. We have developed an in vitro, single-well, fluorescence-based enzyme assay that monitors the first step of the PAT reaction by coupling the production of reduced CoA to the reduction of NAD(+) using the ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex. This assay is suitable for determining PAT kinetic parameters, elucidating lipid donor specificity and measuring PAT inhibition by 2-bromopalmitate. Finally, it can be used for high-throughput screening (HTS) campaigns for modulators of protein palmitoylation.
Project description:DHHC protein acyltransferases (PATs) catalyze the palmitoylation of eukaryotic proteins through an enzymatic mechanism that remains largely unexplored. In this study we have combined genetic and biochemical approaches to examine the molecular mechanism of palmitate transfer of the yeast Ras PAT, which is composed of Erf2 and Erf4. The palmitoylation reaction consists of two steps; they are autopalmitoylation of the enzyme to create a palmitoyl-Erf2 intermediate followed by the transfer of the palmitoyl moiety to the Ras substrate. Palmitoyl-CoA serves as the palmitate donor. To elucidate the kinetic properties of the Erf2·Erf4 PAT, we have developed a coupled enzyme assay that monitors the turnover of the palmitoyl-enzyme species indirectly by measuring the rate of CoASH release. Mutational analysis indicates that the DHHC motif constitutes the catalytic core of the enzyme required for autopalmitoylation and palmitoyl transfer to the Ras2 substrate. In the absence of Ras2, the palmitoyl-Erf2·Erf4 complex undergoes a cycle of hydrolysis and re-palmitoylation, implying that in the presence of palmitoyl-CoA, the complex is autopalmitoylated and competent to transfer palmitate to a protein substrate.
Project description:Peptide-thioester is a pivotal intermediate for peptide ligation and N-, C-terminal cyclization. In this study, desired pathway and the side products of two C-terminal handles, hydroxyethylthiol (HET) and hydroxypropylthiol (HPT) are described in different conditions as well as kinetic studies. In addition, a new mechanism of C-terminal residue racemization is proposed on the basis of differentiation of products derived from the two C-terminal handles in preparing peptide thioesters through an acid-catalyzed tandem thiol switch, first by an intramolecular O-S acyl shift, and then by an intermolecular S-S exchange.
Project description:Protein palmitoylation is a dynamic post-translational modification (PTM) important for cellular functions such as protein stability, trafficking, localization, and protein-protein interactions. S-palmitoylation occurs via the addition of palmitate to cysteine residues via a thioester linkage, catalyzed by palmitoyl acyl transferases (PATs), with removal of the palmitate catalyzed by acyl protein thioesterases (APTs) and palmitoyl-protein thioesterases (PPTs). Tools that target the regulators of palmitoylation-PATs, APTs and PPTs-will improve understanding of this essential PTM. Here, we describe the synthesis and application of a cell-permeable activity-based probe (ABP) that targets APTs in intact mammalian cells and the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Using a focused library of substituted chloroisocoumarins, we identified a probe scaffold with nanomolar affinity for human APTs (HsAPT1 and HsAPT2) and synthesized a fluorescent ABP, JCP174-BODIPY TMR (JCP174-BT). We use JCP174-BT to profile HsAPT activity in situ in mammalian cells, to detect an APT in T. gondii (TgPPT1). We show discordance between HsAPT activity levels and total protein concentration in some cell lines, indicating that total protein levels may not be representative of APT activity in complex systems, highlighting the utility of this probe.
Project description:Early onset intellectual disabilities result in significant societal and economic costs and affect 1-3% of the population. The underlying genetic determinants are beginning to emerge and are interpreted in the context of years of work characterizing postsynaptic receptor and signaling functions of learning and memory. DNA sequence analysis of intellectual disability patients has revealed greater than 80 loci on the X-chromosome that are potentially linked to disease. One of the loci is zDHHC9, a gene encoding a Ras protein acyltransferase. Protein palmitoylation is a reversible modification that controls the subcellular localization and distribution of membrane receptors, scaffolds, and signaling proteins required for neuronal plasticity. Palmitoylation occurs in two steps. In the first step, autopalmitoylation, an enzyme-palmitoyl intermediate is formed. During the second step, the palmitoyl moiety is transferred to a protein substrate, or if no substrate is available, hydrolysis of the thioester linkage produces the enzyme and free palmitate. In this study, we demonstrate that two naturally occurring variants of zDHHC9, encoding R148W and P150S, affect the autopalmitoylation step of the reaction by lowering the steady state amount of the palmitoyl-zDHHC9 intermediate.