Fine mapping of eight psoriasis susceptibility loci.
ABSTRACT: Previous studies have identified 41 independent genome-wide significant psoriasis susceptibility loci. After our first psoriasis genome-wide association study, we designed a custom genotyping array to fine-map eight genome-wide significant susceptibility loci known at that time (IL23R, IL13, IL12B, TNIP1, MHC, TNFAIP3, IL23A and RNF114) enabling genotyping of 2269 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the eight loci for 2699 psoriasis cases and 2107 unaffected controls of European ancestry. We imputed these data using the latest 1000 Genome reference haplotypes, which included both indels and SNPs, to increase the marker density of the eight loci to 49?239 genetic variants. Using stepwise conditional association analysis, we identified nine independent signals distributed across six of the eight loci. In the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region, we detected three independent signals at rs114255771 (P = 2.94 × 10(-74)), rs6924962 (P = 3.21 × 10(-19)) and rs892666 (P = 1.11 × 10(-10)). Near IL12B we detected two independent signals at rs62377586 (P = 7.42 × 10(-16)) and rs918518 (P = 3.22 × 10(-11)). Only one signal was observed in each of the TNIP1 (rs17728338; P = 4.15 × 10(-13)), IL13 (rs1295685; P = 1.65 × 10(-7)), IL23A (rs61937678; P = 1.82 × 10(-7)) and TNFAIP3 (rs642627; P = 5.90 × 10(-7)) regions. We also imputed variants for eight HLA genes and found that SNP rs114255771 yielded a more significant association than any HLA allele or amino-acid residue. Further analysis revealed that the HLA-C*06-B*57 haplotype tagged by this SNP had a significantly higher odds ratio than other HLA-C*06-bearing haplotypes. The results demonstrate allelic heterogeneity at IL12B and identify a high-risk MHC class I haplotype, consistent with the existence of multiple psoriasis effectors in the MHC.
Project description:Psoriasis is a common, immunologically mediated, inflammatory and hyperproliferative disease of the skin and joints, with a multifactorial genetic basis. We earlier mapped PSORS1, the major psoriasis susceptibility gene in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), to within or very near HLA-Cw6. In an effort to identify non-MHC psoriasis genes, we carried out a collaborative genome-wide association study. After the initial follow-up genotyping of 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 18 loci, showing strong evidence of association in the initial scan, we confirmed evidence of association at seven loci. Three of these loci confirm earlier reports of association (HLA-C, IL12B, IL23R) and four identify novel signals located near plausible candidate genes (IL23A, IL4/IL13, TNFAIP3 and TNIP1). In other work, we have also shown that interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) treatment induces interleukin (IL)-23 mRNA and protein in antigen-presenting cells (APC), leading to the proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ memory T cells expressing IL-17. Although functional variants remain to be identified, we speculate that genetic variants at the IL4/IL13 locus contribute to the Th1 bias that is characteristic of psoriasis, that Th1-derived IFN-gamma supports expansion of IL-17+ T cells through APC-derived IL-23 and that negative regulation of inflammatory signaling through the NF-kappaB axis is impaired because of genetic variants of TNFAIP3 and TNIP1.
Project description:Psoriasis is a common immune-mediated disorder that affects the skin, nails and joints. To identify psoriasis susceptibility loci, we genotyped 438,670 SNPs in 1,409 psoriasis cases and 1,436 controls of European ancestry. We followed up 21 promising SNPs in 5,048 psoriasis cases and 5,041 controls. Our results provide strong support for the association of at least seven genetic loci and psoriasis (each with combined P < 5 x 10(-8)). Loci with confirmed association include HLA-C, three genes involved in IL-23 signaling (IL23A, IL23R, IL12B), two genes that act downstream of TNF-alpha and regulate NF-kappaB signaling (TNIP1, TNFAIP3) and two genes involved in the modulation of Th2 immune responses (IL4, IL13). Although the proteins encoded in these loci are known to interact biologically, we found no evidence for epistasis between associated SNPs. Our results expand the catalog of genetic loci implicated in psoriasis susceptibility and suggest priority targets for study in other auto-immune disorders.
Project description:Psoriasis vulgaris (PsV) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are interrelated disorders, PsA representing a disease within a disease. From an epidemiological perspective, the genetic contributions of PsV and PsA are now well documented. HLA-C is firmly established as a PsV/PsA gene, with HLA-Cw*0602 as a major risk allele. Fine-mapping studies within the MHC region in PsV and PsA have identified novel loci that are independent of the HLA-Cw6 allele. Recent genome-wide association scans have led to a substantial increase in the number of candidate genes reaching genome-wide significance in PsV and PsA cohorts. Most of these genes can be grouped into an integrated pathogenic model of PsV/psoriatic disease comprising distinct signaling networks affecting skin barrier function (LCE3, DEFB4, GJB2), innate immune responses involving nuclear factor-?B and interferon signaling (TNFAIP3, TNIP1, NFKBIA, REL, FBXL19, TYK2, NOS2), and adaptive immune responses involving CD8 T lymphocytes and interleukin 23 (IL-23)/IL-17-mediated lymphocyte signaling (HLA-C, IL12B, IL23R, IL23A, TRAF3IP2, ERAP1). Further development of a global genetic risk score and inclusion of potential gene/gene and gene/environment interactions will likely enhance the predictive value of recently identified genetic variants.
Project description:To investigate a shared genetic aetiology for skin involvement in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) by genotyping single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), reported to be associated in genome-wide association studies of psoriasis, in patients with PsA.SNPs with reported evidence for association with psoriasis were genotyped in a PsA case and control collection from the UK and Ireland. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared between PsA cases and controls using the Armitage test for trend.Seven SNPs mapping to the IL1RN, TNIP1, TNFAIP3, TSC1, IL23A, SMARCA4 and RNF114 genes were successfully genotyped. The IL23A and TNIP1 genes showed convincing evidence for association (rs2066808, p = 9.1×10(-7); rs17728338, p = 3.5×10(-5), respectively) whilst SNPs mapping to the TNFAIP3, TSC1 and RNF114 genes showed nominal evidence for association (rs610604, p = 0.03; rs1076160, p = 0.03; rs495337, p = 0.0025). No evidence for association with IL1RN or SMARCA4 was found but the power to detect association was low.SNPs mapping to previously reported psoriasis loci show evidence for association to PSA, thus supporting the hypothesis that the genetic aetiology of skin involvement is the same in both PsA and psoriasis.
Project description:Cutaneous psoriasis (e.g., psoriasis vulgaris (PsV)) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA) are complex heterogeneous diseases thought to have similar pathophysiology. The soluble and cellular mediators of these closely related diseases are being elucidated through genetic approaches such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS), as well as animal and molecular models. Novel therapeutics targeting these mediators (IL-12, IL-23, IL-17, IL-17 receptor, TNF) are effective in treating both the skin and joint manifestations of psoriasis, reaffirming the shared pathophysiology of PsV and PsA. However, the molecular and cellular interactions between skin and joint disease have not been well characterized. Clearly, PsV and PsA are highly variable in terms of their clinical manifestations, and this heterogeneity can partially be explained by differences in HLA-associations (HLA-Cw*0602 versus HLA-B*27, for example). In addition, there are numerous other genetic susceptibility loci (LCE3, CARD14, NOS2, NFKBIA, PSMA6, ERAP1, TRAF3IP2, IL12RB2, IL23R, IL12B, TNIP1, TNFAIP3, TYK2) and geoepidemiologic factors that contribute to the wide variability seen in psoriasis. Herein, we review the complex interplay between the genetic, cellular, ethnic, and geographic mediators of psoriasis, focusing on the shared mechanisms of PsV and PsA.
Project description:Psoriasis vulgaris (PsV) is a common inflammatory and hyperproliferative skin disease. Up to 30% of people with PsV eventually develop psoriatic arthritis (PsA), an inflammatory musculoskeletal condition. To discern differences in genetic risk factors for PsA and cutaneous-only psoriasis (PsC), we carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 1,430 PsA case subjects and 1,417 unaffected control subjects. Meta-analysis of this study with three other GWASs and two targeted genotyping studies, encompassing a total of 9,293 PsV case subjects, 3,061 PsA case subjects, 3,110 PsC case subjects, and 13,670 unaffected control subjects of European descent, detected 10 regions associated with PsA and 11 with PsC at genome-wide (GW) significance. Several of these association signals (IFNLR1, IFIH1, NFKBIA for PsA; TNFRSF9, LCE3C/B, TRAF3IP2, IL23A, NFKBIA for PsC) have not previously achieved GW significance. After replication, we also identified a PsV-associated SNP near CDKAL1 (rs4712528, odds ratio [OR] = 1.16, p = 8.4 × 10(-11)). Among identified psoriasis risk variants, three were more strongly associated with PsC than PsA (rs12189871 near HLA-C, p = 5.0 × 10(-19); rs4908742 near TNFRSF9, p = 0.00020; rs10888503 near LCE3A, p = 0.0014), and two were more strongly associated with PsA than PsC (rs12044149 near IL23R, p = 0.00018; rs9321623 near TNFAIP3, p = 0.00022). The PsA-specific variants were independent of previously identified psoriasis variants near IL23R and TNFAIP3. We also found multiple independent susceptibility variants in the IL12B, NOS2, and IFIH1 regions. These results provide insights into the pathogenetic similarities and differences between PsC and PsA.
Project description:Psoriasis is a common immune-mediate disease identified through scaly patches of the skin. In this study we collected genotype information on 5,067 samples of European ancestry as a follow-up study of our initial GWAS (Nair et al. 2009). We designed an Illumina iSelect custom genotyping array with 2,269 tagging SNPs in the eight known psoriasis susceptibility regions ( MHC, IL12B, IL23R, IL23A, TNFAIP3, IL13, RNF114, and TNIP1). The custom array also included 5,463 SNPs outside the eight known susceptibility regions, which were selected based on their association p-values in a meta-analysis of HapMap-imputed genotypes of two published GWAS-CASP (Nair et al. 2009) and Kiel, Germany (Ellinghaus et al. 2010). After quality control we analyzed 4,806 samples (2,699 cases and 2,107 controls).
Project description:Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have reproducibly associated ?40 susceptibility loci with psoriasis. However, the missing heritability is evident and the contributions of coding variants have not yet been systematically evaluated. Here, we present a large-scale whole-exome array analysis for psoriasis consisting of 42,760 individuals. We discover 16 SNPs within 15 new genes/loci associated with psoriasis, including C1orf141, ZNF683, TMC6, AIM2, IL1RL1, CASR, SON, ZFYVE16, MTHFR, CCDC129, ZNF143, AP5B1, SYNE2, IFNGR2 and 3q26.2-q27 (P<5.00 × 10(-08)). In addition, we also replicate four known susceptibility loci TNIP1, NFKBIA, IL12B and LCE3D-LCE3E. These susceptibility variants identified in the current study collectively account for 1.9% of the psoriasis heritability. The variant within AIM2 is predicted to impact protein structure. Our findings increase the number of genetic risk factors for psoriasis and highlight new and plausible biological pathways in psoriasis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To date, the fundamental pathophysiology underlying the occurrence and progression of psoriasis are still unanswered questions. Genome-wide association surveys have revealed that TNFAIP3 and TNIP1 were key biomarkers for psoriasis. Here, we intended to conduct a survey on the association between TNFAIP3 and TNIP1 gene polymorphisms and psoriasis risk. METHODS:A comprehensive search of four online databases-China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library was undertaken up to August 25, 2019. We chose allele genetic model to deal with the original data. Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) was used to evaluate the risk bias of each study. The RevMan 5.3 software was used to calculate the combined odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. RESULTS:In total, we included 13 case-control studies consist of 13,908 psoriasis patients and 20,051 controls in this work. Our results demonstrated that rs610604 in TNFAIP3 polymorphism was significantly associated with psoriasis risk using random-effect model (G vs. T, OR?=?1.19, 95% CI: 1.09-1.31, P?=?0.0002), and a significant association between rs17728338 in TNIP1 polymorphism and psoriasis vulnerability using fixed-effect model (A vs. G, OR?=?1.69, 95% CI:1.58-1.80, P?<?0.00001). CONCLUSIONS:Our findings indicated that rs610604 in TNFAIP3 and rs17728338 in TNIP1 gene polymorphisms were associated with psoriasis susceptibility.
Project description:To identify new susceptibility loci for psoriasis, we undertook a genome-wide association study of 594,224 SNPs in 2,622 individuals with psoriasis and 5,667 controls. We identified associations at eight previously unreported genomic loci. Seven loci harbored genes with recognized immune functions (IL28RA, REL, IFIH1, ERAP1, TRAF3IP2, NFKBIA and TYK2). These associations were replicated in 9,079 European samples (six loci with a combined P < 5 × 10?? and two loci with a combined P < 5 × 10??). We also report compelling evidence for an interaction between the HLA-C and ERAP1 loci (combined P = 6.95 × 10??). ERAP1 plays an important role in MHC class I peptide processing. ERAP1 variants only influenced psoriasis susceptibility in individuals carrying the HLA-C risk allele. Our findings implicate pathways that integrate epidermal barrier dysfunction with innate and adaptive immune dysregulation in psoriasis pathogenesis.