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Elucidation of Resistance Mechanisms to Second-Generation ALK Inhibitors Alectinib and Ceritinib in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells.
ABSTRACT: Crizotinib is the first anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor to have been approved for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring an ALK fusion gene, but it has been found that, in the clinic, patients develop resistance to it. Alectinib and ceritinib are second-generation ALK inhibitors which show remarkable clinical responses in both crizotinib-naive and crizotinib-resistant NSCLC patients harboring an ALK fusion gene. Despite their impressive activity, clinical resistance to alectinib and ceritinib has also emerged. In the current study, we elucidated the resistance mechanisms to these second-generation ALK inhibitors in the H3122 NSCLC cell line harboring the EML4-ALK variant 1 fusion in vitro. Prolonged treatment of the parental H3122 cells with alectinib and ceritinib led to two cell lines which are 10 times less sensitive to alectinib and ceritinib than the parental H3122 cell line. Although mutations of ALK in its kinase domain are a common resistance mechanism for crizotinib, we did not detect any ALK mutation in these resistant cell lines. Rather, overexpression of phospho-ALK and alternative receptor tyrosine kinases such as phospho-EGFR, phospho-HER3, and phospho-IGFR-1R was observed in both resistant cell lines. Additionally, NRG1, a ligand for HER3, is upregulated and responsible for resistance by activating the EGFR family pathways through the NRG1-HER3-EGFR axis. Combination treatment with EGFR inhibitors, in particular afatinib, was shown to be effective at overcoming resistance. Our study provides new mechanistic insights into adaptive resistance to second-generation ALK inhibitors and suggests a potential clinical strategy to combat resistance to these second-generation ALK inhibitors in NSCLC.
Project description:The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion oncogene is observed in 3%-5% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Crizotinib and ceritinib, a next-generation ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) active against crizotinib-refractory patients, are clinically available for the treatment of ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients, and multiple next-generation ALK-TKIs are currently under clinical evaluation. These ALK-TKIs exhibit robust clinical activity in ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients; however, the emergence of ALK-TKI resistance restricts the therapeutic effect. To date, various secondary mutations or bypass pathway activation-mediated resistance have been identified, but large parts of the resistance mechanism are yet to be identified. Here, we report the discovery of p-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) overexpression as a ceritinib resistance mechanism in ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients. P-gp exported ceritinib and its overexpression conferred ceritinib and crizotinib resistance, but not to PF-06463922 or alectinib, which are next-generation ALK inhibitors. Knockdown of ABCB1 or P-gp inhibitors sensitizes the patient-derived cancer cells to ceritinib, in vitro and in vivo. P-gp overexpression was identified in three out of 11 cases with in ALK-rearranged crizotinib or ceritinib resistant NSCLC patients. Our study suggests that alectinib, PF-06463922, or P-gp inhibitor with ceritinib could overcome the ceritinib or crizotinib resistance mediated by P-gp overexpression.
Project description:Rearrangements in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene and echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4) gene were first described in a small portion of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in 2007. Fluorescence in situ hybridization is used as the diagnostic test for detecting an EML4-ALK rearrangement. Crizotinib, an ALK inhibitor, is effective in treating advanced ALK-positive NSCLC, and the US Food and Drug Administration approved it for treating ALK-positive NSCLC in 2011. Several mechanisms of acquired resistance to crizotinib have recently been reported. Second-generation ALK inhibitors were designed to overcome these resistance mechanisms. Two of them, ceritinib and alectinib, were approved in 2014 for advanced ALK-positive NSCLC in the US and Japan, respectively. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors also showed activity against ALK-positive NSCLC. Here we review the recent development of crizotinib, ceritinib, alectinib and other second-generation ALK inhibitors as well as Hsp90 inhibitors. We also discuss management strategies for advanced ALK-positive NSCLC.
Project description:The first-generation ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) crizotinib is a standard therapy for patients with ALK-rearranged non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Several next-generation ALK-TKIs have entered the clinic and have shown promising activity in crizotinib-resistant patients. As patients still relapse even on these next-generation ALK-TKIs, we examined mechanisms of resistance to the next-generation ALK-TKI alectinib and potential strategies to overcome this resistance.We established a cell line model of alectinib resistance, and analyzed a resistant tumor specimen from a patient who had relapsed on alectinib. We developed Ba/F3 models harboring alectinib-resistant ALK mutations and evaluated the potency of other next-generation ALK-TKIs in these models. We tested the antitumor activity of the next-generation ALK-TKI ceritinib in the patient with acquired resistance to alectinib. To elucidate structure-activity relationships of ALK mutations, we performed computational thermodynamic simulation with MP-CAFEE.We identified a novel V1180L gatekeeper mutation from the cell line model and a second novel I1171T mutation from the patient who developed resistance to alectinib. Both ALK mutations conferred resistance to alectinib as well as to crizotinib, but were sensitive to ceritinib and other next-generation ALK-TKIs. Treatment of the patient with ceritinib led to a marked response. Thermodynamics simulation suggests that both mutations lead to distinct structural alterations that decrease the binding affinity with alectinib.We have identified two novel ALK mutations arising after alectinib exposure that are sensitive to other next-generation ALK-TKIs. The ability of ceritinib to overcome alectinib-resistance mutations suggests a potential role for sequential therapy with multiple next-generation ALK-TKIs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We sought to assess the relative effects of individual anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitors for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS:We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, and grey literature (July 23, 2019) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that included participants with ALK- or ROS1-positive NSCLC who received any ALK inhibitor compared with placebo, another ALK inhibitor, or the same ALK inhibitor at a different dose. The primary outcome was treatment-related death. Secondary outcomes were overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and serious adverse events. Data were pooled via meta-analysis and network meta-analysis, and risk of bias was assessed. PROSPERO: CRD42017077046. RESULTS:Thirteen RCTs reporting outcomes of interest among participants with ALK-positive NSCLC were identified. Treatment-related deaths were rare, with 10 deaths attributed to crizotinib (risk difference v. chemotherapy: 0.49, 95% credible interval [CrI] -0.16 to 1.46; odds ratio 2.58 (0.76-11.37). All ALK inhibitors improved PSF relative to chemotherapy (hazard ratio [95% CrI]: crizotinib 0.46 [0.39-0.54]; ceritinib 0.52 [0.42-0.64]; alectinib 300 BID 0.16 [0.08-0.33]; alectinib 600 BID 0.23 [0.17-0.30]; brigatinib 0.23 [0.15-0.35]), while alectinib and brigatinib improved PFS over crizotinib and ceritinib (alectinib v. crizotinib 0.34 [0.17-0.70]; alectinib v. ceritinib 0.30 [0.14-0.64]; brigatinib v. crizotinib 0.49 [0.33-0.73]; brigatinib v. ceritinib 0.43 [0.27-0.70]). OS was improved with alectinib compared with chemotherapy (HR 0.57 [95% CrI 0.39-0.83]) and crizotinib (0.68 [0.48-0.96]). Use of crizotinib (odds ratio 2.08 [95% CrI 1.56-2.79]) and alectinib (1.60 [1.00-2.58]) but not ceritinib (1.25 [0.90-1.74), increased the risk of serious adverse events compared with chemotherapy. Results were generally consistent among treatment-experienced or naïve participants. CONCLUSION(S):Treatment-related deaths were infrequent among ALK-positive NSCLC. PFS may be improved by alectinib and brigatinib relative to other ALK inhibitors; however, the assessment of OS is likely confounded by treatment crossover and should be interpreted with caution.
Project description:PURPOSE:The current study was carried out to compare the effectiveness and safety of different ALK inhibitors in treating ALK+ NSCLC. METHODS:Progression-free survival (PFS), disease control rate (DCR), overall response rate (ORR), and intracranial ORR and DCR have been aggregated to appraise the effectiveness of each ALKi. The discontinuation rate due to adverse events (AEs) was pooled to evaluate their safety. Bayesian network meta-analyses were used to compare the ORR, DCR, PFS, and discontinuation rate of patients treated with alectinib, ceritinib, crizotinib, and chemotherapy. RESULTS:Compared with chemotherapy, ALK inhibitors significantly prolonged PFS [hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI): alectinib, 0.50 (0.43-0.58); ceritinib, 0.75 (0.69-0.83); crizotinib, 0.71 (0.66-0.76)]. The ORRs were significantly higher for ALK inhibitors than for chemotherapy [odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% CI: alectinib, 11.69 (4.29-36.56); ceritinib, 7.85 (3.44-19.27); crizotinib, 6.04 (3.33-11.71)]. The discontinuation rates were lower for ALK inhibitors than for chemotherapy [OR and corresponding 95% CI: alectinib, 0.42 (0.12-1.36); ceritinib, 0.52 (0.20-1.35); crizotinib, 0.70 (0.30-1.62)]. CONCLUSIONS:ALK+ NSCLC patients treated with ALKi tend to have longer PFS than those treated with chemotherapy. ALKi-naïve patients tended to response better than their ALKi-pretreated counterparts. Alectinib appeared to be preferable for treating brain metastases due to its high intracranial efficacy. Patients treated with alectinib or ceritinib tended to have higher ORR and DCR than patients with similar baselines treated with crizotinib or chemotherapy. No significant differences in discontinuation rate were found for alectinib, ceritinib, crizotinib, and chemotherapy.
Project description:Targeting genomic alterations, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements, have radically changed the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the case of ALK-rearranged gene, subsequent rapid development of effective genotype-directed therapies with ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) triggered major advances in the personalized molecularly based approach of NSCLC. Crizotinib was the first-in-class ALK TKI with proven superiority over standard platinum-based chemotherapy for the 1st-line therapy of ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients. However, the acquired resistance to crizotinib and its diminished efficacy to the central nervous system (CNS) relapse led to the development of several novel ALK inhibitors, more potent and with different selectivity compared to crizotinib. To date, four ALK TKIs, crizotinib, ceritinib, alectinib and brigatinib have received approval from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and/or the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and even more agents are currently under investigation for the treatment of ALK-rearranged NSCLC. However, the optimal frontline approach and the exact sequence of ALK inhibitors are still under consideration. Recently announced results of phase III trials recognized higher efficacy of alectinib compared to crizotinib in first-line setting, even in patients with CNS involvement. In this review, we will discuss the current knowledge regarding the biology of the ALK-positive NSCLC, the available therapeutic inhibitors and we will focus on the raised issues from their use in clinical practise.
Project description:ALK gene fusion occurs in approximately 3-7% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). For patients with ALK positive NCSLC, crizotinib and ceritinib are FDA approved ALK inhibitors, however, patients inevitably acquire resistance to such therapies typically within one to two years. Interrogation of in vitro ALK-positive NSCLC cell line models of acquired resistance to first and second-generation ALK inhibitors revealed acquired epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) mechanisms. Here we demonstrated that knockdown of upregulated mesenchymal markers in acquired resistant lines decreased the invasive and migratory capabilities of the cells, however, it did not restore sensitivity to ALK inhibitors. Removing drug for 5 weeks from H3122 cell line that acquired resistance to ceritinib restored its sensitivity to ceritinib. In addition, HSP90 inhibitors ganetespib and 17-AAG were potent in inducing cell death in cell lines resistant to crizotinib and ceritinib. Taken together, EMT does not drive resistance to ALK inhibitors and HSP90 inhibition demonstrates more efficacy when further ALK inhibition may not. This study warrants more exploration of HSP90 inhibitors for ALK-positive patients who progress on 1st and 2nd line ALK inhibitor therapy.
Project description:Molecular profiling of metastatic nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is required to guide the treatment strategy. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase ( ALK) gene rearrangements are found in approximately 5% of lung adenocarcinomas and are associated with specific clinical features including a high risk of brain metastases. Crizotinib was the first ALK inhibitor developed and it demonstrated improved outcomes in patients with ALK-positive advanced NSCLC in comparison with chemotherapy. However, despite an initial response, all ALK-positive NSCLC patients develop acquired resistance to crizotinib. Because the most frequent mechanism of resistance is the development of a secondary ALK mutation, second (ceritinib, alectinib, brigatinib) and third-generation (lorlatinib) ALK inhibitors were developed. Alectinib is a second-generation ALK inhibitor and was shown to be effective for a broad spectrum of ALK rearrangements and ALK mutations. It was also shown to have high intracranial efficacy. In this article, we review clinical trial evidence of alectinib efficacy as well as publications reporting the experience of alectinib in daily practice, with a focus on brain metastases.
Project description:Background:Inhibition of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (alk) oncogenic driver in advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma (nsclc) improves survival. In 2015, Canadian thoracic oncology specialists published a consensus guideline about the identification and treatment of ALK-positive patients, recommending use of the alk inhibitor crizotinib in the first line. New scientific literature warrants a consensus update. Methods:Clinical trials of alk inhibitor were reviewed to assess benefits, risks, and implications relative to current Canadian guidance in patients with ALK-positive nsclc. Results:Randomized phase iii trials have demonstrated clinical benefit for single-agent alectinib and ceritinib used in treatment-naïve patients and as second-line therapy after crizotinib. Phase ii trials have demonstrated activity for single-agent brigatinib and lorlatinib in further lines of therapy. Improved responses in brain metastases were observed for all second- and next/third-generation alk tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients progressing on crizotinib. Canadian recommendations are therefore revised as follows:? Patients with advanced nonsquamous nsclc have to be tested for the presence of an ALK rearrangement.? Treatment-naïve patients with ALK-positive disease should initially be offered single-agent alectinib or ceritinib, or both sequentially.? Crizotinib-refractory patients should be treated with single-agent alectinib or ceritinib, or both sequentially.? Further treatments could include single-agent brigatinib or lorlatinib, or both sequentially.? Patients progressing on alk tyrosine kinase inhibitors should be considered for pemetrexed-based chemotherapy.? Other systemic therapies should be exhausted before immunotherapy is considered. Summary:Multiple lines of alk inhibition are now recommended for patients with advanced nsclc with an ALK rearrangement.
Project description:Leptomeningeal metastases (LM) are an increasingly frequent and devastating complication of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Currently, the optimal management of LM in ALK-positive patients remains poorly understood as these patients have been routinely excluded from clinical trials.We describe four ALK-positive patients with LM who were treated with the next-generation ALK inhibitor alectinib through single-patient, compassionate use protocols at two institutions. All patients had previously been treated with both FDA-approved ALK inhibitors--crizotinib and ceritinib. Patients received alectinib at a starting dose of 600 mg twice daily.Four ALK-positive NSCLC patients with symptomatic leptomeningeal disease were identified. Three of four patients experienced significant clinical and radiographic improvements in LM upon treatment with alectinib. A fourth patient had stable intracranial disease for 4 months before eventual systemic disease progression. Overall, alectinib was well tolerated. One patient required dose reduction due to grade 2 hyperbilirubinemia.Alectinib is active in ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients with LM, including in patients previously treated with crizotinib and ceritinib. Additional prospective studies of alectinib in ALK-positive patients with LM are warranted.