Endoscopic ultrasound in mediastinal tuberculosis.
ABSTRACT: Tubercular lymphadenitis is the commonest extra pulmonary manifestation in cervical and mediastinal locations. Normal characteristics of lymph nodes (LN) have been described on ultrasonography as well as by Endoscopic Ultrasound. Many ultrasonic features have been described for evaluation of mediastinal lymph nodes. The inter and intraobserver agreement of the endosonographic features have not been uniformly established.A total of 266 patients underwent endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration and 134 cases were diagnosed as mediastinal tuberculosis. The endoscopic ultrasound location and features of these lymph nodes are described.Our series demonstrates the utility of endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration as the investigation of choice for diagnosis of mediastinal tuberculosis and also describes various endoscopic ultrasound features of such nodes.
Project description:Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration is of diagnostic value in hilar/mediastinal (N1/N2) lymph node staging. We assessed the utility of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in lung cancer patients with N1/N2 lymph nodes detected on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography.Fifty lung cancer patients with N1/N2 disease on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography underwent endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration for pathological lymph nodes between November 2012 and April 2015. The diagnostic performance of endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration, lymph node site and size, number of needle passes and complications were evaluated retrospectively from patients' medical records. Malignancy was defined as a maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) >2.5.The median longest diameter of the 61 lymph nodes (29 subcarinal, 21 right lower paratracheal, 6 left lower paratracheal, 4 right hilar and 1 upper paratracheal) was 23.4 mm (range: 10.4-45.7); the median number of needle passes was 2 (range: 1-5). There were no severe complications. A definitive diagnosis was made by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration in 39 patients (31 adenocarcinomas, 3 small-cell carcinomas, 2 squamous-cell carcinomas, 3 large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas). In the remaining 11 patients, the diagnosis was indefinite: insufficient endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration material was collected in two patients and non-specific lymphadenopathy was confirmed by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration or thoracotomy in the other nine patients. The mean lymph node SUVmax was 7.09 (range: 2.90-26.9) and was significantly higher in true-positive than in false-positive nodes (P < 0.05, t-test). Non-specific lymphadenopathy was diagnosed by expert visual interpretation of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography images in five of the nine patients.Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration accurately diagnoses N1/N2 disease detected on (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography.
Project description:Background and Objectives: Endobronchial ultrasound elastography is a new technique for describing the stiffness of tissue during endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). The aims of this study were to investigate the diagnostic value of Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) elastography for distinguishing the difference between benign and malignant lymph nodes among mediastinal and hilar lymph node. Materials and Methods: From June 2015 to August 2015, 47 patients confirmed of mediastinal and hilar lymph node enlargement through examination of Computed tomography (CT) were enrolled, and a total of 78 lymph nodes were evaluated by endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). EBUS-guided elastography of lymph nodes was performed prior to EBUS-TBNA. A convex probe EBUS was used with a new EBUS processor to assess elastographic patterns that were classified based on color distribution as follows: Type 1, predominantly non-blue (green, yellow and red); Type 2, part blue, part non-blue (green, yellow and red); Type 3, predominantly blue. Pathological determination of malignant or benign lymph nodes was used as the gold standard for this study. The elastographic patterns were compared with the final pathologic results from EBUS-TBNA. Results: On pathological evaluation of the lymph nodes, 45 were benign and 33 were malignant. The lymph nodes that were classified as Type 1 on endobronchial ultrasound elastography were benign in 26/27 (96.3%) and malignant in 1/27 (3.7%); for Type 2 lymph nodes, 15/20 (75.0%) were benign and 5/20 (25.0%) were malignant; Type 3 lymph nodes were benign in 4/31 (12.9%) and malignant in 27/31 (87.1%). In classifying Type 1 as 'benign' and Type 3 as 'malignant,' the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy rates were 96.43%, 86.67%, 87.10%, 96.30%, 91.38%, respectively. Conclusion: EBUS elastography of mediastinal and hilar lymph nodes is a noninvasive technique that can be performed reliably and may be helpful in the prediction of benign and malignant lymph nodes among mediastinal and hilar lymph node during EBUS-TBNA.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ultrasound elastography is an imaging procedure that can assess the biomechanical characteristics of different tissues. The aim of this study was to define the diagnostic value of the endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) elastography strain ratio of mediastinal lymph nodes in patients with a suspicion of lung cancer. The diagnostic values of the strain ratios were compared with the EBUS brightness mode (B-mode) features of selected mediastinal lymph nodes and with their cytological diagnoses. PATIENTS AND METHODS:This prospective, single-centre study enrolled patients with an indication for biopsy and mediastinal staging after a non-invasive diagnostic workup of a lung tumour. EBUS with standard B-mode evaluation and elastography with strain ratio measurement were performed before endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA). RESULTS:Thirty-three patients with 80 suspicious mediastinal lymph nodes were included. Malignant infiltration was confirmed in 34 (42.5%) lymph nodes. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the strain ratio was 0.87 (p < 0.0001). At a strain ratio ≥ 8, the accuracy for malignancy prediction was 86.25% (sensitivity 88.24%, specificity 84.78%, positive predictive value [PPV] 81.08%, negative predictive value [NPV] 90.70%). The strain ratio is more accurate than conventional B-mode EBUS modalities for differentiating between malignant and benign lymph nodes. CONCLUSIONS:EBUS-guided elastography with strain ratio assessment can distinguish malignant from benign mediastinal lymph nodes with greater accuracy than conventional EBUS modalities. This new method may reduce the number of mediastinal EBUS-TBNAs and thus reduce the invasiveness and expense of mediastinal staging in patients with non-small lung cancer (NSCLC).
Project description:Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) has been widely used for diagnosis and mediastinal lymph nodes staging in patients with suspicious lung cancer. Ultrasound elastography is a novel sonographical technique that can evaluate tissue compressibility. The aim of the present study was to investigate the diagnostic yield of elastography for differentiating malignant and benign mediastinal lymph nodes. Conventional EBUS B-mode features, including size, shape, border distinction, echogenicity, central hilar structure with central blood vessel and coagulation necrosis were also evaluated. The ultrasonic features were compared with the pathological results from EBUS-TBNA. 133 lymph nodes in 60 patients were assessed. Elastography displayed the highest area under the curve (AUC) (type 3 versus type 1: AUC, 0.825; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.707-0.910) with an impressive sensitivity (100%) and an acceptable specificity (65%). The combined model covering the four positive criteria (elastography, heterogeneity, size, and shape) showed that the odds ratio for malignance is 9.44 with a 95% CI of 3.99 to 22.32 (p <0.0001). The combined model was superior to elastography alone (AUC, 0.851; sensitivity, 89.89%; specificity, 72.73%; p <0.0001). This prospective study showed that elastography is a feasible technique for classifying mediastinal lymph nodes, especially in combination with conventional EBUS imaging.
Project description:The diagnosis and staging of lung cancer is an important process that identifies treatment options and guides disease prognosis. We aimed to assess endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration as an initial investigation technique for patients with suspected lung cancer.In this open-label, multicentre, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial, we recruited patients who had undergone a CT scan and had suspected stage I to IIIA lung cancer, from six UK centres and randomly assigned them to either endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) or conventional diagnosis and staging (CDS), for further investigation and staging. If a target node could not be accessed by EBUS-TBNA, then endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) was allowed as an alternative procedure. Randomisation was stratified according to the presence of mediastinal lymph nodes measuring 1 cm or more in the short axis and by recruiting centre. We used a telephone randomisation method with permuted blocks of four generated by a computer. Because of the nature of the intervention, masking of participants and consenting investigators was not possible. The primary endpoint was the time-to-treatment decision after completion of the diagnostic and staging investigations and analysis was by intention-to-diagnose. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00652769.Between June 10, 2008, and July 4, 2011, we randomly allocated 133 patients to treatment: 66 to EBUS-TBNA and 67 to CDS (one later withdrew consent). Two patients from the EBUS-TBNA group underwent EUS-FNA. The median time to treatment decision was shorter with EBUS-TBNA (14 days; 95% CI 14-15) than with CDS (29 days; 23-35) resulting in a hazard ratio of 1·98, (1·39-2·82, p<0·0001). One patient in each group had a pneumothorax from a CT-guided biopsy sample; the patient from the CDS group needed intercostal drainage and was admitted to hospital.Transbronchial needle aspiration guided by endobronchial ultrasound should be considered as the initial investigation for patients with suspected lung cancer, because it reduces the time to treatment decision compared with conventional diagnosis and staging techniques.UK Medical Research Council.
Project description:Lymphocyte profiles in mediastinal lymph nodes may reflect the immune status of patients with sarcoidosis. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is useful for the diagnosis of diseases with mediastinal lymphadenopathy including sarcoidosis. The purpose of this study was to determine lymphocyte profiles of lymph nodes in sarcoidosis by analyzing EBUS-TBNA samples. We prepared single cell suspensions from EBUS-TBNA samples of mediastinal lymph nodes from patients with sarcoidosis or lung cancer and analyzed surface markers (CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD25) and FoxP3 expression in the resultant lymphocytes using flow cytometry. We studied 26 patients with sarcoidosis and 16 with lung cancer with mediastinal lymph node metastases. In sarcoidosis, the CD4/CD8 ratio was significantly more elevated in lymph nodes than in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (P<0.001), although both were strongly correlated. The CD4/CD8 ratio was significantly higher in stage I than in stage II both in the BAL fluid and lymph nodes. When compared with lung cancer lymph node metastasis, the CD4/CD8 ratio was significantly higher in sarcoidosis, whereas the CD3/CD19 ratio was significantly higher in lung cancer. The proportion of regulatory T cells (CD4+, CD25+, FoxP3 high) did not differ between sarcoidosis and lung cancer samples. Lymphocyte profiles in mediastinal lymphadenopathy can be analyzed by flow cytometry of EBUS-TBNA samples. These findings might help elucidate the immunopathology of sarcoidosis.
Project description:Esophageal perforation after endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for mediastinal staging is a rare but severe complication. We report 2 cases of patients with esophageal perforation who were treated using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in combination with esophageal stenting. Through these cases, the feasibility of minimally invasive thoracic surgery was evaluated.
Project description:Tuberculosis of the central nervous system accounts for approximately 1% of all cases of tuberculosis and 50% of these involve the spine. Intramedullary involvement is rare in tuberculosis. Clinical presentation of spinal intramedullary tuberculosis (SIMT) is similar to intramedullary spinal cord tumor. Here, we report the case of a 49-year-old female with dull aching pain of both upper limbs of 1-week duration. On examination, she had no motor deficits. All the deep tendon reflexes were normal. The plantar responses were flexor bilaterally. Cervical spine imaging favored intramedullary tumor. She had partial relief of symptoms with steroid treatment. Repeat imaging done 1 month later revealed mild interval enlargement of the intramedullary lesions and multiple enlarged mediastinal and hilar nodes. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology of mediastinal nodes was suggestive of granulomatous inflammation. Hence, SIMT was considered as the probable diagnosis. The patient was started on antituberculosis therapy.
Project description:Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) is performed with a dedicated 22- or 21-gauge needle while suction is applied. Fine-needle sampling without suction (capillary sampling) has been studied for endoscopic ultrasound and for biopsies at various body sites and has resulted in similar diagnostic yield and fewer traumatic samples. However, the role of EBUS-guided transbronchial needle capillary sampling (EBUS-TBNCS) is still to be determined.Adults with suspicious hilar or mediastinal lymph nodes (LNs) were included in a single-blinded, prospective, randomized trial comparing EBUS-TBNA and EBUS-TBNCS. The primary end point was the concordance rate between the two techniques in terms of adequacy and diagnosis of cytologic samples. The secondary end point was the concordance rate between the two techniques in terms of quality of samples.A total of 115 patients and 192 LNs were studied. Concordance between EBUS-TBNA and EBUS-TBNCS was high, with no significant difference in adequacy (88% vs 88%, respectively [P ± .858]; concordance rate, 83.9% [95% CI, 77.9-88.8]); diagnosis (36% vs 34%, respectively [P ± .289]; concordance rate, 95.8% [95% CI, 92-92.8]); diagnosis of malignancy (28% vs 26%, respectively [P ± .125]; concordance rate, 97.9% [95% CI, 94.8-99.4]); or sample quality (concordance rate, 83.3% [95% CI, 73.3-88.3]). Concordance between EBUS-TBNA and EBUS-TBNCS was high irrespective of LN size (≤ 1 cm vs > 1 cm).Regardless of LN size, no differences in adequacy, diagnosis, or quality were found between samples obtained using EBUS-TBNA and those obtained using EBUS-TBNCS. There is no evidence of any benefit derived from the practice of applying suction to EBUS-guided biopsies.ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00886847; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov
Project description:We present the case of an asymptomatic woman, a chronic heavy smoker, who presented with an incidental lung mass and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. Bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy and endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration did not show malignancy. A positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan showed increased uptake with a standardized uptake value of 26.4 in the mediastinal lymph node and an additional hypermetabolic right supraclavicular lymph node. Surgical biopsy of the supraclavicular node revealed non-necrotizing granuloma. Discussion of the clinical dilemma is provided.