Range wide molecular data and niche modeling revealed the Pleistocene history of a global invader (Halyomorpha halys).
ABSTRACT: Invasive species' Pleistocene history contains much information on its present population structure, dispersability and adaptability. In this study, the Pleistocene history of a global invasive pest (Brown Marmorated Stink Bug BMSB, Halyomorpha halys) was unveiled using the coupled approach of phylogeography and ecological niche modelling. Rangewide molecular data suggests that the Taiwan and other native populations had diverged in mid-Pleistocene. In mainland China, the native BMSB did not experience population contraction and divergence during last glacial, but persisted in interconnected populations. Combined Bayesian Skyline Plot (BSP) and niche modelling revealed a rapid expansion occurred during the transition of Last Inter Glacial (LIG) to Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). High genetic diversity and multi-reticular haplotypes network exist in the original sources populations of BMSB invasion in northern China. They were speculated to be colonized from the central China, with many derived haplotypes evolved to adapt the novel environment. The ENM future prediction suggest that BMSB may expand northward to higher latitudes in the US and Europe, because of its high invasive ability, together with the available suitable climate space there.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In the past decade, the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) has caused extensive damage to global agriculture. As a high-risk pest for many countries, including New Zealand, it is important to explore its genetic diversity to enhance our knowledge and devise management strategies for BMSB populations. In this study, two mitochondrial genes, Cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and Cytochrome c oxidase II (COII) were used to explore the genetic diversity among 463 BMSB individuals collected from 12 countries.<h4>Result</h4>In total, 51 COI and 29 COII haplotypes of BMSB were found, which formed 59 combined haplotypes (5 reported and 54 novel). Of these, H1h1 was the predominant haplotype. The haplotype diversity (Hd) and nucleotide diversity (?) were high while the neutrality (Fu's Fs) values were negative for the BMSB populations in the native countries, China, and Japan. For the BMSB populations from the invaded countries, the Fu's Fs values were negative for populations from Chile, Georgia, Hungary, Italy, Romania, Turkey, and USA, indicating that those populations are under demographic expansion. In comparison, the Fu's Fs values were positive for the populations from Austria, Serbia, and Slovenia, revealing a potential population bottleneck. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) suggested that significant genetic difference exists among the BMSB populations from China, Japan, and the invasive countries.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This study revealed that the haplotype diversity of the BMSB populations was high in those two studied countries where BMSB is native to (China and Japan) but low in those countries which have been invaded by the species. The analysis indicated that multiple invasions of BMSB occurred in Europe and the USA. The study also revealed three ancestral lines and most of the novel haplotypes were evolved from them. Moreover, we observed two genetic clusters in the invasive populations that are formed during different invasion events. Our study provided a comprehensive overview on the global haplotypes distribution thus expanding the existing knowledge on BMSB genetic diversity that potentially could play an important role in formulating feasible pest management strategies.
Project description:Here we conduct research to understand the evolutionary history of a shrubby species known as Agarito (Berberis trifoliolata), an endemic species to the Chihuahuan Desert. We identify genetic signatures based on plastid DNA and AFLP markers and perform niche modelling and spatial connectivity analyses as well as niche modelling based on records in packrats to elucidate whether orogenic events such as mountain range uplift in the Miocene or the contraction/expansion dynamics of vegetation in response to climate oscillations in the Pliocene/Pleistocene had an effect on evolutionary processes in Agarito. Our results of current niche modelling and palaeomodelling showed that the area currently occupied by Berberis trifoliolata is substantially larger than it was during the Last Interglacial period and the Last Glacial Maximum. Agarito was probably confined to small areas in the Northeastern and gradually expanded its distribution just after the Last Glacial Maximum when the weather in the Chihuahuan Desert and adjacent regions became progressively warmer and drier. The most contracted range was predicted for the Interglacial period. Populations remained in stable areas during the Last Glacial Maximum and expanded at the beginning of the Holocene. Most genetic variation occured in populations from the Sierra Madre Oriental. Two groups of haplotypes were identified: the Mexican Plateau populations and certain Northeastern populations. Haplogroups were spatially connected during the Last Glacial Maximum and separated during interglacial periods. The most important prediction of packrat middens palaeomodelling lies in the Mexican Plateau, a finding congruent with current and past niche modelling predictions for agarito and genetic results. Our results corroborate that these climate changes in the Pliocene/Pleistocene affected the evolutionary history of agarito. The journey of agarito in the Chihuahuan Desert has been dynamic, expanding and contracting its distribution range and currently occupying the largest area in its history.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Plant phylogeographic studies of species in subtropical China have mainly focused on rare and endangered species, whereas few studies have been conducted on taxa with relatively wide distribution, especially polyploid species. We investigated the cytotype and haplotype distribution pattern of the Actinidia chinensis complex, a widespread geographically woody liana with variable ploidy in subtropical China comprising two varieties, with three chloroplast fragments DNA (ndhF-rpl132, rps16-trnQ and trnE-trnT). Macroevolutionary, microevolutionary and niche modeling tools were also combined to disentangle the origin and the demographic history of the species or cytotypes.<h4>Results</h4>The ploidy levels of 3338 individuals from 128 populations sampled throughout the species distribution range were estimated with flow cytometry. The widespread cytotypes were diploids followed by tetraploids and hexaploids, whereas triploids and octoploids occurred in a few populations. Thirty-one chloroplast haplotypes were detected. The genetic diversity and genetic structure were found to be high between varieties (or ploidy races) chinensis and deliciosa. Our results revealed that these two varieties inhabit significantly different climatic niche spaces. Ecological niche models (ENMs) indicate that all varieties' ranges contracted during the Last Inter Glacial (LIG), and expanded eastward or northward during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Pliocene and Plio-Pleistocene climatic fluctuations and vicariance appear to have played key roles in shaping current population structure and historical demography in the A. chinensis complex. The polyploidization process also appears to have played an important role in the historical demography of the complex through improving their adaptability to environmental changes.
Project description:Climactic oscillations during the Quaternary played a significant role in the formation of genetic diversity and historical demography of numerous plant species in northwestern China. In this study, we used 11 simple sequence repeats derived from expressed sequence tag (EST-SSR), two chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) fragments, and ecological niche modeling (ENM) to investigate the population structure and the phylogeographic history of Lycium ruthenicum, a plant species adapted to the climate in northwestern China. We identified 20 chloroplast haplotypes of which two were dominant and widely distributed in almost all populations. The species has high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity based on the cpDNA data. The EST-SSR results showed a high percentage of total genetic variation within populations. Both the cpDNA and EST-SSR results indicated no significant differentiation among populations. By combining the evidence from ENM and demographic analysis, we confirmed that both the last interglacial (LIG) and late-glacial maximum (LGM) climatic fluctuations, aridification might have substantially narrowed the distribution range of this desert species, the southern parts of the Junggar Basin, the Tarim Basin, and the eastern Pamir Plateau were the potential glacial refugia for L. ruthenicum during the late middle Pleistocene to late Pleistocene Period. During the early Holocene, the warm, and humid climate promoted its demographic expansion in northwestern China. This work may provide new insights into the mechanism of formation of plant diversity in this arid region.
Project description:Although a number of studies have assessed the effects of geological and climatic changes on species distributions in East Asian, we still have limited knowledge of how these changes have impacted avian species in south-western and southern China. Here, we aim to study paleo-climatic effects on an East Asian bird, two subspecies of black-throated tit (A. c. talifuensis-concinnus) with the combined analysis of phylogeography and Ecological Niche Models (ENMs). We sequenced three mitochondrial DNA markers from 32 populations (203 individuals) and used phylogenetic inferences to reconstruct the intra-specific relationships among haplotypes. Population genetic analyses were undertaken to gain insight into the demographic history of these populations. We used ENMs to predict the distribution of target species during three periods; last inter-glacial (LIG), last glacial maximum (LGM) and present. We found three highly supported, monophyletic MtDNA lineages and different historical demography among lineages in A. c. talifuensis-concinnus. These lineages formed a narrowly circumscribed intra-specific contact zone. The estimated times of lineage divergences were about 2.4 Ma and 0.32 Ma respectively. ENMs predictions were similar between present and LGM but substantially reduced during LIG. ENMs reconstructions and molecular dating suggest that Pleistocene climate changes had triggered and shaped the genetic structure of black-throated tit. Interestingly, in contrast to profound impacts of other glacial cycles, ENMs and phylogeographic analysis suggest that LGM had limited effect on these two subspecies. ENMs also suggest that Pleistocene climatic oscillations enabled the formation of the contact zone and thus support the refuge theory.
Project description:The biogeographical relationships between far-separated populations, in particular, those in the mainland and islands, remain unclear for widespread species in eastern Asia where the current distribution of plants was greatly influenced by the Quaternary climate. Deciduous Oriental oak (Quercus variabilis) is one of the most widely distributed species in eastern Asia. In this study, leaf material of 528 Q. variabilis trees from 50 populations across the whole distribution (Mainland China, Korea Peninsular as well as Japan, Zhoushan and Taiwan Islands) was collected, and three cpDNA intergenic spacer fragments were sequenced using universal primers. A total of 26 haplotypes were detected, and it showed a weak phylogeographical structure in eastern Asia populations at species level, however, in the central-eastern region of Mainland China, the populations had more haplotypes than those in other regions, with a significant phylogeographical structure (N(ST=?)0.751> G(ST=?)0.690, P<0.05). Q. variabilis displayed high interpopulation and low intrapopulation genetic diversity across the distribution range. Both unimodal mismatch distribution and significant negative Fu's F(S) indicated a demographic expansion of Q. variabilis populations in East Asia. A fossil calibrated phylogenetic tree showed a rapid speciation during Pleistocene, with a population augment occurred in Middle Pleistocene. Both diversity patterns and ecological niche modelling indicated there could be multiple glacial refugia and possible bottleneck or founder effects occurred in the southern Japan. We dated major spatial expansion of Q. variabilis population in eastern Asia to the last glacial cycle(s), a period with sea-level fluctuations and land bridges in East China Sea as possible dispersal corridors. This study showed that geographical heterogeneity combined with climate and sea-level changes have shaped the genetic structure of this wide-ranging tree species in East Asia.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Taklimakan Desert in China is characterized by unique geological and historical dynamics and endemic flora and fauna, but the influence of historical climate oscillations on the evolutionary history of endemic animals is poorly understood. Lepus yarkandensis is an oases-dependent Near Threatened species that lives in fragmented oasis habitats in the Taklimakan Desert, China. We investigated the geological and climatic impacts on its geographical differentiation, demographic history and influence of Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles on the evolutionary history of L. yarkandensis. Further, studied the impact of climatic oscillation based modification on phylogeography, distribution and diversification pattern of Yarkand hare by using Cytb (1140?bp), MGF (592?bp) and SPTBN1 (619?bp) markers. Ecological niche modeling (ENM) revealed the evolutionary history of this species in response to climate change during the Quaternary. Paleodistribution modeling was used to identify putative refugia and estimate their historical distributions. RESULTS:Both historical demographic analyses and climatic niche modeling revealed strong effects of glacial climate changes, suggesting recurrent range contractions and expansions. The EBSP results indicated clear population expansion of L. yarkandensis since the Pleistocene. In the "early Pleistocene", the demographic expansion continued from 0.83 MYA to the last glacial period. The ENM analysis supported a wide distribution of Lepus yarkandensis at high altitudes during the last interglacial (LIG) period. During the last glacial maximum (LGM), the suitable climate was reduced and restricted to the western part of the Taklimakan Desert. CONCLUSIONS:Inland aridification, oasis evolution and river flow played major roles in the population differentiation and demographic history of Yarkand hares. Historically, the large, continuous oases in the Taklimakan Desert contained a viable and unique population of L. yarkandensis. The fragmented desert environment might have caused low gene flow between individuals or groups, thus leading to predominant genetic differentiation. The Pleistocene climatic cycles triggered the diversification and expansion of this species during cold and warm periods, respectively, leading to multiple colonization events within the Taklimakan Desert. These events might be due to the expansion of the Taklimakan Desert during the Middle Pleistocene. Yarkand hare previously occupied vast areas at low and intermediate altitudes in Xinjiang, Gansu, Shanxi, Henan and Shaanxi Provinces in China. The past aridification, climate change-induced oasis modifications, changes in river volumes and flow directions, and human activities all affected the population demography and phylogeography of the Yarkand hare.
Project description:East Asia harbors the highest level of floristic diversity among the world's temperate regions. Despite the increase in phylogeographic studies of temperate plants in East Asia, far less attention has been paid to widely distributed deciduous shrubs that widespread across several floral regions. We sequenced two chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) fragments (ndhJ-trnF and trnD-trnT) and one nuclear DNA (Pgk1) of 472 individuals from 51 populations of such a group, the Indigofera bungeana complex. We used population genetic data as well as ecological niche modelling to examine the evolutionary history and glacial refugia during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) of this group. We recovered 133 cpDNA and 68 nuclear haplotypes. The star-phylogeny of the recovered cpDNA and nuclear haplotypes and demographic analyses suggested distinct range expansion of I. bungeana complex have occurred during the early and middle Pleistocene. The climate change of the LGM might have affected little on the distribution of this complex based on the niche modelling. However, these climate changes and geographic isolation probably resulted in fixtures of the private haplotypes and genetic differentiations between regions. Our results suggested that this arid-tolerant species complex may have different responses to the Quaternary climate changes with those climate-sensitive species.
Project description:Despite several phylogeographic studies had provided evidence to support the existence of glacial refugia of cool-temperate deciduous trees in northeast China, the species used in these studies were limited by the species ranges, which could not exclude the possibility that northern populations were the colonists from southern refugial populations during the last glacial maximum (LGM). Here, we estimated the nucleotide variation in Populus davidiana, a widespread species distributed in Eurasia. Three groups in northeast, central, and southwest China were constructed according to the simulation results from SAMOVA, composition of chloroplast haplotypes and structure results. We revealed that the northeast China had endemic haplotypes, the haplotypes and nucleotide diversity in northern regions were not lower than that in southern China, and this species has not experienced population expansion base on the estimation of Bayesian skyline plots. Ecological niche modeling (ENM) indicated that the northeast China had a high suitability score during the last glacial maximum. The combined evidence clearly demonstrated that northeastern and southwestern refugia were maintained across the current distributional range of P. davidiana during the LGM. The genetic differentiation between these two refugia might be mainly caused by differences of climate among these areas. The phylogeographic analyses of a widely distributed P. davidiana provided robust evidence to clarify the issue of refugia in northeast China, and these results are of great importance for understanding the influence of Quaternary glaciations on the distribution and evolution of species in East Asia.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The glacial-interglacial cycles in the Pleistocene caused repeated range expansion and contraction of species in several regions in the world. However, it remains uncertain whether such climate oscillations had similar impact on East Asian biota, despite its widely recognized importance in global biodiversity. Here we use both molecular and ecological niche profiles on 11 East Asian avian species with various elevational ranges to reveal their response to the late Pleistocene climate changes. RESULTS:The ecological niche models (ENM) consistently showed that these avian species might substantially contract their ranges to the south during the Last Interglacial period (LIG) and expanded their northern range margins through the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), leading to the LGM ranges observed for all 11 species. Consistently, coalescent simulations based on 25-30 nuclear genes retrieved signatures of significant population growth through the last glacial period across all species studied. Climate statistics suggested that high climatic variability during the LIG and a relatively mild climate at the LGM potentially explained the historical population dynamics of these birds. CONCLUSIONS:This is the first study based on multiple species and both lines of ecological niche profiles and genetic data to characterize the unique response of East Asian biota to late Pleistocene climate. The present study highlights regional differences in the evolutionary consequence of climate change during the last glacial cycle and implies that global warming might pose a great risk to species in this region given potentially higher climatic variation in the future analogous to that during the LIG.