Hxt13, Hxt15, Hxt16 and Hxt17 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae represent a novel type of polyol transporters.
ABSTRACT: The genome of S. cerevisae encodes at least twenty hexose transporter-like proteins. Despite extensive research, the functions of Hxt8-Hxt17 have remained poorly defined. Here, we show that Hxt13, Hxt15, Hxt16 and Hxt17 transport two major hexitols in nature, mannitol and sorbitol, with moderate affinities, by a facilitative mechanism. Moreover, Hxt11 and Hxt15 are capable of transporting xylitol, a five-carbon polyol derived from xylose, the most abundant pentose in lignocellulosic biomass. Hxt11, Hxt13, Hxt15, Hxt16 and Hxt17 are phylogenetically and functionally distinct from known polyol transporters. Based on docking of polyols to homology models of transporters, we propose the architecture of their active site. In addition, we determined the kinetic parameters of mannitol and sorbitol dehydrogenases encoded in the yeast genome, showing that they discriminate between mannitol and sorbitol to a much higher degree than the transporters.
Project description:Debaryomyces hansenii is a halotolerant yeast that produces and assimilates a wide variety of polyols. In this work we evaluate polyol transport in D. hansenii CBS 767, detecting the occurrence of polyol/H(+) (and sugar/H(+)) symporter activity, through the transient extracellular alkalinization of unbuffered starved cell suspensions. From the D. hansenii genome database, we selected nine ORFs encoding putative transporter proteins to clone in a centromeric plasmid with C-terminal GFP tagging and screened for polyol/H(+) symporters by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Five distinct D. hansenii polyol/H(+) symporters were identified and characterized, with different specificities and affinities for polyols, namely one glycerol-specific (DhStl1), one D-galactitol-specific (DhSgl1, Symporter galactitol/H(+) 1), one D-(+)-chiro-inositol-specific (DhSyi1, Symporter D-(+)-chiro-inositol/H(+) 1), one for D-sorbitol/D-mannitol/ribitol/D-arabitol/D-galactitol (DhSyl1, Symporter Polyols 1) and another for D-sorbitol/D-mannitol/ribitol/D-arabitol (DhSyl2, Symporter Polyols 2). This work contributed to the annotation of new yeast polyol transporters, including two specific for uncommon substrates as galactitol and D-(+)-chiro-inositol.
Project description:It is unclear how the amount of active nuclear MAPK over time quantitatively affects transcription. Here, we seek to address this issue by studying signal transduction and transcriptional response in a system that separates signalling from adaptation and hence signal strength from signal duration. The system is based on Saccharomyces cerevisiae osmoadaptation and allows modulation of the period of HOG-dependent responses without changing the initial stress intensity. The conditional osmotic stress system includes (i) a yeast mutant (gpd1 gpd2) unable to produce its main osmolyte glycerol, subsequently stressed with (ii) a stress inductor (polyols of different sizes) and allowed to adapt by (iii) expression of polyol flux-mediating aquaglyceroporin (rat AQP9). As there is no endogenous glycerol production, the osmoadaptation rate depends only on the size dependent equilibration rate over the plasma membrane of the polyol used as both stress inductor and compatible solute. Hence, we apply initially identical stresses but with differential durations, and determine the global transcriptional response. Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303-1A (MATa leu2-3/112 ura3-1 trp1-1 his3-11/15 gpd1::TRP1 gpd2::URA3) osmotically stressed with 1M of glycerol, erythritol, xylitol or sorbitol. Samples are taken in triplicates (except for sorbitol 20 an 90 min and 20 min xylitol were duplicates were taken) in time course series after stress application. Total of 45 samples. RNA from from cultures of gpd1 gpd2 cells expressing rAQP9 prior to polyol exposure was used as reference RNA for all microarrays.
Project description:The production of polyols in vitro by highly purified aldose reductase (EC 126.96.36.199) was monitored by g.l.c. In the presence of NADPH aldose reductase reduced glucose, galactose and xylose to the respective polyols sorbitol, galactitol and xylitol. The rates of formation of these polyols closely mirrored the Km values for the substrates obtained from kinetic measurements that monitored the rate of disappearance of NADPH. No polyol production occurred in the absence of purified aldose of purified aldose reductase, and analysis by g.l.c. revealed only the presence of unchanged monosaccharides. Addition of the aldose reductase inhibitor sorbinil to purified rat lens aldose reductase incubated with xylose in the presence of NADPH resulted in decreased xylitol production. However, aldose reductase inhibitors produced no effect in altering the rate of Nitro Blue Tetrazolium formation from either glucose or xylose, indicating that the observed inhibition in vitro does not result from a free-radical-scavenger effect.
Project description:Polyols are enzymatically-produced plant compounds which can act as compatible solutes during periods of abiotic stress. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(+)-dependent SORBITOL DEHYDROGENASE (SDH, E. C. 188.8.131.52) from Arabidopsis thaliana L. sorbitol dehydrogenase (AtSDH) is capable of oxidizing several polyols including sorbitol, ribitol, and xylitol. In the present study, enzymatic assays using recombinant AtSDH demonstrated a higher specificity constant for xylitol compared to sorbitol and ribitol, all of which are C2 (S) and C4 (R) polyols. Enzyme activity was reduced by preincubation with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, indicating a requirement for zinc ions. In humans, it has been proposed that sorbitol becomes part of a pentahedric coordination sphere of the catalytic zinc during the reaction mechanism. In order to determine the validity of this pentahedric coordination model in a plant SDH, homology modeling, and Molecular Dynamics simulations of AtSDH ternary complexes with the three polyols were performed using crystal structures of human and Bemisia argentifolii (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) SDHs as scaffolds. The results indicate that the differences in interaction with structural water molecules correlate very well with the observed enzymatic parameters, validate the proposed pentahedric coordination of the catalytic zinc ion in a plant SDH, and provide an explanation for why AtSDH shows a preference for polyols with a chirality of C2 (S) and C4 (R).
Project description:D-Xylose isomerase (XI) converts the aldo-sugars xylose and glucose to their keto analogs xylulose and fructose, but is strongly inhibited by the polyols xylitol and sorbitol, especially at acidic pH. In order to understand the atomic details of polyol binding to the XI active site, a 2.0 Å resolution room-temperature joint X-ray/neutron structure of XI in complex with Ni(2+) cofactors and sorbitol inhibitor at pH 5.9 and a room-temperature X-ray structure of XI containing Mg(2+) ions and xylitol at the physiological pH of 7.7 were obtained. The protonation of oxygen O5 of the inhibitor, which was found to be deprotonated and negatively charged in previous structures of XI complexed with linear glucose and xylulose, was directly observed. The Ni(2+) ions occupying the catalytic metal site (M2) were found at two locations, while Mg(2+) in M2 is very mobile and has a high B factor. Under acidic conditions sorbitol gains a water-mediated interaction that connects its O1 hydroxyl to Asp257. This contact is not found in structures at basic pH. The new interaction that is formed may improve the binding of the inhibitor, providing an explanation for the increased affinity of the polyols for XI at low pH.
Project description:The substrate specificity of sheep liver sorbitol dehydrogenase has been studied by steady-state kinetics over the range pH 7-10. Sorbitol dehydrogenase stereo-selectively catalyses the reversible NAD-linked oxidation of various polyols and other secondary alcohols into their corresponding ketones. The kinetic constants are given for various novel polyol substrates, including L-glucitol, L-mannitol, L-altritol, D-altritol, D-iditol and eight heptitols, as well as for many aliphatic and aromatic alcohols. The maximum velocities (kcat) and the substrate specificity-constants (kcat/Km) are positively correlated with increasing pH. The enzyme-catalysed reactions occur by a compulsory ordered kinetic mechanism with the coenzyme as the first, or leading, substrate. With many substrates, the rate-limiting step for the overall reaction is the enzyme-NADH product dissociation. However, with several substrates there is a transition to a mechanism with partial rate-limitation at the ternary complex level, especially at low pH. The kinetic data enable the elucidation of new empirical rules for the substrate specificity of sorbitol dehydrogenase. The specificity-constants for polyol oxidation vary as a function of substrate configuration with D-xylo> D-ribo > L-xylo > D-lyxo approximately L-arabino > D-arabino > L-lyxo. Catalytic activity with a polyol or an aromatic substrate and various 1-deoxy derivatives thereof varies with -CH2OH > -CH2NH2 > -CH2OCH3 approximately -CH3. The presence of a hydroxyl group at each of the remaining chiral centres of a polyol, apart from the reactive C2, is also nonessential for productive ternary complex formation and catalysis. A predominantly nonpolar enzymic epitope appears to constitute an important structural determinant for the substrate specificity of sorbitol dehydrogenase. The existence of two distinct substrate binding regions in the enzyme active site, along with that of the catalytic zinc, is suggested to account for the lack of stereospecificity at C2 in some polyols.
Project description:The gene coding for sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides Si4 was located 55 nucleotides upstream of the mannitol dehydrogenase gene (mtlK) within a previously unrecognized polyol operon. This operon probably consists of all the proteins necessary for transport and metabolization of various polyols. The gene encoding SDH (smoS) was cloned and sequenced. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence revealed homology to enzymes of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase protein family. For structure analysis of this unique bacterial enzyme, smoS was subcloned into the overexpression vector pET-24a(+) and then overproduced in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), which yielded a specific activity of 24.8 U/mg of protein and a volumetric yield of 38,000 U/liter. Compared to values derived with the native host, R. sphaeroides, these values reflected a 270-fold increase in expression of SDH and a 971-fold increase in the volumetric yield. SDH was purified to homogeneity, with a recovery of 49%, on the basis of a three-step procedure. Upstream from smoS, another gene (smoK), which encoded a putative ATP-binding protein of an ABC transporter, was identified.
Project description:Xylitol is a safe dental caries preventive when incorporated into chewing gum or confections used habitually. The goal of this paper is to identify and assess the work on xylitol and other polyols and dental caries since 2008. Xylitol is effective when used by the mother prenatally or after delivery to prevent mutans transmission and subsequent dental caries in the offspring. One new completed trial confirmed that children of mothers who used xylitol lozenges after delivery had less dental caries than a comparison group. A similar study confirmed that the use of xylitol gum by the mother either prevented or postponed MS transmission to the offspring. Xylitol use among schoolchildren delivered via a gummy bear confection reduced S. mutans levels, but a once per day use of xylitol-containing toothpaste did not. Randomized trials, with caries outcomes, assessing xylitol-containing lozenges in adults and xylitol-containing gummy bears in children will release results in the coming year. Other studies are ongoing but are not systematic and will fail to answer important questions about how xylitol, or other polyols, can address the global dental caries problem.
Project description:Non-cariogenic sweet substances, like sugar alcohols, are used to decrease the risk of caries by reducing the growth of dental plaque. The aim of our study was to reveal the impact of xylitol and erythritol on the growth and biofilm formation of cariogenic bacteria including as a novelty, set of clinical mutans streptococci and Scardovia wiggsiae and to assess the possible synergistic influence of these polyols. We found both xylitol and erythritol to express high growth inhibition effect on cariogenic bacteria. In synergistic effect experiments, 10% polyol combination with excess of erythritol was found to be more effective against growth of Streptococcus mutans and the combination with excess of xylitol more effective against growth of Streptococcus sobrinus and S. wiggsiae. In biofilm inhibition experiments, solutions of 10% polyols in different combinations and 15% single polyols were equally effective against mutans streptococci. At the same time, higher biofilm formation of S. wiggsiae compared to experiments without polyols was detected in different polyol concentrations for up to 34%. In conclusion, both erythritol and xylitol as well as their combinations inhibit the growth of different cariogenic bacteria. Biofilm formation of mutans streptococci is also strongly inhibited. When applying polyols in caries prophylaxis, it is relevant to consider that the profile of pathogens in a particular patient may influence the effect of polyols used.
Project description:Mannitol oxidase and polyol dehydrogenases are enzymes that convert polyalcohols into sugars. Mannitol oxidase was previously investigated in terrestrial snails and slugs, being also present in a few aquatic gastropods. However, the overall distribution of this enzyme in the Gastropoda was not known. Polyol dehydrogenases are also poorly studied in gastropods and other mollusks. In this study, polyalcohol oxidase and dehydrogenase activities were assayed in the digestive gland of 26 species of gastropods, representing the clades Patellogastropoda, Neritimorpha, Vetigastropoda, Caenogastropoda and Heterobranchia. Marine, freshwater and terrestrial species, including herbivores and carnivores were analyzed. Ultrastructural observations were undertake in species possessing mannitol oxidase, in order to investigate the correlation between this enzyme and the presence of tubular structures known to be associated with it. Mannitol oxidase activity was detected in the digestive gland of herbivores from the clades Caenogastropoda and Heterobranchia, but not in any carnivores or in herbivores from the clades Patellogastropoda, Neritimorpha and Vetigastropoda. In most of the species used in this study, dehydrogenase activities were detected using both D-mannitol and D-sorbitol as substrates. Nevertheless, in some carnivores these activities were not detected with both polyalcohols. Ultrastructural observations revealed tubular structures in digestive gland cells of some species having mannitol oxidase activity, but they were not observed in others. Based on our results, we suggest that mannitol oxidase first occurred in a herbivorous or omnivorous ancestor of Apogastropoda, the clade formed by caenogastropods and heterobranchs, being subsequently lost in those species that shifted towards a carnivorous diet.