Comprehensive RNA dataset of AGO2 associated RNAs in Jurkat cells following miR-21 over-expression.
ABSTRACT: We set out to identify miR-21 targets in Jurkat cells using a high-throughput biochemical approach (10.1016/j.biochi.2014.09.021). Using a specific monoclonal antibody raised against AGO2, RISC complexes were immunopurified in Jurkat cells over-expressing miR-21 following lentiviral trasduction as well as in Jurkat control cells lines. A parallel immunoprecipitation using isotype-matched rat IgG was performed as a control. AGO2 associated mRNAs were profiled by microarray (GEO: GSE37212). AGO2 bound miRNAs were profiled by RNA-seq.
Project description:In order to identify miR-21 targets by a biochemical high-throughput method, we immunopurified RISC Complex and associated mRNAs in both control and miR-21 overexpressing Jurkat cells. Following transduction of miR-21 encoding construct (or a cognate control vector) in Jurkat cells, we used microarray technology to profile Total RNA, AGO2 Immunopurified RNA and control IgG purified RNA.
Project description:microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate mRNA stability and translation through the action of the RNAi-induced silencing complex (RISC). Our current understanding of miRNA function is inferred largely from studies of the effects of miRNAs on steady-state mRNA levels and from seed match conservation and context in putative targets. Here we have taken a more direct approach to these issues by comprehensively assessing the miRNAs and mRNAs that are physically associated with Argonaute 2 (Ago2), which is a core RISC component. We transfected HEK293T cells with epitope-tagged Ago2, immunopurified Ago2 together with any associated miRNAs and mRNAs, and quantitatively determined the levels of these RNAs by microarray analyses. We found that Ago2 immunopurified samples contained a representative repertoire of the cell's miRNAs and a select subset of the cell's total mRNAs. Transfection of the miRNAs miR-1 and miR-124 caused significant changes in the association of scores of mRNAs with Ago2. The mRNAs whose association with Ago2 increased upon miRNA expression were much more likely to contain specific miRNA seed matches and to have their overall mRNA levels decrease in response to the miRNA transfection than expected by chance. Hundreds of mRNAs were recruited to Ago2 by each miRNA via seed sequences in 3'-untranslated regions and coding sequences and a few mRNAs appear to be targeted via seed sequences in 5'-untranslated regions. Microarray analysis of Ago2 immunopurified samples provides a simple, direct method for experimentally identifying the targets of miRNAs and for elucidating roles of miRNAs in cellular regulation.
Project description:Numerous studies have reported that c-Src is highly expressed with high tyrosine kinase activity in a variety of tumors. However, it remains unclear whether c-Src contributes to the miRNA pathway. Here, we report that c-Src can interact with and phosphorylate AGO2, a core component of RISC complex, at tyr 393, tyr 529 and tyr749. Mechanistically, it is confirmed that c-Src phosphorylation of AGO2 at tyr393 reduces its binding to DICER, thereby suppressing the maturation of long-loop pre-miR-192. However, the other two phosphorylation sites don't work on this function. Significantly, Ectopic expression of wild-type AGO2, but not the three tyrosine site mutants, has an obvious tumor-promoting effect in vitro and in vivo, which function could be blocked thoroughly by treatment with c-Src kinase inhibitor, Saracatinib. Our findings identify AGO2 as c-Src target and c-Src phosphorylation of AGO2 may therefore play a potential role during tumor progress.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that regulate eukaryotic gene expression by binding to regions of imperfect complementarity in mRNAs, typically in the 3' UTR, recruiting an Argonaute (Ago) protein complex that usually results in translational repression or destabilization of the target RNA. The translation and decay of mRNAs are closely linked, competing processes, and whether the miRNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) acts primarily to reduce translation or stability of the mRNA remains controversial. miR-122 is an abundant, liver-specific miRNA that is an unusual host factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV), an important cause of liver disease in humans. Prior studies show that it binds the 5' UTR of the messenger-sense HCV RNA genome, stimulating translation and promoting genome replication by an unknown mechanism. Here we show that miR-122 binds HCV RNA in association with Ago2 and that this slows decay of the viral genome in infected cells. The stabilizing action of miR-122 does not require the viral RNA to be translationally active nor engaged in replication, and can be functionally substituted by a nonmethylated 5' cap. Our data demonstrate that a RISC-like complex mediates the stability of HCV RNA and suggest that Ago2 and miR-122 act coordinately to protect the viral genome from 5' exonuclease activity of the host mRNA decay machinery. miR-122 thus acts in an unconventional fashion to stabilize HCV RNA and slow its decay, expanding the repertoire of mechanisms by which miRNAs modulate gene expression.
Project description:Deregulated RNA-binding proteins (RBP), such as Argonaute 2 (AGO2), mediate tumor-promoting transcriptomic changes during carcinogenesis, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). While AGO2 is well characterized as a member of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which represses gene expression through miRNAs, its role as a bona fide RBP remains unclear. In this study, we investigated AGO2's role as an RBP that regulates the MYC transcript to promote HCC. Using mRNA and miRNA arrays from patients with HCC, we demonstrate that HCCs with elevated AGO2 levels are more likely to have the mRNA transcriptome deregulated and are associated with poor survival. Moreover, AGO2 overexpression stabilizes the MYC transcript independent of miRNAs. These observations provide a novel mechanism of gene regulation by AGO2 and provide further insights into the potential functions of AGO2 as an RBP in addition to RISC. IMPLICATIONS: Authors demonstrate that the RBP Argonaute 2 stabilizes the MYC transcript to promote HCC.
Project description:RNA interference (RNAi) is mediated by RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs), which are guided by microRNAs (miRNAs) or short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to cognate RNA targets. In humans, the catalytic engine of RISC is a ribonucleoprotein formed by the Argonaute2 (Ago2) protein and either miRNA (miRNP) or siRNA (siRNP). The Dicer nuclease produces mature miRNAs and siRNAs from pre-miRNAs and double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), respectively, and associates with Ago2. Here, we studied the assembly of human RISC by presenting pre-miRNA to immunopurified complexes that contain Ago2, Dicer, and TRBP. Mature miRNAs were produced in an ATP-independent manner and guided specific cleavage of cognate RNA targets in a pattern that is typical of RISC. This de novo formed RISC activity dissociated from Dicer. The asymmetry of the RISC loading process was fully recapitulated in this system, which, however, could not efficiently assemble RISC from siRNA duplexes. Our findings demonstrate that, in humans, a miRNA loading complex (miRLC) is formed by Ago2 and Dicer prior to their encounter with pre-miRNA. We suggest that the miRLC couples the processing of the pre-miRNA substrate to the unwinding of the product and that after loading of the mature miRNA to Ago2, the miRLC disassembles and the miRNP is released.
Project description:Because of the different forms of circulating miRNAs in plasma, Argonaute2 (Ago2)-miRNAs and extracellular vesicles (EV-miRNAs), we examined the two forms of extracellular miRNAs in vitro and developed a unique methodology to detect circulating Ago2-miRNAs in small volumes of plasma. We demonstrated that Ago2-miR-21 could be released into the extracellular fluid by active export from viable cancer cells and cytolysis in vitro. As miR-21 and miR-200c were abundantly expressed in both metastatic liver sites and primary lesions, we evaluated Ago2-miR-21 as a candidate biomarker of both active export and cytolysis while Ago2-miR-200c as a biomarker of cytolysis in plasma obtained from colorectal cancer (CRC) patients before treatment and in a series of plasma obtained from CRC patients with liver metastasis who received systemic chemotherapy. The measurement of Ago2-miR-21 allowed us to distinguish CRC patients from subjects without CRC. The trend in ?Ct values for Ago2-miR-21 and -200c during chemotherapy could predict tumor response to ongoing treatment. Thus, capturing circulating Ago2-miRNAs from active export can screen patients with tumor burdens, while capturing them from passive release by cytolysis can monitor tumor dynamics during chemotherapy treatment.
Project description:As a core RISC component, Ago2 associates with miRNAs and target mRNAs. To identify these mRNAs, we ran lysate from HEK293T cells over a FLAG resin from 2 conditions: +FLAG-Ago2, +mock transfection. To identify mRNAs associated with specific miRNAs, we ran lysate from HEK293T cells over a FLAG resin from 2 conditions: +FLAG-Ago2 & miR-1, and +FLAG-Ago2 & miR-124. Set of arrays that are part of repeated experiments Compound Based Treatment: mock transfected Keywords: Biological Replicate Overall design: Biological Replicate Computed
Project description:The regulation network consisting of microRNAs (miRNAs) and their target genes remains largely elusive in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), especially the reciprocal loop between specific miRNAs and the miRNA processing machinery. In this study, we found that miR-99a was remarkably decreased in 111 of 152 (73.03%) primary HCC tissues and low-level expression of miR-99a was correlated with low tumor differentiation (P=0.001), liver cirrhosis (P=0.015), poor tumor-free survival (P=0.004) and overall survival (P=0.006) for HCC patients. By restoration of miR-99a, the HCC growth could be considerably inhibited both in vitro and in vivo. Subsequently, Argonaute-2 (Ago2), a central component of RNA-induced silencing complex, was found to be directly regulated by miR-99a via translational repression. Overexpression of Ago2 could partly impair the inhibitory effect of miR-99a on HCC cells in vitro. Then, we demonstrated that Ago2 was upregulated in HCC tissues at both RNA and protein levels and the expression of AGO2 protein and miR-99a was negatively correlated within detected HCC tissues (r=-0.727, P=0.004). Interestingly, the tumorigenicity of Ago2-knockdown HCC cells was severely impaired (4/10 vs 10/10, P<0.05), and this was in contrast to the miR-99a-overexpressing HCC cells. Functionally, the increased AGO2 protein could specifically facilitate oncogenic miR-21 to repress its targeted gene phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) in HCC, whereas leave the regulatory capacity of let-7a on its targeted oncogenes almost unaltered. In summary, our study has revealed a novel pathway for the tumor suppressor miR-99a to control tumor growth in HCC, via its downstream signaling of AGO2/miR-21/PTEN. In addition, this study provides potential strategies for HCC therapy by reintroduction of miRNA suppressors.
Project description:MiR-21 is an important suppressor of T-cell apoptosis that is also widely overexpressed in many types of cancers. The exact mechanisms related to the anti-apoptotic effect of miR-21 is not well understood. In this study, we applied AGO2 RNA Immunoprecipitation followed by gene expression profiling (RIP-Chip) in Jurkat cells to identify apoptosis-associated miR-21 target genes. We showed that expression of miR-21 rapidly increases upon αCD3/αCD28 activation of Jurkat cells. Inhibition of miR-21 resulted in reduced cell growth and induced apoptosis. Upon AGO2-RIP-Chip, we observed an overall increased enrichment of miR-21 target genes in the IP fraction of miR-21-overexpressing Jurkat cells as compared to the IP fraction of empty vector control cells. We noted a systematic decrease in transcript levels of predicted miR-21 target genes compared to EV control. We identified 72 genes that were 2-fold enriched in the AGO2-IP fraction of miR-21-overexpressing cells that contained a predicted miR-21 binding site. Of these, 71 were enriched 2-fold more in the miR-21-overexpressing cells as compared to EV Jurkat cells. The target gene for which the enrichment was most prominently increased upon miR-21 overexpression was the pro-apoptotic protein LATS1. Luciferase reporter assays confirmed direct targeting of the LATS1 3'UTR by miR-21. In line with the luciferase results, Western blot analysis revealed a decrease in LATS1 upon miR-21 inhibition. LATS1 qRT-PCR analysis in primary T-cells showed that LATS1 levels decrease upon T-cell stimulation while the miR-21 levels increase. Collectively, these data identify the miR-21 target LATS1 as a likely candidate whose inhibition contributes to the anti-apoptotic function of miR-21 in T-cells and perhaps also many types of cancers. Gene expression array on Jurkat cells overexpressing miR-21 and empty vector (EV).