Diffusion on social networks: Survey data from rural villages in central China.
ABSTRACT: Empirical studies on social diffusions are often restricted by the access to data of diffusion and social relations on the same objects. We present a set of first-hand data that we collected in ten rural villages in central China through household surveys. The dataset contains detailed and comprehensive data of the diffusion of an innovation, the major social relationships and the household level demographic characteristics in these villages. The data have been used to study peer effects in social diffusion using simulation models, "Peer Effects and Social Network: The Case of Rural Diffusion in Central China" . They can also be used to estimate spatial econometric models. Data are supplied with this article.
Project description:Public value is gaining prominence from both academics and politicians with regards to China's rural development. However, rural planning authorities and practitioners showed limited confidence on public, which manifests as few public perceptions were integrated into the planning documents. This study explores the potential role of residents' experiences in illustrating local economic development within the context of coastal villages in which economic and industries are rapidly transforming. Two case studies from within the locale of the Greater Hangzhou Bay Rim Area are used in this article to examine the gap between residents' experiences and the actual economic development that has occurred. The main findings suggest that rural residents can directly reflect upon both current and historic trends of local economic development. Moreover, household income satisfaction (HIS) is a comprehensive notion of residents' experiences, and indicates social and economic sustainability of industrial transformation, or "thriving business", that have been highlighted in coastal villages. Public experiences could therefore act as a valid and accessible evidence for planners in rural economic planning in China and other developing countries.
Project description:The provision of healthcare in rural African communities is a highly complex and largely unsolved problem. Two main difficulties are the identification of individuals that are most likely affected by disease and the prediction of responses to health interventions. Social networks have been shown to capture health outcomes in a variety of contexts. Yet, it is an open question as to what extent social network analysis can identify and distinguish among households that are most likely to report poor health and those most likely to respond to positive behavioural influences. We use data from seven highly remote, post-conflict villages in Liberia and compare two prominent network measures: in-degree and betweenness. We define in-degree as the frequency in which members from one household are named by another household as a friends. Betweenness is defined as the proportion of shortest friendship paths between any two households in a network that traverses a particular household. We find that in-degree explains the number of ill family members, whereas betweenness explains engagement in preventative health. In-degree and betweenness independently explained self-reported health and behaviour, respectively. Further, we find that betweenness predicts susceptibility to, instead of influence over, good health behaviours. The results suggest that targeting households based on network measures rather than health status may be effective for promoting the uptake of health interventions in rural poor villages.
Project description:Since the 2000s, Tanzania's natural resource management policy has emphasised Wildlife Management Areas (WMAs), designed to promote wildlife and biodiversity conservation, poverty alleviation and rural development. We carried out a quasi-experimental impact evaluation of social impacts of WMAs, collecting data from 24 villages participating in 6 different WMAs across two geographical regions, and 18 statistically matched control villages. Across these 42 villages, we collected participatory wealth ranking data for 13,578 households. Using this as our sampling frame, we conducted questionnaire surveys with a stratified sample of 1,924 household heads and 945 household heads' wives. All data were collected in 2014/15, with a subset of questions devoted to respondents' recall on conditions that existed in 2007, when first WMAs became operational. Questions addressed household demographics, land and livestock assets, resource use, income-generating activities and portfolios, participation in natural resource management decision-making, benefits and costs of conservation. Datasets permit research on livelihood and wealth trajectories, and social impacts, costs and benefits of conservation interventions in the context of community-based natural resource management.
Project description:We describe the concept, strategy, and initial results of the Millennium Villages Project and implications regarding sustainability and scalability. Our underlying hypothesis is that the interacting crises of agriculture, health, and infrastructure in rural Africa can be overcome through targeted public-sector investments to raise rural productivity and, thereby, to increased private-sector saving and investments. This is carried out by empowering impoverished communities with science-based interventions. Seventy-eight Millennium Villages have been initiated in 12 sites in 10 African countries, each representing a major agro-ecological zone. In early results, the research villages in Kenya, Ethiopia, and Malawi have reduced malaria prevalence, met caloric requirements, generated crop surpluses, enabled school feeding programs, and provided cash earnings for farm families.
Project description:Epilepsy is a neurological disorder with a multitude of underlying causes, which may include infection with Onchocerca volvulus, the parasitic worm that causes human onchocerciasis. A survey carried out in 1989 revealed a high prevalence of epilepsy (1.02% overall, ranging from 0.51 to 3.71% in ten villages) in the Mahenge area of Ulanga district, an onchocerciasis endemic region in south eastern Tanzania. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and incidence of epilepsy following 20 years of onchocerciasis control through annual community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI).The study was conducted in January 2017 in two suburban and two rural villages in the Mahenge area. Door-to-door household visits were carried out by trained community health workers and data assistants to screen for persons suspected of having epilepsy, using a standardised questionnaire. Persons with suspected epilepsy were then interviewed and examined by a neurologist for case verification. Onchocerciasis associated epilepsy was defined as epilepsy without an obvious cause, with an onset of seizures between the ages of 3-18 years in previously healthy children. In each village, fifty males aged ?20 years were tested for onchocerciasis antibodies using an OV16 rapid test and were examined for presence of onchocerciasis nodules. Children aged 6-10 years were also tested using OV16 tests.5117 individuals (median age 18.5 years, 53.2% female) from 1168 households were screened. 244 (4.8%) were suspected of having epilepsy and invited for neurological assessment. Prevalence of epilepsy was 2.5%, with the rural villages having the highest rate (3.5% vs 1.5%), P <?0.001. Overall incidence of epilepsy was 111 cases (95% CI: 73-161) per 100?000 person-years, while that of onchocerciasis associated epilepsy was 131 (95% CI: 70-223). Prevalence of OV16 antibodies in adult males and among children 6-10 years old was higher in rural villages than in suburban villages (76.5% vs 50.6, and 42.6% vs 4.7% respectively), (P <?0.001), while overall prevalence of onchocerciasis nodules was 1.8%.This survey revealed a high prevalence and incidence of epilepsy in two rural onchocerciasis endemic villages in the Mahenge area. Despite 20 years of CDTI, a high prevalence of OV16 antibodies in children aged 6-10 years suggests on-going O. volvulus transmission. Reasons for the persistence of on-going parasite transmission in the Mahenge area need to be investigated.
Project description:Background:Open defecation was largely a rural phenomenon most widely attributed to poor latrine ownership at community level. We aimed at examining latrine ownership and its determinants in rural villages of the Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia. Methods:Community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from June to July 2018. A total of 756 randomly selected households were involved in the study. The multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select study households. Data were checked, coded, and entered into Epi-Info version 7. Besides, it was exported to SPSS version 20 for data analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was involved to estimate the net effect size of factors associated with latrine ownership. Results:The proportion of households owning latrine was 35.7%. The majority (84.4%) of constructed latrines were utilized by household families. Households advocated latrine IEC by Health Extension Workers (HEWs) (AOR?=?1.902, 95% CI: 1.269-2.852), living in their private house (AOR?=?3.13, 95% CI: 1.528-6.401), and the occupation status of government employees (AOR?=?3.54, 95% CI: 0.586-21.397) are more likely to lead to the construction of latrines. The availability of latrine made on slab floor (AOR?=?1.790, 95% CI: 0.297-3.102), having a latrine constructed inside the household compound (AOR?=?4.463, 95% CI: 1.021-19.516), and delivery of latrine IEC by Women Development Armies (WDAs) (AOR?=?2.425, 95% CI: 0.728-8.083) may lead to better latrine utilization at the household level. Conclusion:Households owning latrine at the community level were low. The desired level of latrine ownership will be realized if all sanitation and hygiene components are kept on eye side by side in line with identified predictor factors.
Project description:This systematic review explores experiences of household food insecurity in rural areas of developed countries. A search of 5 databases resulted in 32 peer-reviewed articles for inclusion. Data were analyzed using directed content analysis to broaden the understanding of rural household food insecurity. Elements of food security (ie, availability, accessibility, acceptability, adequacy, and agency) were exemplified across the literature. In addition, 4 key themes were found: exercising human capital, realizing social capital, coping with compounding stressors, and navigating complex systems. This review demonstrates the need for interventions that improve social connectedness, individual coping skills, and system navigation.
Project description:Chinese children are facing dual burden of malnutrition-coexistence of under-and over-nutrition. Little systematic evidence exists for explaining the simultaneous presence of under-and over-nutrition. This study aims to explore underlying mechanisms of under-and over-nutrition among children in rural China. This study used a nationwide longitudinal dataset of children (N = 5,017) from 9 provinces across China, with four exclusively categories of nutritional outcomes including under-nutrition (stunting and underweight), over-nutrition (overweight only including obesity), paradox (stunted overweight), with normal nutrition as reference. Multinomial logit models (Level-1: occasions; Level-2: children; Level-3: villages) were fitted which corrected for non-independence of observations due to geographic clustering and repeated observations of individuals. A mixture of risk factors at the individual, household and neighbourhood levels predicted under-and over-nutrition among children in rural China. Improved socioeconomic status and living in more urbanised villages reduced the risk of stunted overweight among rural children in China. Young girls appeared to have higher risk of under-nutrition, and the risk decreased with age more markedly than for boys up to age 5. From age 5 onwards, boys tended to have higher risk of under-nutrition than girls. Girls aged around 12 and older were less likely to suffer from under-nutrition, while boys' higher risk of under-nutrition persisted throughout adolescence. Children were less likely to suffer from over-nutrition compared to normal nutrition. Boys tended to have an even lower risk of over-nutrition than girls and the gender difference widened with age until adolescence. Our results have important policy implications that improving household economic status, in particular, maternal education and health insurance for children, and living environment are important to enhance rural children's nutritional status in China. Investments in early years of childhood can be effective to reduce gender inequality in nutritional health in rural China.
Project description:Antibiotic resistance is considered a major threat to global health and is affected by many factors, of which antibiotic use is probably one of the more important. Other factors include hygiene, crowding and travel. The rapid resistance spread in Gram-negative bacteria, in particular extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E), is a global challenge, leading to increased mortality, morbidity and health systems costs worldwide. Knowledge about resistance in commensal flora is limited, including in China. Our aim was to establish the faecal carriage rates of ESBL-E and find its association with known and suspected risk factors in rural residents of all ages in three socio-economically different counties in the Shandong Province, China. Faecal samples and risk-factor information (questionnaire) were collected in 2012. ESBL-E carriage was screened using ChromID ESBL agar. Risk factors were analysed using standard statistical methods. Data from 1000 individuals from three counties and in total 18 villages showed a high and varying level of ESBL-E carriage. Overall, 42% were ESBL-E carriers. At county level the carriage rates were 49%, 45% and 31%, respectively, and when comparing individual villages (n = 18) the rate varied from 22% to 64%. The high level of ESBL-E carriage among rural residents in China is an indication of an exploding global challenge in the years to come as resistance spreads among bacteria and travels around the world with the movement of people and freight. A high carriage rate of ESBL-E increases the risk of infection with multi-resistant bacteria, and thus the need for usage of last resort antibiotics, such as carbapenems and colistin, in the treatment of common infections.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Having the world's second-largest tobacco-consuming population, tobacco control is a priority agenda of the Indian Government. Yet, there is no evidence of how peer influence and nature of social relationships-defined as social capital-affect tobacco use. This study aimed to explore the role of social capital and peer influence on tobacco consumption among household heads in rural Uttar Pradesh (UP), India. DESIGN AND SETTING:This study was embedded within the baseline evaluation of Project Samuday. A cross-sectional multistage cluster survey was implemented in six census blocks of Hardoi and Sitapur districts of UP from June to August 2017. Self-reported tobacco consumption status of randomly selected 6218 household heads (?18 years; men vs women=5312 vs 906) was assessed from 346 rural communities. Peer influence of tobacco use was measured by the non-self cluster proportion of tobacco consumption among respondents. Community engagement, social support, trust and social cohesion were separately measured as unique facets of social capital both at individual and community levels using the Shortened Adapted Social Capital Assessment Tool in India (SASCAT-I). The explanatory power of covariates was assessed using gender-stratified generalised estimating equations (GEE) with robust-variance estimator. RESULT:Tobacco consumption patterns were starkly different for men and women (71% vs 14%). The peer influence only affected men (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.10, 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.16, p<0.01), whereas women were more likely to consume tobacco if they were more engaged with community organisations (AOR=1.33, 95% CI=1.07 to 1.66, p<0.01). CONCLUSION:Gender alters the way social engagement affects tobacco use in rural India. Countering peer influence on Indian men should be prioritised as a tobacco control strategy. Moreover, as gender mainstreaming is a critical egalitarian agenda in India, further research is needed to understand how social engagement affects tobacco consumption behaviours among women.