The NOTCH pathway is recurrently mutated in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma associated with hepatitis C virus infection.
ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus has been found to be associated with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas, mostly marginal zone lymphomas and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Deregulation of signaling pathways involved in normal marginal zone development (NOTCH pathway, NF-?B, and BCR signaling) has been demonstrated in splenic marginal zone lymphoma. We studied mutations of NOTCH pathway signaling in 46 patients with hepatitis C virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and in 64 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma unrelated to HCV. NOTCH2 mutations were detected in 9 of 46 (20%) hepatitis C virus-positive patients, and NOTCH1 mutations in 2 of 46 (4%). By contrast, only one of 64 HCV-negative patients had a NOTCH1 or NOTCH2 mutation. The frequency of the NOTCH pathway lesions was significantly higher in hepatitis C virus-positive patients (P=0.002). The 5-year overall survival was 27% (95%CI: 5%-56%) for hepatitis C virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients carrying a NOTCH pathway mutation versus 62% (95%CI: 42%-77%) for those without these genetic lesions. By univariate analysis, age over 60 years, NOTCH2 mutation, and any mutation of the NOTCH pathway (NOTCH2, NOTCH1, SPEN) were associated with shorter overall survival. Mutation of the NOTCH pathway retained an independent significance (P=0.029). In conclusion, a subset of patients with hepatitis C virus-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma displays a molecular signature of splenic marginal zone and has a worse clinical outcome.
Project description:Cooperative DNA binding is a key feature of transcriptional regulation. Here we examined the role of cooperativity in Notch signaling by CRISPR-mediated engineering of mice in which neither Notch1 nor Notch2 can homo- or heterodimerize, essential for cooperative binding to sequence-paired sites (SPS) located near many Notch-regulated genes. Although most known Notch-dependent phenotypes were unaffected in Notch1/2 dimer-deficient mice, a subset of tissues proved highly sensitive to loss of cooperativity. These phenotypes include heart development, compromised viability in combination with low gene dose, and the gut, developing ulcerative colitis in response to 1% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). The most striking phenotypes-gender imbalance and splenic marginal zone B-cell lymphoma-emerged in combination with gene dose reduction or when challenged by chronic fur mite infestation. This study highlights the role of the environment in malignancy and colitis and is consistent with Notch-dependent anti-parasite immune responses being compromised in Notch dimer-deficient animals.
Project description:Although Notch1 and Notch2 are closely related paralogs and function through the same canonical signaling pathway, they contribute to different outcomes in some cell and disease contexts. To understand the basis for these differences, we examined in detail mice in which the Notch intracellular domains (N1ICD and N2ICD) were swapped. Our data indicate that strength (defined here as the ultimate number of intracellular domain molecules reaching the nucleus, integrating ligand-mediated release and nuclear translocation) and duration (half-life of NICD-RBPjk-MAML-DNA complexes, integrating cooperativity and stability dependent on shared sequence elements) are the factors that underlie many of the differences between Notch1 and Notch2 in all the contexts we examined, including T-cell development, skin differentiation and carcinogenesis, the inner ear, the lung and the retina. We were able to show that phenotypes in the heart, endothelium, and marginal zone B cells are attributed to haploinsufficiency but not to intracellular domain composition. Tissue-specific differences in NICD stability were most likely caused by alternative scissile bond choices by tissue-specific ?-secretase complexes following the intracellular domain swap. Reinterpretation of clinical findings based on our analyses suggests that differences in outcome segregating with Notch1 or Notch2 are likely to reflect outcomes dependent on the overall strength of Notch signals.
Project description:Growing evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) facilitate the cross-talk between transcriptional modules and signal transduction pathways. MYC and NOTCH1 contribute to the pathogenesis of lymphoid malignancies. NOTCH induces MYC, connecting two signaling programs that enhance oncogenicity. Here we show that this relationship is bidirectional and that MYC, via a miRNA intermediary, modulates NOTCH. MicroRNA-30a (miR-30a), a member of a family of miRNAs that are transcriptionally suppressed by MYC, directly binds to and inhibits NOTCH1 and NOTCH2 expression. Using a murine model and genetically modified human cell lines, we confirmed that miR-30a influences NOTCH expression in a MYC-dependent fashion. In turn, through genetic modulation, we demonstrated that intracellular NOTCH1 and NOTCH2, by inducing MYC, suppressed miR-30a. Conversely, pharmacological inhibition of NOTCH decreased MYC expression and ultimately de-repressed miR-30a. Examination of genetic models of gain and loss of miR-30a in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells suggested a tumor-suppressive role for this miRNA. Finally, the activity of the miR-30a-NOTCH-MYC loop was validated in primary DLBCL and T-ALL samples. These data define the presence of a miRNA-mediated regulatory circuitry that may modulate the oncogenic signals originating from NOTCH and MYC.
Project description:We previously determined that Notch2, and not Notch1, was required for forming proximal nephron segments. The dominance of Notch2 may be conserved in humans, since Notch2 mutations occur in Alagille syndrome (ALGS) 2 patients, which includes renal complications. To test whether mutations in Notch1 could increase the severity of renal complications in ALGS, we inactivated conditional Notch1 and Notch2 alleles in mice using a Six2-GFP::Cre. This BAC transgene is expressed mosaically in renal epithelial progenitors but uniformly in cells exiting the progenitor pool to undergo mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. Although delaying Notch2 inactivation had a marginal effect on nephron numbers, it created a sensitized background in which the inactivation of Notch1 severely compromised nephron formation, function, and survival. These and additional observations indicate that Notch1 in concert with Notch2 contributes to the morphogenesis of renal vesicles into S-shaped bodies in a RBP-J-dependent manner. A significant implication is that elevating Notch1 activity could improve renal functions in ALGS2 patients. As proof of principle, we determined that conditional inactivation of Mint, an inhibitor of Notch-RBP-J interaction, resulted in a moderate rescue of Notch2 null kidneys, implying that temporal blockage of Notch signaling inhibitors downstream of receptor activation may have therapeutic benefits for ALGS patients.
Project description:Notch signaling plays a key role in the development of pancreatic cancer. Among the four identified Notch receptors, Notch1 and Notch2 share the highest homology. Notch1 has been reported to be an oncogene but some reports indicate that Notch2, not Notch1, plays a key role in pancreatic carcinogenesis. As both are transcription factors, examination of their genomic binding sites might reveal interesting functional differences between them. Notch proteins do not have DNA-binding domain. In the canonical Notch signaling pathway, ligand binding induces the release and nuclear translocation of Notch receptor intracellular domains (NICDs), which then interact with the transcription factor CSL, resulting in subsequent activation of the canonical Notch target genes. We investigated the binding site profiles of Notch1and Notch2 in the BxPC3 genome using CHIP-Seq and bioinfomatics. We found that Notch1, Notch2 and CSL generally bound to different target genes. We also found that only a small subset of Notch1 and Notch2 binding sites overlap with that of CSL, but about half of the CSL binding overlap with that of Notch1 or Notch2, indicating most Notch signaling activities are CSL-independent.
Project description:Murine placentation requires trophoblast Notch2, while the Notch ligand, JAGGED1, is reduced in invasive trophoblasts from women with preeclampsia. However, the placental cells with active Notch signaling and expression of other Notch proteins and ligands in placentation have yet to be defined. We sought to identify endothelial cell and trophoblast subtypes with canonical Notch signaling in the decidua and placenta and correlate this to expression of Notch proteins and ligands.Notch reporter transgenic mice were used to define canonical Notch activity and immunofluorescence staining performed to characterize expression of Notch1, 2, 3, 4 and ligands, Delta-like 4 (Dll4) and Jagged1 (Jag1) during early placentation and in the mature placenta.Notch signaling is active in maternal and fetal endothelial cells and trophoblasts during early placentation and in the mature placenta. Dll4, Jag1, Notch1, and Notch4 are expressed in maternal vasculature in the decidua. Dll4, Jag1 and Notch1 are expressed in fetal vasculature in the labyrinth. Dll4, Notch2 and Notch4 are co-expressed in the ectoplacental cone. Notch2 and Notch4 are expressed in parietal-trophoblast giant cells and junctional zone trophoblasts with active canonical Notch signaling and in labyrinthine syncytiotrophoblasts and sinusoidal-trophoblast giant cells.Canonical Notch activity and distinct expression patterns for Notch proteins and ligands was evident in endothelium and trophoblasts, suggesting Notch1, Notch2, Notch4, Dll4, and Jag1 have distinct and overlapping functions in placentation. Characterization of Notch signaling defects in existing mouse models of preeclampsia may shed light on the role of Notch in developing the preeclampsia phenotype.
Project description:Notch signaling is essential for lymphocyte development and is also implicated in myelopoiesis. Notch receptors are modified by O-fucosylation catalyzed by protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (Pofut1). Fringe enzymes add N-acetylglucosamine to O-fucose and modify Notch signaling by altering the sensitivity of Notch receptors to Notch ligands. To address physiologic functions in hematopoiesis of Notch modified by O-fucose glycans, we examined mice with inducible inactivation of Pofut1 using Mx-Cre. These mice exhibited a reduction in T lymphopoiesis and in the production of marginal-zone B cells, in addition to myeloid hyperplasia. Restoration of Notch1 signaling rescued T lymphopoiesis and the marrow myeloid hyperplasia. After marrow transfer, both cell-autonomous and environmental cues were found to contribute to lymphoid developmental defects and myeloid hyperplasia in Pofut1-deleted mice. Although Pofut1 deficiency slightly decreased cell surface expression of Notch1 and Notch2, it completely abrogated the binding of Notch receptors with Delta-like Notch ligands and suppressed downstream Notch target activation, indicating that O-fucose glycans are critical for efficient Notch-ligand binding that transduce Notch signals. The combined data support a key role for the O-fucose glycans generated by Pofut1 in Notch regulation of hematopoietic homeostasis through modulation of Notch-ligand interactions.
Project description:The Notch pathway regulates cell fate determination in numerous developmental processes. Here we report that Notch2 acts non-redundantly to control the processes of nephron segmentation through an Rbp-J-dependent process. Notch1 and Notch2 are detected in the early renal vesicle. Genetic analysis reveals that only Notch2 is required for the differentiation of proximal nephron structures (podocytes and proximal convoluted tubules) despite the presence of activated Notch1 in the nuclei of putative proximal progenitors. The inability of endogenous Notch1 to compensate for Notch2 deficiency may reflect sub-threshold Notch1 levels in the nucleus. In line with this view, forced expression of a gamma-secretase-independent form of Notch1 intracellular domain drives the specification of proximal fates where all endogenous, ligand-dependent Notch signaling is blocked by a gamma-secretase inhibitor. These results establish distinct (non-redundant), instructive roles for Notch receptors in nephron segmentation.
Project description:Mastermind (Mam) is one of the elements of Notch signaling, an ancient system that plays a pivotal role in metazoan development. Genetic analyses in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans have shown Mam to be an essential positive regulator of this signaling pathway in these species. Mam proteins bind to and stabilize the DNA-binding complex of the intracellular domains of Notch and CBF-1, Su(H), Lag-1 (CSL) DNA-binding proteins in the nucleus. Mammals have three Mam proteins, which show remarkable similarities in their functions while having an unusual structural diversity. There have also been recent indications that Mam-1 functionally interacts with other transcription factors including p53 tumor suppressor. We herein describe that Mam-1 deficiency in mice abolishes the development of splenic marginal zone B cells, a subset strictly dependent on Notch2, a CSL protein and Delta1 ligand. Mam-1 deficiency also causes a partially impaired development of early thymocytes, while not affecting the generation of definitive hematopoiesis, processes that are dependent on Notch1. We also demonstrate the transcriptional activation of a target promoter by constitutively active forms of Notch to decrease severalfold in cultured Mam-1-deficient cells. These results indicate that Mam-1 is thus required to some extent for Notch-dependent stages in lymphopoiesis, thus supporting the notion that Mam is an essential component of the canonical Notch pathway in mammals.
Project description:The Notch signaling pathway regulates intestinal epithelial cell homeostasis, including stem cell maintenance, progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. Notch1 and Notch2 receptors are expressed in the epithelium, but individual contributions to these functions are unclear. We used genetic deletion to define receptor roles on stem cell function, cell proliferation/differentiation, and repair after injury. Loss of Notch1 induced a transient secretory cell hyperplasia that spontaneously resolved over time. In contrast, deletion of Notch2 had no secretory cell effect. Compound deletions of Notch1 and Notch2 resulted in a more severe secretory cell hyperplasia than deletion of Notch1 alone. Furthermore, only double deletion of Notch1 and Notch2 decreased cell proliferation, suggesting a low threshold for maintenance of proliferation compared to differentiation. Stem cells were affected by deletion of Notch1, with reduced expression of Olfm4 and fewer LGR5(+) stem cells. Deletion of Notch2 had no apparent affect on stem cell homeostasis. However, we observed impaired crypt regeneration after radiation in both Notch1- and Notch2-deleted intestine, suggesting that higher Notch activity is required post-injury. These findings suggest that Notch1 is the primary receptor regulating intestinal stem cell function and that Notch1 and Notch2 together regulate epithelial cell proliferation, cell fate determination, and post-injury regeneration.