Retinoblastoma Binding Protein 4 Modulates Temozolomide Sensitivity in Glioblastoma by Regulating DNA Repair Proteins.
ABSTRACT: Here we provide evidence that RBBP4 modulates temozolomide (TMZ) sensitivity through coordinate regulation of two key DNA repair genes critical for recovery from TMZ-induced DNA damage: methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) and RAD51. Disruption of RBBP4 enhanced TMZ sensitivity, induced synthetic lethality to PARP inhibition, and increased DNA damage signaling in response to TMZ. Moreover, RBBP4 silencing enhanced TMZ-induced H2AX phosphorylation and apoptosis in GBM cells. Intriguingly, RBBP4 knockdown suppressed the expression of MGMT, RAD51, and other genes in association with decreased promoter H3K9 acetylation (H3K9Ac) and increased H3K9 tri-methylation (H3K9me3). Consistent with these data, RBBP4 interacts with CBP/p300 to form a chromatin-modifying complex that binds within the promoter of MGMT, RAD51, and perhaps other genes. Globally, RBBP4 positively and negatively regulates genes involved in critical cellular functions including tumorigenesis. The RBBP4/CBP/p300 complex may provide an interesting target for developing therapy-sensitizing strategies for GBM and other tumors.
Project description:Histone acetylation at DNA double-strand break (DSB) sites by CBP and p300 histone acetyltransferases (HATs) is critical for the recruitment of DSB repair proteins to chromatin. Here, we show that CBP and p300 HATs also function in DSB repair by transcriptionally activating the BRCA1 and RAD51 genes, which are involved in homologous recombination (HR), a major DSB repair system. siRNA-mediated depletion of CBP and p300 impaired HR activity and downregulated BRCA1 and RAD51 at the protein and mRNA levels. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that CBP and p300 bind to the promoter regions of the BRCA1 and RAD51 genes, and that depletion of CBP and/or p300 reduces H3 and H4 acetylation and inhibits binding of the transcription factor E2F1 to these promoters. Depletion of CBP and p300 impaired DNA damage-induced phosphorylation and chromatin binding of the single-strand DNA-binding protein RPA following BRCA1-mediated DNA end resection. Consistent with this, subsequent phosphorylation of CHK1 and activation of the G2/M damage checkpoint were also impaired. These results indicate that the HATs CBP and p300 play multiple roles in the activation of the cellular response to DSBs.
Project description:The therapeutic benefit of temozolomide in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is limited by resistance. The goal of this study was to elucidate mechanisms of temozolomide resistance in GBM.We developed an in vivo GBM model of temozolomide resistance and used paired parental and temozolomide-resistant tumors to define the mechanisms underlying the development of resistance and the influence of histone deacetylation (HDAC) inhibition.Analysis of paired parental and resistant lines showed upregulation of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) expression in 3 of the 5 resistant xenografts. While no significant change was detected in MGMT promoter methylation between parental and derivative-resistant samples, chromatin immunoprecipitation showed an association between MGMT upregulation and elevated acetylation of lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9-ac) and decreased dimethylation (H3K9-me2) in GBM12 and GBM14. In contrast, temozolomide resistance development in GBM22 was not linked to MGMT expression, and both parental and resistant lines had low H3K9-ac and high H3K9-me2 within the MGMT promoter. In the GBM12TMZ-resistant line, MGMT reexpression was accompanied by increased recruitment of SP1, C-JUN, NF-?B, and p300 within the MGMT promoter. Interestingly, combined treatment of GBM12 flank xenografts with temozolomide and the HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) favored the evolution of temozolomide resistance by MGMT overexpression as compared with treatment with temozolomide alone.This study shows, for the first time, a unique mechanism of temozolomide resistance development driven by chromatin-mediated MGMT upregulation and highlights the potential for epigenetically directed therapies to influence the mechanisms of resistance development in GBM.
Project description:Temozolomide (TMZ) increases the overall survival of patients with glioblastoma (GBM), but its role in the clinical management of diffuse low-grade gliomas (LGG) is still being defined. DNA hypermethylation of the O (6) -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter is associated with an improved response to TMZ treatment, while inactivation of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway is associated with therapeutic resistance and TMZ-induced mutagenesis. We previously demonstrated that TMZ treatment of LGG induces driver mutations in the RB and AKT-mTOR pathways, which may drive malignant progression to secondary GBM. To better understand the mechanisms underlying TMZ-induced mutagenesis and malignant progression, we explored the evolution of MGMT methylation and genetic alterations affecting MMR genes in a cohort of 34 treatment-naïve LGGs and their recurrences. Recurrences with TMZ-associated hypermutation had increased MGMT methylation compared to their untreated initial tumors and higher overall MGMT methylation compared to TMZ-treated non-hypermutated recurrences. A TMZ-associated mutation in one or more MMR genes was observed in five out of six TMZ-treated hypermutated recurrences. In two cases, pre-existing heterozygous deletions encompassing MGMT, or an MMR gene, were followed by TMZ-associated mutations in one of the genes of interest. These results suggest that tumor cells with methylated MGMT may undergo positive selection during TMZ treatment in the context of MMR deficiency.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most aggressive cancers. Despite recent advances in multimodal therapies, high-grade glioma remains fatal. Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent used worldwide for the clinical treatment of GBM; however, the innate and acquired resistance of GBM limits its application. Here, we found that TMZ inhibited the proliferation and induced the G2/M arrest of GBM cells. Therefore, we performed microarrays to identify the cell cycle- and apoptosis-related genes affected by TMZ. Notably, GADD45A was found to be up-regulated by TMZ in both cell cycle and apoptosis arrays. Furthermore, GADD45A knockdown (GADD45Akd) enhanced the cell growth arrest and cell death induced by TMZ, even in natural (T98) and adapted (TR-U373) TMZ-resistant cells. Interestingly, GADD45Akd decreased the expression of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) in TMZ-resistant cells (T98 and TR-U373). In MGMT-deficient/TMZ-sensitive cells (U87 and U373), GADD45Akd decreased TMZ-induced TP53 expression. Thus, in this study, we investigated the genes influenced by TMZ that were important in GBM therapy, and revealed that GADD45A plays a protective role against TMZ treatment which may through TP53-dependent and MGMT-dependent pathway in TMZ-sensitive and TMZ-resistant GBM, respectively. This protective role of GADD45A against TMZ treatment may provide a new therapeutic strategy for GBM treatment.
Project description:Recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is characterized by resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy and a poor clinical prognosis. In this study, we investigated the role of the oncogenic transcription factor FoxM1 in GBM cells' resistance to alkylator temozolomide (TMZ) and its potential molecular mechanism.FoxM1 expression levels were measured by immunohistochemical analysis in 38 pairs of primary and recurrent GBM tumor samples. Expression levels were also measured in primary recurrent GBM cell lines, and their responses to TMZ were characterized. In a mechanistic study, an siRNA array was used to identify downstream genes, and a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to confirm transcriptional regulation.Recurrent tumors that were TMZ resistant expressed higher levels of FoxM1 than did primary tumors. Recurrent GBM cell lines expressed higher levels of FoxM1 and the DNA damage repair gene Rad51 and were resistant to TMZ. TMZ treatment led to increased FoxM1 and Rad51 expression. FoxM1 knockdown inhibited Rad51 expression and sensitized recurrent GBM cells to TMZ cytotoxicity. FoxM1 directly regulated Rad51 expression through 2 FoxM1-specific binding sites in its promoter. Rad51 reexpression partially rescued TMZ resistance in FoxM1-knockdown recurrent GBM cells. A direct correlation between FoxM1 expression and Rad51 expression was evident in recurrent GBM tumor samples.Targeting the FoxM1-Rad51 axis may be an effective method to reverse TMZ resistance in recurrent GBM.
Project description:Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent chemotherapy drug used as a first-line treatment for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). O6-methyl-guanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) repairs DNA damage induced by TMZ; hence, elevated MGMT levels usually correlate with TMZ resistance. MGMT promoter methylation is a key regulatory mechanism for MGMT expression and is important in overcoming TMZ therapy resistance. To date, little is known about how MGMT expression is regulated beyond promoter methylation. In this work, we show an alternative mechanism by which MGMT levels are regulated independent of its promoter methylation status. We found that inhibition of the histone deacetylase HDAC8 by either HDAC8-specific inhibitor PCI34051 or HDAC8 shRNA decreases MGMT levels in GBM cell lines. Furthermore, the proteasome receptor ADRM1 participates in this MGMT regulation by interacting with HDAC8. Interestingly, this interaction is disrupted by TMZ exclusively in TMZ sensitive cells, suggesting that this MGMT regulatory pathway might be inactivated in TMZ resistant cells. Consequently, HDAC8 inhibition in GBM cell lines increases DNA damage and cell cycle arrest and, eventually, decreases cell viability, likely due to the decrease in MGMT protein levels.
Project description:Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant glioma, with a median overall survival (OS) of 14-16 months. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the first-line chemotherapy drug for glioma, but whether TMZ should be withheld from patients with GBMs that lack O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation is still under debate. DNA methylation profiling holds great promise for further stratifying the responses of MGMT promoter unmethylated GBMs to TMZ. In this study, we studied 147 TMZ-treated MGMT promoter unmethylated GBM, whose methylation information was obtained from the HumanMethylation27 (HM-27K) BeadChips (n = 107) and the HumanMethylation450 (HM-450K) BeadChips (n = 40) for training and validation, respectively. In the training set, we performed univariate Cox regression and identified that 3,565 CpGs were significantly associated with the OS of the TMZ-treated MGMT promoter unmethylated GBMs. Functional analysis indicated that the genes corresponding to these CpGs were enriched in the biological processes or pathways of mitochondrial translation, cell cycle, and DNA repair. Based on these CpGs, we developed a 31-CpGs methylation signature utilizing the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression algorithm. In both training and validation datasets, the signature identified the TMZ-sensitive GBMs in the MGMT promoter unmethylated GBMs, and only the patients in the low-risk group appear to benefit from the TMZ treatment. Furthermore, these identified TMZ-sensitive MGMT promoter unmethylated GBMs have a similar OS when compared with the MGMT promoter methylated GBMs after TMZ treatment in both two datasets. Multivariate Cox regression demonstrated the independent prognostic value of the signature in TMZ-treated MGMT promoter unmethylated GBMs. Moreover, we also noticed that the hallmark of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, ECM related biological processes and pathways were highly enriched in the MGMT unmethylated GBMs with the high-risk score, indicating that enhanced ECM activities could be involved in the TMZ-resistance of GBM. In conclusion, our findings promote our understanding of the roles of DNA methylation in MGMT umethylated GBMs and offer a very promising TMZ-sensitivity predictive signature for these GBMs that could be tested prospectively.
Project description:Despite treatments combining surgery, radiation-, and chemotherapy, patients affected by glioblastoma (GBM) have a limited prognosis. Addition of temozolomide (TMZ) to radiation therapy is the standard therapy in clinical application, but effectiveness of TMZ is limited by the tumor's overexpression of the DNA repair protein O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT). The goal of this study was to use the highly specific and efficient RNA interference (RNAi) pathway to modulate MGMT expression to increase TMZ efficiency in chemotherapy resistant GBM. Using lentiviral-based anti-MGMT small hairpin RNA (shRNA) technology we observed a specific inhibition of the MGMT expression in GBM cell lines as well as in subcutaneous tumors. Tumor growth inhibition was observed following TMZ treatment of xenografts with low MGMT expression in contrast to xenografts with high MGMT expression. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) measurements indicated that luciferase and shRNA-expressing lentiviruses were able to efficiently transduce the GBM xenografts in vivo. Treatment combining injection of a lentivirus expressing an anti-MGMT shRNA and TMZ induced a reduction of the size of the tumors, in contrast with treatment combining the lentivirus expressing the control shRNA and TMZ. Our data suggest that anti-MGMT shRNA therapy could be used in combination with TMZ chemotherapy in order to improve the treatment of resistant GBM.
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and lethal of all gliomas. The current standard of care includes surgery followed by concomitant radiation and chemotherapy with the DNA alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ). O?-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) repairs the most cytotoxic of lesions generated by TMZ, O?-methylguanine. Methylation of the MGMT promoter in GBM correlates with increased therapeutic sensitivity to alkylating agent therapy. However, several aspects of TMZ sensitivity are not explained by MGMT promoter methylation. Here, we investigated our hypothesis that the base excision repair enzyme alkylpurine-DNA-N-glycosylase (APNG), which repairs the cytotoxic lesions N³-methyladenine and N?-methylguanine, may contribute to TMZ resistance. Silencing of APNG in established and primary TMZ-resistant GBM cell lines endogenously expressing MGMT and APNG attenuated repair of TMZ-induced DNA damage and enhanced apoptosis. Reintroducing expression of APNG in TMZ-sensitive GBM lines conferred resistance to TMZ in vitro and in orthotopic xenograft mouse models. In addition, resistance was enhanced with coexpression of MGMT. Evaluation of APNG protein levels in several clinical datasets demonstrated that in patients, high nuclear APNG expression correlated with poorer overall survival compared with patients lacking APNG expression. Loss of APNG expression in a subset of patients was also associated with increased APNG promoter methylation. Collectively, our data demonstrate that APNG contributes to TMZ resistance in GBM and may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease.
Project description:Tumor recurrence in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is often attributed to acquired resistance to the standard chemotherapeutic agent, temozolomide (TMZ). Promoter methylation of the DNA repair gene MGMT (O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase) has been associated with sensitivity to TMZ, whereas increased expression of MGMT has been associated with TMZ resistance. Clinical studies have observed a downward shift in MGMT methylation percentage from primary to recurrent stage tumors; however, the evolutionary processes that drive this shift and more generally the emergence and growth of TMZ-resistant tumor subpopulations are still poorly understood. Here, we develop a mathematical model, parameterized using clinical and experimental data, to investigate the role of MGMT methylation in TMZ resistance during the standard treatment regimen for GBM-surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. We first found that the observed downward shift in MGMT promoter methylation status between detection and recurrence cannot be explained solely by evolutionary selection. Next, our model suggests that TMZ has an inhibitory effect on maintenance methylation of MGMT after cell division. Finally, incorporating this inhibitory effect, we study the optimal number of TMZ doses per adjuvant cycle for patients with GBM with high and low levels of MGMT methylation at diagnosis.