Studies toward the oxidative and reductive activation of C-S bonds in 2'-S-aryl-2'-thiouridine derivatives.
ABSTRACT: Studies directed toward the oxidative and reductive desulfurization of readily available 2'-S-aryl-2'-thiouridine derivatives were investigated with the prospect to functionalize the C2'-position of nucleosides. The oxidative desulfurization-difluorination strategy was successful on 2-(arylthio)alkanoate surrogates, while extension of the combination of oxidants and fluoride sources was not an efficient fluorination protocol when applied to 2'-S-aryl-2'-thiouridine derivatives, resulting mainly in C5-halogenation of the pyrimidine ring and C2'-monofluorination without desulfurization. Cyclic voltammetry of 2'-arylsulfonyl-2'-deoxyuridines and their 2'-fluorinated analogues showed that cleavage of the arylsulfone moiety could occur, although at relatively high cathodic potentials. While reductive-desulfonylation of 2'-arylsulfonyl-2'-deoxyuridines with organic electron donors (OEDs) gave predominantly base-induced furan type products, chemical (OED) and electrochemical reductive-desulfonylation of the ?-fluorosulfone derivatives yielded the 2'-deoxy-2'-fluorouridine and 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxy-2'-fluorouridine derivatives. These results provided good evidence of the generation of a C2'-anion through carbon-sulfur bond cleavage, opening new horizons for the reductive-functionalization approaches in nucleosides.
Project description:A series of tritylated and dimethoxytritylated analogues of selected pyrimidine and purine nucleosides were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro inhibitory activity against two important members of the genus Flavivirus in the Flaviviridae family, the yellow fever (YFV) and dengue viruses (DENV). Among all compounds tested, the 5'-O-tritylated and the 5'-O-dimethoxytritylated 5-fluorouridine derivatives exerted potency against YFV. Interestingly in the series of purine analogues, the 5'O, N-bis-tritylated fludarabine derivative revealed strong inhibitory activity against DENV at ?m concentrations, however significantly weaker potency against YFV.
Project description:Aminomethyl polystyrene resin was reacted with 4-(5'-formyl-2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzoic acid and 4-(5'-formyl-2'-hydroxyphenyl)phenyl propionic acid, respectively, in the presence of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole and 1,3-diisopropylcarbodiimide to yield polymer-bound benzaldehydes. The phenolic group in resins was acetylated with acetic anhydride to afford two polymer-bound 4-acetoxybenzaldehydes. The reductive amination of polymer-bound linkers by amines and sodium triacetoxyborohydride, followed by sulfonylation with arylsulfonyl chloride derivatives in the presence of pyridine and the cleavage with TFA/DCM/H2O, produced pure sulfonamides.
Project description:The antiviral activity of several nucleoside analogues is often limited by their rapid degradation by pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylases. In an attempt to avoid this degradation, several modified nucleosides have been synthesized. A series of 4'-thio-2'-deoxyuridines exhibits an anti-[herpes simplex virus (HSV)] activity significantly higher (20-600 times) than that shown by the corresponding 4'-oxy counterpart. We investigated the mode of action of these compounds and we found that: (i) several 4'-thio-2'-deoxyuridines are phosphorylated to the mono- and di-phosphates by HSV-1 thymidine kinase (TK) more efficiently than their corresponding 4'-oxy counterpart; (ii) both are inhibitors of cellular thymidylate synthase; (iii) 4'-thio-2'-deoxyuridines are resistant to phosphorolysis by human thymidine phosphorylase; (iv) both 4'-oxy- and 4'-thio-2'-deoxyuridines are phosphorylated to deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate in HSV-1-infected cells and are incorporated into viral DNA; (v) 4'-thio-2'-deoxyuridines are better inhibitors than their 4'-oxy counterparts of [(3)H]thymidine incorporation in HSV-1-infected cells; (vi) 4'-thio-2'-deoxyuridines are not recognized by HSV-1 and human uracil-DNA glycosylases. Our data suggest that 4'-thio-2'-deoxyuridines, resistant to pyrimidine phosphorylase, can be preferentially or selectively phosphorylated by viral TK in HSV-infected cells, where they are further converted into triphosphate by cellular nucleotide kinases. Once incorporated into viral DNA, they are better inhibitors of viral DNA synthesis than their corresponding 4'-oxy counterpart, either because they are not recognized, and thus not removed, by viral uracil-DNA glycosylase, or because they preferentially interfere with viral DNA polymerase.
Project description:Inhibition of DNA repair enzymes tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerases 1 and 2 in the presence of pyrimidine nucleoside derivatives was studied here. New effective Tdp1 inhibitors were found in a series of nucleoside derivatives possessing 2',3',5'-tri-O-benzoyl-d-ribofuranose and 5-substituted uracil moieties and have half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) in the lower micromolar and submicromolar range. 2',3',5'-Tri-O-benzoyl-5-iodouridine manifested the strongest inhibitory effect on Tdp1 (IC50 = 0.6 ?M). A decrease in the number of benzoic acid residues led to a marked decline in the inhibitory activity, and pyrimidine nucleosides lacking lipophilic groups (uridine, 5-fluorouridine, 5-chlorouridine, 5-bromouridine, 5-iodouridine, and ribothymidine) did not cause noticeable inhibition of Tdp1 (IC50 > 50 ?M). No PARP1/2 inhibitors were found among the studied compounds (residual activity in the presence of 1 mM substances was 50-100%). Several O-benzoylated uridine and cytidine derivatives strengthened the action of topotecan on HeLa cervical cancer cells.
Project description:An oxidant-free Rh(iii)-catalyzed direct amidation of alkyl dithianes <i>via</i> C(sp<sup>3</sup>)-H bond activation utilizing diverse and robust dioxazolone reagents is reported. The reaction hinges on use of a Cp*Rh(iii) complex in combination with an essential amino-carboxylate additive to generate usefully protected 1,3-aminoaldehyde derivatives. The scalability of the reaction was demonstrated as was a series of downstream product functionalizations, including dithiane deprotection, anion alkylation and reductive desulfurization, highlighting the general applicability of this transformation in the synthesis of novel scaffolds and building blocks.
Project description:Cluster of differentiation 73 (CD73) converts adenosine 5'-monophosphate to immunosuppressive adenosine, and its inhibition was proposed as a new strategy for cancer treatment. We synthesized 5'- O-[(phosphonomethyl)phosphonic acid] derivatives of purine and pyrimidine nucleosides, which represent nucleoside diphosphate analogues, and compared their CD73 inhibitory potencies. In the adenine series, most ribose modifications and 1-deaza and 3-deaza were detrimental, but 7-deaza was tolerated. Uracil substitution with N3-methyl, but not larger groups, or 2-thio, was tolerated. 1,2-Diphosphono-ethyl modifications were not tolerated. N4-(Aryl)alkyloxy-cytosine derivatives, especially with bulky benzyloxy substituents, showed increased potency. Among the most potent inhibitors were the 5'- O-[(phosphonomethyl)phosphonic acid] derivatives of 5-fluorouridine (4l), N4-benzoyl-cytidine (7f), N4-[ O-(4-benzyloxy)]-cytidine (9h), and N4-[ O-(4-naphth-2-ylmethyloxy)]-cytidine (9e) ( Ki values 5-10 nM at human CD73). Selected compounds tested at the two uridine diphosphate-activated P2Y receptor subtypes showed high CD73 selectivity, especially those with large nucleobase substituents. These nucleotide analogues are among the most potent CD73 inhibitors reported and may be considered for development as parenteral drugs.
Project description:Sulfur is present in several nucleosides within tRNAs. In particular, thiolation of the universally conserved methyl-uridine at position 54 stabilizes tRNAs from thermophilic bacteria and hyperthermophilic archaea and is required for growth at high temperature. The simple nonredox substitution of the C2-uridine carbonyl oxygen by sulfur is catalyzed by tRNA thiouridine synthetases called TtuA. Spectroscopic, enzymatic, and structural studies indicate that TtuA carries a catalytically essential [4Fe-4S] cluster and requires ATP for activity. A series of crystal structures shows that (i) the cluster is ligated by only three cysteines that are fully conserved, allowing the fourth unique iron to bind a small ligand, such as exogenous sulfide, and (ii) the ATP binding site, localized thanks to a protein-bound AMP molecule, a reaction product, is adjacent to the cluster. A mechanism for tRNA sulfuration is suggested, in which the unique iron of the catalytic cluster serves to bind exogenous sulfide, thus acting as a sulfur carrier.
Project description:Disaccharide nucleosides are an important class of natural compounds that have a variety of biological activities. In this study, we report on the synthesis of disaccharide nucleosides utilizing the temporary protection of the 2',3'-cis-diol of ribonucleosides, such as adenosine, guanosine, uridine, 5-metyluridine, 5-fluorouridine and cytidine, by a boronic ester. The temporary protection of the above ribonucleosides permits the regioselective O-glycosylation of the 5'-hydroxyl group with thioglycosides using a p-toluenesulfenyl chloride (p-TolSCl)/silver triflate (AgOTf) promoter system to afford the corresponding disaccharide nucleosides in fairly good chemical yields. The formation of a boronic ester prepared from uridine and 4-(trifluoromethyl)phenylboronic acid was examined by ¹H, 11B and 19F NMR spectroscopy.
Project description:Uridine phosphorylase is a key enzyme in the pyrimidine salvage pathway. This enzyme catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of uridine to uracil and ribose 1-phosphate (or 2'-deoxyuridine to 2'-deoxyribose 1-phosphate). Here we report the structure of hexameric Escherichia coli uridine phosphorylase treated with 5-fluorouridine and sulfate and dimeric bovine uridine phosphorylase treated with 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine or uridine, plus sulfate. In each case the electron density shows three separate species corresponding to the pyrimidine base, sulfate, and a ribosyl species, which can be modeled as a glycal. In the structures of the glycal complexes, the fluorouracil O2 atom is appropriately positioned to act as the base required for glycal formation via deprotonation at C2'. Crystals of bovine uridine phosphorylase treated with 2'-deoxyuridine and sulfate show intact nucleoside. NMR time course studies demonstrate that uridine phosphorylase can catalyze the hydrolysis of the fluorinated nucleosides in the absence of phosphate or sulfate, without the release of intermediates or enzyme inactivation. These results add a previously unencountered mechanistic motif to the body of information on glycal formation by enzymes catalyzing the cleavage of glycosyl bonds.
Project description:Biased agonism at G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) has significant implications for current drug discovery, but molecular determinants that govern ligand bias remain largely unknown. The adenosine A3 GPCR (A3AR) is a potential therapeutic target for various conditions, including cancer, inflammation, and ischemia, but for which biased agonism remains largely unexplored. We now report the generation of bias "fingerprints" for prototypical ribose containing A3AR agonists and rigidified (N)-methanocarba 5'-N-methyluronamide nucleoside derivatives with regard to their ability to mediate different signaling pathways. Relative to the reference prototypical agonist IB-MECA, (N)-methanocarba 5'-N-methyluronamide nucleoside derivatives with significant N(6) or C2 modifications, including elongated aryl-ethynyl groups, exhibited biased agonism. Significant positive correlation was observed between the C2 substituent length (in Å) and bias toward cell survival. Molecular modeling suggests that extended C2 substituents on (N)-methanocarba 5'-N-methyluronamide nucleosides promote a progressive outward shift of the A3AR transmembrane domain 2, which may contribute to the subset of A3AR conformations stabilized on biased agonist binding.