Potential workload in applying clinical practice guidelines for patients with chronic conditions and multimorbidity: a systematic analysis.
ABSTRACT: To describe the potential workload for patients with multimorbidity when applying existing clinical practice guidelines.Systematic analysis of clinical practice guidelines for chronic conditions and simulation modelling approach.National Guideline Clearinghouse index of US clinical practice guidelines.We identified the most recent guidelines for adults with 1 of 6 prevalent chronic conditions in primary care (ie hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease (CHD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), osteoarthritis and depression).From the guidelines, we extracted all recommended health-related activities (HRAs) such as drug management, self-monitoring, visits to the doctor, laboratory tests and changes of lifestyle for a patient aged 45-64 years with moderate severity of conditions.For each HRA identified, we performed a literature review to determine the potential workload in terms of time spent on this HRA. Then, we used a simulation modelling approach to estimate the potential workload needed to comply with these recommended HRAs for patients with several of these chronic conditions.Depending on the concomitant chronic condition, patients with 3 chronic conditions complying with all the guidelines would have to take a minimum of 6 to a maximum of 13 medications per day, visit a health caregiver a minimum of 1.2 to a maximum of 5.9 times per month and spend a mean (SD) of 49.6 (27.3) to 71.0 (34.5) h/month in HRAs. The potential workload increased greatly with increasing number of concomitant conditions, rising to 18 medications per day, 6.6 visits per month and 80.7 (35.8) h/month in HRAs for patients with 6 chronic conditions.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:People living with HIV infection (PLWHIV) in Sub-Saharan Africa cope with an increasing workload of care (doctor visits, lab tests, medication management, refills, etc.) in a context of poor health service organization. We aimed to describe the workload of care for PLWHIV in Sub-Saharan Africa and assess to what extent simple adjustments in care organization could reduce this workload of care. METHODS:Adult PLWHIV under antiretroviral treatment for at least 1 year were recruited in three centers (two public, one private) in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. Using methods inspired from sociology, we precisely described all health-related activities (HRAs) performed by patients, in 1 month, in terms of time, money and opportunity costs. Then, we assessed the theoretical avoidable workload of care if patients' visits and tests had been grouped on the same days. RESULTS:We enrolled 476 PLWHIV in the study. Patients devoted 6.7 hours (SD = 6.3), on average, in HRAs per month and spent 5% (SD = 11) of their monthly revenue, on average, on health activities. However, we found great inter-patient heterogeneity in the mixture of activities performed (managing medications; dietary recommendations; visits, tests, support groups; administrative tasks; etc.) and their time allocation, temporal dispersion and opportunity costs (personal, familial, social or professional costs). For 22% of patients, grouping activities on the same days could reduce both time and cost requirements by 20%. CONCLUSION:PLWHIV in Côte d'Ivoire have a heavy workload of care. Grouping visits and tests on the same days may be a simple and feasible way to reduce patients' investment of time and money in their care.
Project description:Objectives Given poor compliance by providers with adolescent health risk assessment (HRA) in primary care, we describe the development and feasibility of using a health information technology (HIT)-enhanced HRA to improve the frequency of HRAs in diverse clinical settings, asking adolescents' recall of quality of care as a primary outcome. Methods We conducted focus groups and surveys with key stakeholders (Phase I) , including adolescents, clinic staff and providers to design and implement an intervention in a practice-based research network delivering private, comprehensive HRAs via tablet (Phase II). Providers and adolescents received geo-coded community resources according to individualized risks. Following the point-of-care implementation , we collected patient-reported outcomes using post-visit quality surveys (Phase III). Patient-reported outcomes from intervention and comparison clinics were analyzed using a mixed-model, fitted separately for each survey domain. Results Stakeholders agreed upon an HIT-enhanced HRA (Phase I). Twenty-two academic and community practices in north-central Florida then recruited 609 diverse adolescents (14-18 years) during primary care visits over 6 months; (mean patients enrolled = 28; median = 20; range 1-116; Phase II). Adolescents receiving the intervention later reported higher receipt of confidential/private care and counseling related to emotions and relationships (adjusted scores 0.42 vs 0.08 out of 1.0, p < .01; 0.85 vs 0.57, p < .001, respectively, Phase III) than those receiving usual care. Both are important quality indicators for adolescent well-child visits. Conclusions Stakeholder input was critical to the acceptability of the HIT-enhanced HRA. Patient recruitment data indicate that the intervention was feasible in a variety of clinical settings and the pilot evaluation data indicate that the intervention may improve adolescents' perceptions of high quality care.
Project description:Patient-centered health risk assessments (HRAs) that screen for unhealthy behaviors, prioritize concerns, and provide feedback may improve counseling, goal setting, and health. To evaluate the effectiveness of routinely administering a patient-centered HRA, My Own Health Report, for diet, exercise, smoking, alcohol, drug use, stress, depression, anxiety, and sleep, 18 primary care practices were randomized to ask patients to complete My Own Health Report (MOHR) before an office visit (intervention) or continue usual care (control). Intervention practice patients were more likely than control practice patients to be asked about each of eight risks (range of differences 5.3-15.8 %, p?<?0.001), set goals for six risks (range of differences 3.8-16.6 %, p?<?0.01), and improve five risks (range of differences 5.4-13.6 %, p?<?0.01). Compared to controls, intervention patients felt clinicians cared more for them and showed more interest in their concerns. Patient-centered health risk assessments improve screening and goal setting.Trial RegistrationClinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01825746.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Health risk assessments (HRAs), which often screen for depressive symptoms, are administered to millions of employees and health plan members each year. HRA data provide an opportunity to examine longitudinal trends in depressive symptomatology, as researchers have done previously with other populations. OBJECTIVE:The primary research questions were: (1) Can we observe longitudinal trajectories in HRA populations like those observed in other study samples? (2) Do HRA variables, which primarily reflect modifiable health risks, help us to identify predictors associated with these trajectories? (3) Can we make meaningful recommendations for population health management, applicable to HRA participants, based on predictors we identify? METHODS:This study used growth mixture modeling (GMM) to examine longitudinal trends in depressive symptomatology among 22,963 participants in a Web-based HRA used by US employers and health plans. The HRA assessed modifiable health risks and variables such as stress, sleep, and quality of life. RESULTS:Five classes were identified: A "minimal depression" class (63.91%, 14,676/22,963) whose scores were consistently low across time, a "low risk" class (19.89%, 4568/22,963) whose condition remained subthreshold, a "deteriorating" class (3.15%, 705/22,963) who began at subthreshold but approached severe depression by the end of the study, a "chronic" class (4.71%, 1081/22,963) who remained highly depressed over time, and a "remitting" class (8.42%, 1933/22,963) who had moderate depression to start, but crossed into minimal depression by the end. Among those with subthreshold symptoms, individuals who were male (P<.001) and older (P=.01) were less likely to show symptom deterioration, whereas current depression treatment (P<.001) and surprisingly, higher sleep quality (P<.001) were associated with increased probability of membership in the "deteriorating" class as compared with "low risk." Among participants with greater symptomatology to start, those in the "severe" class tended to be younger than the "remitting" class (P<.001). Lower baseline sleep quality (P<.001), quality of life (P<.001), stress level (P<.001), and current treatment involvement (P<.001) were all predictive of membership in the "severe" class. CONCLUSIONS:The trajectories identified were consistent with trends in previous research. The results identified some key predictors: we discuss those that mirror prior studies and offer some hypotheses as to why others did not. The finding that 1 in 5 HRA participants with subthreshold symptoms deteriorated to the point of clinical distress during succeeding years underscores the need to learn more about such individuals. We offer additional recommendations for follow-up research, which should be designed to reflect changes in health plan demographics and HRA delivery platforms. In addition to utilizing additional variables such as cognitive style to refine predictive models, future research could also begin to test the impact of more aggressive outreach strategies aimed at participants who are likely to deteriorate or remain significantly depressed over time.
Project description:Anal cancer is one of the most common cancers affecting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected male patients. Currently, there is no consensus on posttreatment surveillance of HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) who have been treated for high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGAIN), the likely precursor to anal cancer.The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of a range of strategies for anal cancer surveillance in HIV-infected MSM previously treated for HGAIN.We developed a Markov model to project quality-adjusted life expectancy, lifetime costs, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of 5 strategies using high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) and/or anal cytology testing after treatment.Performing HRA alone at 6- and 12-month visits was associated with a cost-effectiveness ratio of $4446 per quality-adjusted life year gained. In comparison, combined HRA and anal cytology at both visits provided greater health benefit at a cost of $17,373 per quality-adjusted life year gained. Our results were robust over a number of scenarios and assumptions including patients' level of immunosuppression. Results were most sensitive to test characteristics and cost, as well as progression rates of normal to HGAIN and HGAIN to cancer.Our results suggest that combined HRA and anal cytology at 6 and 12 months may be a cost-effective surveillance strategy after treatment of HGAIN in HIV-infected MSM.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Personal risk for multiple conditions should be assessed in primary care. This study evaluated whether collection of risk factors to generate electronic health record (EHR)-linked health risk appraisal (HRA) for coronary heart disease, diabetes, breast cancer, and colorectal cancer was associated with improved patient-provider communication, risk assessment, and plans for breast cancer screening. METHODS:This pragmatic trial recruited adults with upcoming visits to 11 primary care practices during 2013-2014 (N=3,703). Pre-visit, intervention patients completed a risk factor and perception assessment and received an HRA; coded risk factor data were sent to the EHR. Post-visit, intervention patients reported risk perception. Pre-visit, control patients only completed the risk perception assessment; post-visit they also completed the risk factor assessment and received the HRA. No data were sent to the EHR for controls. Accuracy/improvement of self-perceived risk was assessed by comparing self-perceived to calculated risk. RESULTS:The intervention was associated with improvement of patient-provider communication of changes to improve health (78.5% vs 74.1%, AOR=1.67, 99% CI=1.07, 2.60). There was a similar trend for discussion of risk (54.1% vs 45.5%, AOR=1.34, 95% CI=0.97, 1.85). The intervention was associated with greater improvement in accuracy of self-perceived risk for diabetes (16.0% vs 12.6%, p=0.006) and colorectal cancer (27.9% vs 17.2%, p<0.001) with a similar trend for coronary heart disease and breast cancer. There were no changes in plans for breast cancer screening. CONCLUSIONS:Patient-reported risk factors and EHR-linked multi-condition HRAs in primary care can modestly improve communication and promote accuracy of self-perceived risk.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The relationship of training load to injury using wearable technology has not been investigated in professional American football players. The primary objective of this study was to determine the correlation between player workload and soft tissue injury over the course of a football season utilizing wearable global positioning system (GPS) technology. HYPOTHESIS:Increased training load is associated with a higher incidence of soft tissue injuries. STUDY DESIGN:Case-control study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level 3. METHODS:Player workloads were assessed during preseason and regular-season practice sessions using GPS tracking and triaxial accelerometry from 2014 to 2016. Soft tissue injuries were recorded during each season. Player workload during the week of injury (acute) and average weekly workload during the 4 weeks (chronic) prior to injury were determined for each injury and in uninjured position-matched controls during the same week. A matched-pairs t test was used to determine differences in player workload. Subgroup analysis was also conducted to determine whether observed effects were confounded by training period and type of injury. RESULTS:In total, 136 lower extremity injuries were recorded. Of the recorded injuries, 101 injuries with complete GPS and clinical data were included in the analysis. Injuries were associated with greater increases in workload during the week of injury over the prior month when compared with uninjured controls. Injured players saw a 111% (95% CI, 66%-156%) increase in workload whereas uninjured players saw a 73% (95% CI, 34%-112%) increase in workload during the week of injury (P = 0.032). Individuals who had an acute to chronic workload ratio higher than 1.6 were 1.5 times more likely to sustain an injury relative to time- and position-matched controls (64.6% vs 43.1%; P = 0.004). CONCLUSION:Soft tissue injuries in professional football players were associated with sudden increases in training load over the course of a month. This effect seems to be especially pronounced during the preseason when player workloads are generally higher. These results suggest that a gradual increase of training intensity is a potential method to reduce the risk of soft tissue injury. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:Preseason versus regular-season specific training programs monitored with wearable technology may assist team athletic training and medical staff in developing programs to optimize player performance.
Project description:Thromboembolism frequently occurs during acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) therapy. We prospectively registered thromboembolic events during the treatment of 1772 consecutive Nordic/Baltic patients with ALL aged 1 to 45 years who were treated according to the Nordic Society of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology ALL2008 protocol (July 2008-April 2017). The 2.5-year cumulative incidence of thromboembolism (N = 137) was 7.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.6-9.1); it was higher in patients aged at least 10 years (P < .0001). Adjusted hazard ratios (HRas) were associated with greater age (range, 10.0-17.9 years: HRa, 4.9 [95% CI, 3.1-7.8; P < .0001]; 18.0-45.9 years: HRa, 6.06 [95% CI, 3.65-10.1; P < .0001]) and mediastinal mass at ALL diagnosis (HRa, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.0-4.3; P = .04). In a multiple absolute risk regression model addressing 3 thromboembolism risk factors, age at least 10 years had the largest absolute risk ratio (RRage, 4.7 [95% CI, 3.1-7.1]; RRenlarged lymph nodes, 2.0 [95% CI, 1.2-3.1]; RRmediastinal mass, 1.6 [95% CI, 1.0-2.6]). Patients aged 18.0 to 45.9 years had an increased hazard of pulmonary embolism (HRa, 11.6; 95% CI, 4.02-33.7; P < .0001), and patients aged 10.0 to 17.9 years had an increased hazard of cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (HRa, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.5-7.3; P = .003) compared with children younger than 10.0 years. Asparaginase was truncated in 38/128 patients with thromboembolism, whereas thromboembolism diagnosis was unassociated with increased hazard of relapse (P = .6). Five deaths were attributable to thromboembolism, and patients younger than 18.0 years with thromboembolism had increased hazard of dying compared with same-aged patients without thromboembolism (both P ? .01). In conclusion, patients aged at least 10 years could be candidates for preemptive antithrombotic prophylaxis. However, the predictive value of age 10 years or older, enlarged lymph nodes, and mediastinal mass remain to be validated in another cohort.
Project description:Background and purpose - The Mitch proximal epiphyseal replacement (PER) was developed to preserve proximal femoral bone and minimize femoral neck fracture associated with hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA). We studied the survival and risk of revision of HRA compared with cementless metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) total hip arthroplasty (THA) and the survival and risk of revision of the Mitch PER compared with MoP THA.Patients and methods - Using propensity score, we matched 1,057 HRA to 1,057 MoP THA and 202 Mitch PER to 1,010 MoP THA from the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register. To estimate the relative risk (RR) of revision, we used regression with the pseudo-value approach and treated death as a competing risk.Results - The cumulative incidence for any revision of HRA at 10 years' follow-up was 11% (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.1-13) and 6.4% (CI 5.8-7.0) for MoP THA. The RR of any revision was 1.5 (CI 1.1-2.1) for HRA at 10 years' follow-up. By excluding the ASR components, the RR of revision at 10 years was 1.2 (CI 0.8-1.7). The cumulative incidence of revision was 9.6% (CI 4.2-18) for Mitch PER and 5.4% (CI 5.1-5.7) for MoP THA at 8 years. The RR of revision was 2.0 (CI 0.9-4.3) for Mitch PER at 8 years' follow-up.Interpretation - The HRA had increased risk of revision compared with the MoP THA. When excluding ASR, the HRA group had similar risk of revision compared with MoP THA. The Mitch PER did not have a statistically significant increased risk of revision compared with MoP THA.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Low testosterone level may be a reversible risk factor for functional disability and deterioration in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We sought to systematically assess the endogenous testosterone levels and effect of testosterone therapy on exercise capacity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes in COPD patients, as well as to inform guidelines and practice.<h4>Design</h4>Systematic review and meta-analysis.<h4>Data sources</h4>We searched PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Health Source Nursing and PsychINFO and the reference lists of retrieved articles published before May 2012.<h4>Inclusion criteria</h4>Observational studies on endogenous testosterone levels in people with chronic lung disease compared with controls, or randomised controlled trials (RCTs) on testosterone therapy for exercise capacity and/or HRQoL outcomes in COPD patients were eligible.<h4>Data extraction and analysis</h4>Data on the mean difference in endogenous total testosterone (TT) values, and the mean difference in exercise capacity and HRQoL values were extracted and pooled using random effects meta-analysis.<h4>Results</h4>Nine observational studies in 2918 men with COPD reported consistently lower levels of TT compared with controls (weighted mean difference was -3.21 nmol/L (95% CI -5.18 to -1.23)). Six RCTs in 287 participants yielded five studies on peak muscle strength and peak cardiorespiratory fitness outcomes (peak oxygen uptake (VO2) and workload) and three studies on HRQoL outcomes. Testosterone therapies significantly improved peak muscle strength (standardised mean difference (SMD) was 0.31 (95% CI 0.05 to 0.56)) and peak workload (SMD was 0.27 (95% CI 0.01 to 0.52)) compared with control conditions (all but one used placebo), but not peak VO2 (SMD was 0.21 (95% CI -0.15 to 0.56)) or HRQoL (SMD was -0.03 (95% CI -0.32 to 0.25)).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Men with COPD have clinically relevant lower than normal TT levels. Insufficient evidence from short-term studies in predominately male COPD patients suggests that testosterone therapy improves exercise capacity outcomes, namely peak muscle strength and peak workload.