Characterization of mice lacking the tetraspanin superfamily member CD151.
ABSTRACT: The tetraspanin membrane protein CD151 is a broadly expressed molecule noted for its strong molecular associations with integrins, especially alpha3beta1, alpha6beta1, alpha7beta1, and alpha6beta4. In vitro functional studies have pointed to a role for CD151 in cell-cell adhesion, cell migration, platelet aggregation, and angiogenesis. It has also been implicated in epithelial tumor progression and metastasis. Here we describe the generation and initial characterization of CD151-null mice. The mice are viable, healthy, and fertile and show normal Mendelian inheritance. They have essentially normal blood and bone marrow cell counts and grossly normal tissue morphology, including hemidesmosomes in skin, and expression of alpha3 and alpha6 integrins. However, the CD151-null mice do show phenotypes in several different tissue types. An absence of CD151 leads to a minor abnormality in hemostasis, with CD151-null mice showing longer average bleeding times, greater average blood loss, and an increased incidence of rebleeding occurrences. CD151-null keratinocytes migrate poorly in skin explant cultures. Finally, CD151-null T lymphocytes are hyperproliferative in response to in vitro mitogenic stimulation.
Project description:The tetraspans are molecules with four transmembrane domains which are engaged in multimolecular complexes (the tetraspan web) containing a subset of beta1 integrins (in particular alpha3beta1, alpha4beta1 and alpha6beta1), MHC antigens and several unidentified molecules. The molecules associated with tetraspans are readily detected after immunoprecipitation performed in mild detergents such as Brij 97 or CHAPS. In this study we show that another classical mild detergent, digitonin, dissociated most of these associated molecules, including integrins, from the tetraspans CD9, CD37, CD53, CD63, CD82, Co-029, Talla-1 and NAG-2. In contrast, reciprocal immunoprecipitations from various cell lines demonstrated that two other tetraspans, CD81 and CD151, formed complexes with integrins not disrupted by digitonin. These complexes were CD81/alpha4beta1, CD151/alpha3beta1 and CD151/alpha6beta1. Furthermore, a new anti-CD151 monoclonal antibody (mAb), TS151r, was shown to have a restricted pattern of expression, inversely related to the sum of the levels of expression of alpha6beta1 and alpha3beta1. This mAb was unable to co-precipitate integrins in digitonin, suggesting that its epitope is blocked by the association with integrins. Indeed, the binding of TS151r to the cell surface was quantitatively diminished following alpha3beta1 overexpression. Altogether, these data suggest that, among tetraspans, CD81 interacts directly with the integrin alpha4beta1, and CD151 interacts directly with integrins alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta1. Because all tetraspan-tetraspan associations are disrupted by digitonin, it is likely that the other tetraspans interact indirectly with integrins, through interactions with CD81 or CD151.
Project description:The basement membrane protein laminin-5 supports tumor cell adhesion and motility and is implicated at multiple steps of the metastatic cascade. Tetraspanin CD151 engages in lateral, cell surface complexes with both of the major laminin-5 receptors, integrins alpha3beta1 and alpha6beta4. To determine the role of CD151 in tumor cell responses to laminin-5, we used retroviral RNA interference to efficiently silence CD151 expression in epidermal carcinoma cells. Near total loss of CD151 had no effect on steady state cell surface expression of alpha3beta1, alpha6beta4, or other integrins with which CD151 associates. However, CD151-silenced carcinoma cells displayed markedly impaired motility on laminin-5, accompanied by unusually persistent lateral and trailing edge adhesive contacts. CD151 silencing disrupted alpha3beta1 integrin association with tetraspanin-enriched microdomains, reduced the bulk detergent extractability of alpha3beta1, and impaired alpha3beta1 internalization in cells migrating on laminin-5. Both alpha3beta1- and alpha6beta4-dependent cell adhesion to laminin-5 were also impaired in CD151-silenced cells. Reexpressing CD151 in CD151-silenced cells reversed the adhesion and motility defects. Finally, loss of CD151 also impaired migration but not adhesion on substrates other than laminin-5. These data show that CD151 plays a critical role in tumor cell responses to laminin-5 and reveal promotion of integrin recycling as a novel potential mechanism whereby CD151 regulates tumor cell migration.
Project description:The tetraspanin CD151 molecule associates specifically with laminin-binding integrins, including alpha6beta1. To probe strength of alpha6beta1-dependent adhesion to laminin-1, defined forces (0-1.5 nN) were applied to magnetic laminin-coated microbeads bound to NIH 3T3 cells. For NIH 3T3 cells bearing wild-type CD151, adhesion strengthening was observed, as bead detachment became more difficult over time. In contrast, mutant CD151 (with the C-terminal region replaced) showed impaired adhesion strengthening. Static cell adhesion to laminin-1, and detachment of beads coated with fibronectin or anti-alpha6 antibody were all unaffected by CD151 mutation. Hence, CD151 plays a key role in selectively strengthening alpha6beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion to laminin-1.
Project description:Resistance to anti-ErbB2 agents is a significant problem in the treatment of human ErbB2+ breast cancers. We show here that adhesion of human ErbB2+ breast cancer cells to basement membrane laminin-5 provides substantial resistance to trastuzumab and lapatinib, agents that respectively target the extracellular and kinase domains of ErbB2. Knockdown of laminin-binding integrins (alpha6beta4, alpha3beta1) or associated tetraspanin protein CD151 reversed laminin-5 resistance and sensitized ErbB2+ cells to trastuzumab and lapatinib. CD151 knockdown, together with trastuzumab treatment, inhibited ErbB2 activation and downstream signaling through Akt, Erk1/2, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Hence, ErbB2 function in mammary tumor cells is promoted by integrin-mediated adhesion to laminin-5, with strong support by CD151, leading to signaling through FAK. Consequently, removal or inhibition of any of these components (laminin-5, integrin, CD151, FAK) markedly sensitizes cells to anti-ErbB2 agents. These new insights should be useful when devising strategies for overcoming drug resistance in ErbB2+ cancers.
Project description:The tetraspanin CD151 is a cell-surface molecule known for its strong lateral interaction with the laminin-binding integrin alpha3beta1. Patients with a nonsense mutation in CD151 display end-stage kidney failure associated with regional skin blistering and sensorineural deafness, and mice lacking the integrin alpha3 subunit die neonatally because of severe abnormalities in the lung and kidney epithelia. We report the generation of Cd151-null mice that recapitulate the renal pathology of human patients, i.e., with age they develop massive proteinuria caused by focal glomerulosclerosis, disorganization of the glomerular basement membrane, and tubular cystic dilation. However, neither skin integrity nor hearing ability are impaired in the Cd151-null mice. Furthermore, we generated podocyte-specific conditional knockout mice for the integrin alpha3 subunit that show renal defects similar to those in the Cd151 knockout mice. Our results support the hypothesis that CD151 plays a key role in strengthening alpha3beta1-mediated adhesion in podocytes.
Project description:Tetraspanin protein CD151 is abundant on endothelial cells. To determine whether CD151 affects angiogenesis, Cd151-null mice were prepared. Cd151-null mice showed no vascular defects during normal development or during neonatal oxygen-induced retinopathy. However, Cd151-null mice showed impaired pathologic angiogenesis in other in vivo assays (Matrigel plug, corneal micropocket, tumor implantation) and in the ex vivo aortic ring assay. Cd151-null mouse lung endothelial cells (MLECs) showed normal adhesion and proliferation, but marked alterations in vitro, in assays relevant to angiogenesis (migration, spreading, invasion, Matrigel contraction, tube and cable formation, spheroid sprouting). Consistent with these functional impairments, and with the close, preferential association of CD151 with laminin-binding integrins, Cd151-null MLECs also showed selective signaling defects, particularly on laminin substrate. Adhesion-dependent activation of PKB/c-Akt, e-NOS, Rac, and Cdc42 was diminished, but Raf, ERK, p38 MAP kinase, FAK, and Src were unaltered. In Cd151-null MLECs, connections were disrupted between laminin-binding integrins and at least 5 other proteins. In conclusion, CD151 modulates molecular organization of laminin-binding integrins, thereby supporting secondary (ie, after cell adhesion) functions of endothelial cells, which are needed for some types of pathologic angiogenesis in vivo. Selective effects of CD151 on pathologic angiogenesis make it a potentially useful target for anticancer therapy.
Project description:Laminins are major cell-adhesive proteins in basement membranes that are capable of binding to integrins. Laminins consist of three chains (alpha, beta, and gamma), in which three laminin globular modules in the alpha chain and the Glu residue in the C-terminal tail of the gamma chain have been shown to be prerequisites for binding to integrins. However, it remains unknown whether any part of the beta chain is involved in laminin-integrin interactions. We compared the binding affinities of pairs of laminin isoforms containing the beta1 or beta2 chain toward a panel of laminin-binding integrins, and we found that beta2 chain-containing laminins (beta2-laminins) bound more avidly to alpha3beta1 and alpha7X2beta1 integrins than beta1 chain-containing laminins (beta1-laminins), whereas alpha6beta1, alpha6beta4, and alpha7X1beta1 integrins did not show any preference toward beta2-laminins. Because alpha3beta1 contains the "X2-type" variable region in the alpha3 subunit and alpha6beta1 and alpha6beta4 contain the "X1-type" region in the alpha6 subunit, we hypothesized that only integrins containing the X2-type region were capable of discriminating between beta1-laminins and beta2-laminins. In support of this possibility, a putative X2-type variant of alpha6beta1 was produced and found to bind preferentially to beta2-laminins. Production of a series of swap mutants between the beta1 and beta2 chains revealed that the C-terminal 20 amino acids in the coiled-coil domain were responsible for the enhanced integrin binding by beta2-laminins. Taken together, the results provide evidence that the C-terminal region of beta chains is involved in laminin recognition by integrins and modulates the binding affinities of laminins toward X2-type integrins.
Project description:CD151, one of the tetraspanins, forms a stable complex with integrin alpha3beta1, the major laminin receptor on the cell surface. We found that 8C3, an anti-CD151 mAb obtained by screening for reactivity with integrin alpha3beta1-CD151 complexes, was capable of dissociating CD151 from integrin alpha3beta1, thereby allowing us to deplete CD151 from purified integrin alpha3beta1-CD151 complexes. The CD151-free integrin alpha3beta1 thus obtained showed a significant reduction in its ability to bind to laminin-10/11, a high-affinity ligand for integrin alpha3beta1, with a concomitant reduction in its reactivity with mAb AG89, which recognizes activated beta1-containing integrins. These results raised the possibility that the association of integrin alpha3beta1 with CD151 potentiates the ligand-binding activity of the integrin through sustaining its activated conformation. In support of this possibility, the ligand-binding activity was restored when CD151-free integrin alpha3beta1 was reassociated with purified CD151. 8C3-induced dissociation of CD151 from integrin alpha3beta1 was also demonstrated on the surface of living cells by fluorescent resonance energy transfer imaging, accompanied by a concomitant reduction in the cell adhesion to laminin-10/11-coated substrates. CD151 knock-down by RNA interference also resulted in a reduction in the adhesive activity of the cells. Taken together, these results indicate that CD151 association modulates the ligand-binding activity of integrin alpha3beta1 through stabilizing its activated conformation not only with purified proteins but also in a physiological context.
Project description:Upon plating on basement membrane Matrigel, NIH3T3 cells formed an anastomosing network of cord-like structures, inhibitable by anti-alpha6beta1 integrin antibodies. For NIH3T3 cells transfected with human CD151 protein, the formation of a cord-like network was also inhibitable by anti-CD151 antibodies. Furthermore, CD151 and alpha6beta1 were physically associated within NIH3T3 cells. On removal of the short 8-amino acid C-terminal CD151 tail (by deletion or exchange), exogenous CD151 exerted a dominant negative effect, as it almost completely suppressed alpha6beta1-dependent cell network formation and NIH3T3 cell spreading on laminin-1 (an alpha6beta1 ligand). Importantly, mutant CD151 retained alpha6beta1 association and did not alter alpha6beta1-mediated cell adhesion to Matrigel. In conclusion, the CD151-alpha6beta1 integrin complex acts as a functional unit that markedly influences cellular morphogenesis, with the CD151 tail being of particular importance in determining the "outside-in" functions of alpha6beta1-integrin that follow ligand engagement. Also, antibodies to alpha6beta1 and CD151 inhibited formation of endothelial cell cord-like networks, thus pointing to possible relevance of CD151-alpha6beta1 complexes during angiogenesis.
Project description:Tetraspanin CD151 is associated with laminin-binding integrins and controls tumor cell migration and invasion. By analyzing responses of breast cancer cells to various growth factors, we showed that depletion of CD151 specifically attenuates transforming growth factor beta1 (TGFbeta1)-induced scattering and proliferation of breast cancer cells in three-dimensional Matrigel. CD151-dependent cell scattering requires its association with either alpha3beta1 or alpha6 integrins, but it is independent of the recruitment of CD151 to tetraspanin-enriched microdomains. We also found that CD151 regulates the compartmentalization of TGF-beta type I receptor (TbetaRI/ALK-5) and specifically controls the TGFbeta1-induced activation of p38. In contrast, signaling leading to activation of Smad2/3, c-Akt, and Erk1/2 proteins was comparable in CD151(+) and CD151(-) cells. Attenuation of TGFbeta1-induced responses correlated with reduced retention in the lung vascular bed, inhibition of pneumocyte-induced scattering of breast cancer cells in three-dimensional Matrigel, and decrease in experimental metastasis to the lungs. These results identify CD151 as a positive regulator of TGFbeta1-initiated signaling and highlight the important role played by this tetraspanin in TGFbeta1-induced breast cancer metastasis.