Detection of outer membrane vesicles in Synechocystis PCC 6803.
ABSTRACT: It has been well established that many species of Gram-negative bacteria release nanoscale outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) during normal growth. Furthermore, the roles of these structures in heterotrophic bacteria have been extensively characterized. However, little is known about the existence or function of OMVs in photoautotrophs. In the present study, we report for the first time the production of OMVs by the model photosynthetic organism Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, a species of biotechnological importance. We detected extracellular proteins and lipids in cell-free supernatants derived from Synechocystis culture, yet the cytoplasmic and thylakoid membrane markers NADH oxidase and chlorophyll were absent. This indicated that the extracellular proteins and lipids derived from the outer membrane, and not from cell lysis. Furthermore, we identified spherical structures within the expected size range of OMVs in Synechocystis culture using scanning electron microscopy. Taken together, these results suggest that the repertoire of Gram-negative bacteria that are known to produce OMVs may be expanded to include Synechocystis PCC6803. Because of the considerable genetic characterization of Synechocystis in particular, our discovery has the potential to support novel biotechnological applications as well.
Project description:Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), produced by nonpathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, have potentially useful biotechnological applications in extraterrestrial extreme environments. However, their biological effects under the impact of various stressors have to be elucidated for safety reasons. In the spaceflight experiment, model biofilm kombucha microbial community (KMC) samples, in which Komagataeibacter intermedius was a dominant community-member, were exposed under simulated Martian factors (i.e., pressure, atmosphere, and UV-illumination) outside the International Space Station (ISS) for 1.5 years. In this study, we have determined that OMVs from post-flight K. intermedius displayed changes in membrane composition, depending on the location of the samples and some other factors. Membrane lipids such as sterols, fatty acids (FAs), and phospholipids (PLs) were modulated under the Mars-like stressors, and saturated FAs, as well as both short-chain saturated and trans FAs, appeared in the membranes of OMVs shed by both post-UV-illuminated and "dark" bacteria. The relative content of zwitterionic and anionic PLs changed, producing a change in surface properties of outer membranes, thereby resulting in a loss of interaction capability with polynucleotides. The changed composition of membranes promoted a bigger OMV size, which correlated with changes of OMV fitness. Biochemical characterization of the membrane-associated enzymes revealed an increase in their activity (DNAse, dehydrogenase) compared to wild type. Other functional membrane-associated capabilities of OMVs (e.g., proton accumulation, interaction with linear DNA, or synaptosomes) were also altered after exposure to the spaceflight stressors. Despite alterations in membranes, vesicles did not acquire endotoxicity, cytotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. Altogether, our results show that OMVs, originating from rationally selected nonpathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, can be considered as candidates in the design of postbiotics or edible mucosal vaccines for in situ production in extreme environment. Furthermore, these OMVs could also be used as promising delivery vectors for applications in Astromedicine.
Project description:Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of gram-negative bacteria are released during all growth phases and play an important role in bacterial physiology. They consist of lipids, proteins, lipopolysaccharides and other molecules. The OMVs of the Antarctic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae Lz 4W were isolated and identified their proteins. The mass spectral data set deposited with PRIDE, accession number PXD 000221 is presented in this report. The proteins identified from the OMVs of P. syringae Lz4W, data of this study were published in the Journal of proteome research .
Project description:Infection of various pathogenic bacteria causes severe illness to human beings. Despite the research advances, current identification tools still exhibit limitations in detecting Gram-negative bacteria with high accuracy. In this study, we isolated single-stranded DNA aptamers against multiple Gram-negative bacterial species using Toggle-cell-SELEX (systemic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) and constructed an aptamer-based detection tool towards bacterial secretory cargo released from outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria. Three Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli DH5α, E. coli K12, and Serratia marcescens, were sequentially incubated with the pool of random DNA sequences at each SELEX loop. Two aptamers selected, GN6 and GN12, were 4.2-times and 3.6-times higher binding to 108 cells of Gram-negative bacteria than to Gram-positive bacteria tested, respectively. Using GN6 aptamer, we constructed an Enzyme-linked aptamer assay (ELAA) to detect bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of Gram-negative bacteria, which contain several outer membrane proteins with potent immunostimulatory effects. The GN6-ELAA showed high sensitivity to detect as low as 25 ng/mL bacterial OMVs. Aptamers developed in this study show a great potential to facilitate medical diagnosis and early detection of bacterial terrorism, based on the ability to detect bacterial OMVs of multiple Gram-negative bacteria.
Project description:Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are nanoparticles secreted by Gram-negative bacteria that can be used for diverse biotechnological applications. Interesting applications have been developed, where OMVs are the basis of drug delivery, enzyme carriers, adjuvants, and vaccines. Historically, OMV research has mainly focused on vaccines. Therefore, current OMV production processes have been based on batch processes. The production of OMVs in batch mode is characterized by relatively low yields and high costs. Transition of OMV production processes from batch to continuous processes could increase the volumetric productivity, reduce the production and capital costs, and result in a higher quality product. Here, we study the continuous production of Neisseria meningitidis OMVs to improve volumetric productivity. Continuous cultivation of N. meningitidis resulted in a steady state with similar high OMV concentrations as are reached in current batch processes. The steady state was reproducible and could be maintained for at least 600 h. The volumetric productivity of a continuous culture reached 4.0 × 1014 OMVs per liter culture per day, based on a dilution rate of 1/day. The tested characteristics of the OMVs did not change during the experiments showing feasibility of a continuous production process for the production of OMVs for any application.
Project description:The bacterial outer membrane (OM) is a barrier containing membrane proteins and liposaccharides that fulfill crucial functions for Gram-negative bacteria. With the advent of drug-resistant bacteria, it is necessary to understand the functional role of this membrane and its constituents to enable novel drug designs. Here we report a simple method to form an OM-like supported bilayer (OM-SB), which incorporates native lipids and membrane proteins of gram-negative bacteria from outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). We characterize the formation of OM-SBs using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and fluorescence microscopy. We show that the orientation of proteins in the OM-SB matches the native bacterial membrane, preserving the characteristic asymmetry of these membranes. As a demonstration of the utility of the OM-SB platform, we quantitatively measure antibiotic interactions between OM-SBs and polymyxin B, a cationic peptide used to treat Gram-negative infections. This data enriches understanding of the antibacterial mechanism of polymyxin B, including disruption kinetics and changes in membrane mechanical properties. Combining OM-SBs with microfluidics will enable higher throughput screening of antibiotics. With a broader view, we envision that a molecularly complete membrane-scaffold could be useful for cell-free applications employing engineered membrane proteins in bacterial membranes for myriad technological purposes.
Project description:Sensing of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the cytosol triggers caspase-11 activation and is central to host defense against Gram-negative bacterial infections and to the pathogenesis of sepsis. Most Gram-negative bacteria that activate caspase-11, however, are not cytosolic, and the mechanism by which LPS from these bacteria gains access to caspase-11 in the cytosol remains elusive. Here, we identify outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) produced by Gram-negative bacteria as a vehicle that delivers LPS into the cytosol triggering caspase-11-dependent effector responses in vitro and in vivo. OMVs are internalized via endocytosis, and LPS is released into the cytosol from early endosomes. The use of hypovesiculating bacterial mutants, compromised in their ability to generate OMVs, reveals the importance of OMVs in mediating the cytosolic localization of LPS. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a critical role for OMVs in enabling the cytosolic entry of LPS and, consequently, caspase-11 activation during Gram-negative bacterial infections.
Project description:Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMVs) are bacterial nanoparticles that are spontaneously released during growth both in vitro and in vivo by Gram-negative bacteria. They are spherical, bilayered membrane nanostructures that contain many components found within the external surface of the parent bacterium. Naturally, OMVs serve the bacteria as a mechanism to deliver DNA, RNA, proteins, and toxins, as well as to promote biofilm formation and remodel the outer membrane during growth. On the other hand, as OMVs possess the optimal size to be uptaken by immune cells, and present a range of surface-exposed antigens in native conformation and Toll-like receptor (TLR) activating components, they represent an attractive and powerful vaccine platform able to induce both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. This work reviews the TLR-agonists expressed on OMVs and their capability to trigger individual TLRs expressed on different cell types of the immune system, and then focuses on their impact on the immune responses elicited by OMVs compared to traditional vaccines.
Project description:Multi-drug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria is often associated with low permeability of the outer membrane. To investigate the role of membrane channels in the uptake of antibiotics, we present an approach using fusion of native outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) into a planar lipid bilayer, allowing characterization of membrane protein channels in their native environment. Two major membrane channels from E. coli, OmpF and OmpC, were overexpressed from the host and the corresponding OMVs were collected. Each OMV fusion surprisingly revealed only single or few channel activities. The asymmetry of the OMVs translates after fusion into the lipid membrane with the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) dominantly present at the side of OMV addition. Compared to the conventional reconstitution method, the channels fused from OMVs containing LPS have similar conductance but a much broader distribution and significantly lower permeation. We suggest using outer membrane vesicles for functional and structural studies of membrane channels in the native membrane.
Project description:Gram-negative bacteria naturally produce and secrete nanosized outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). In the human gastrointestinal tract, OMVs produced by commensal Gram-negative bacteria can mediate interactions amongst host cells (including between epithelial cells and immune cells) and maintain microbial homeostasis. This OMV-mediated pathway for host-microbe interactions could be exploited to deliver biologically active proteins to the body. To test this we engineered the Gram-negative bacterium Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (Bt), a prominent member of the intestinal microbiota of all animals, to incorporate bacteria-, virus- and human-derived proteins into its OMVs. We then used the engineered Bt OMVs to deliver these proteins to the respiratory and gastrointestinal (GI)-tract to protect against infection, tissue inflammation and injury. Our findings demonstrate the ability to express and package both Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium-derived vaccine antigens and influenza A virus (IAV)-derived vaccine antigens within or on the outer membrane of Bt OMVs. These antigens were in a form capable of eliciting antigen-specific immune and antibody responses in both mucosal tissues and systemically. Furthermore, immunisation with OMVs containing the core stalk region of the IAV H5 hemagglutinin from an H5N1 strain induced heterotypic protection in mice to a 10-fold lethal dose of an unrelated subtype (H1N1) of IAV. We also showed that OMVs could express the human therapeutic protein, keratinocyte growth factor-2 (KGF-2), in a stable form that, when delivered orally, reduced disease severity and promoted intestinal epithelial repair and recovery in animals administered colitis-inducing dextran sodium sulfate. Collectively, our data demonstrates the utility and effectiveness of using Bt OMVs as a mucosal biologics and drug delivery platform technology.
Project description:Gram-negative bacteria have an outer membrane inhibiting the entry of antibiotics. Porins, found within the outer membrane, are involved in regulating the permeability of ?-lactam antibiotics. ?-lactamases are enzymes that are able to inactivate the antibacterial properties of ?-lactam antibiotics. Interestingly, porins and ?-lactamase are found in outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of ?-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli and may be involved in the survival of susceptible strains of E. coli in the presence of antibiotics, through the hydrolysis of the ?-lactam antibiotic. In this study, OMVs isolated from ?-lactam-resistant E. coli and from mutants, lacking porin or ?-lactamase, were evaluated to establish if the porins or ?-lactamase in OMVs were involved in the degradation of ?-lactam antibiotics. OMVs isolated from E. coli deficient in ?-lactamase did not show any degradation ability against ?-lactam antibiotics, while OMVs lacking OmpC or OmpF showed significantly lower levels of hydrolyzing activity than OMVs from parent E. coli. These data reveal an important role of OMVs in bacterial defense mechanisms demonstrating that the OmpC and OmpF proteins allow permeation of ?-lactam antibiotics into the lumen of OMVs, and antibiotics that enter the OMVs can be degraded by ?-lactamase.