Validation of a hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha specimen collection procedure and quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in solid tumor tissues.
ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1?) is an important marker of hypoxia in human tumors and has been implicated in tumor progression. Drugs targeting HIF-1? are being developed, but the ability to measure drug-induced changes in HIF-1? is limited by the lability of the protein in normoxia. Our goal was to devise methods for specimen collection and processing that preserve HIF-1? in solid tumor tissues and to develop and validate a two-site chemiluminescent quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for HIF-1?. We tested various strategies for HIF-1? stabilization in solid tumors, including nitrogen gas-purged lysis buffer, the addition of proteasome inhibitors or the prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor 2-hydroxyglutarate, and bead homogenization. Degassing and the addition of 2-hydroxyglutarate to the collection buffer significantly increased HIF-1? recovery, whereas bead homogenization in sealed tubes improved HIF-1? recovery and reduced sample variability. Validation of the ELISA demonstrated intra- and inter-assay variability of less than 15% and accuracy of 99.8±8.3% as assessed by spike recovery. Inter-laboratory reproducibility was also demonstrated (R(2)=0.999). Careful sample handling techniques allow us to quantitatively detect HIF-1? in samples as small as 2.5?g of total protein extract, and this method is currently being applied to analyze tumor biopsy specimens in early-phase clinical trials.
Project description:d-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG) is produced in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and is quickly converted to α-ketoglutarate by d-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (D2HGDH). In a mouse model of colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC), urine level of D2HG during colitis correlates positively with subsequent polyp counts and severity of dysplasia. The i.p. injection of D2HG results in delayed recovery from colitis and severe tumorigenesis. The colonic expression of D2HGDH is decreased in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients at baseline who progress to cancer. Hypoxia-inducible factor (Hif)-1α is a key regulator of D2HGDH transcription. Our study identifies urine D2HG and tissue D2HGDH expression as biomarkers to identify patients at risk for progressing from colitis to cancer. The D2HG/D2HGDH pathway provides potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of CAC.
Project description:R-2-hydroxyglutarate accumulates to millimolar levels in cancer cells with gain-of-function isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 mutations. These levels of R-2-hydroxyglutarate affect 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases. Both metabolite enantiomers, R- and S-2-hydroxyglutarate, are detectible in healthy individuals, yet their physiological function remains elusive. Here we show that 2-hydroxyglutarate accumulates in mouse CD8+ T cells in response to T-cell receptor triggering, and accumulates to millimolar levels in physiological oxygen conditions through a hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1?)-dependent mechanism. S-2-hydroxyglutarate predominates over R-2-hydroxyglutarate in activated T cells, and we demonstrate alterations in markers of CD8+ T-cell differentiation in response to this metabolite. Modulation of histone and DNA demethylation, as well as HIF-1? stability, mediate these effects. S-2-hydroxyglutarate treatment greatly enhances the in vivo proliferation, persistence and anti-tumour capacity of adoptively transferred CD8+ T cells. Thus, S-2-hydroxyglutarate acts as an immunometabolite that links environmental context, through a metabolic-epigenetic axis, to immune fate and function.
Project description:2-Hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) is an important epigenetic regulator, with potential roles in cancer and stem cell biology. The d-(R)-enantiomer (d-2-HG) is an oncometabolite generated from ?-ketoglutarate (?-KG) by mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase, whereas l-(S)-2-HG is generated by lactate dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase in response to hypoxia. Because acidic pH is a common feature of hypoxia, as well as tumor and stem cell microenvironments, we hypothesized that pH may regulate cellular 2-HG levels. Herein we report that cytosolic acidification under normoxia moderately elevated 2-HG in cells, and boosting endogenous substrate ?-KG levels further stimulated this elevation. Studies with isolated lactate dehydrogenase-1 and malate dehydrogenase-2 revealed that generation of 2-HG by both enzymes was stimulated severalfold at acidic pH, relative to normal physiologic pH. In addition, acidic pH was found to inhibit the activity of the mitochondrial l-2-HG removal enzyme l-2-HG dehydrogenase and to stimulate the reverse reaction of isocitrate dehydrogenase (carboxylation of ?-KG to isocitrate). Furthermore, because acidic pH is known to stabilize hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and 2-HG is a known inhibitor of HIF prolyl hydroxylases, we hypothesized that 2-HG may be required for acid-induced HIF stabilization. Accordingly, cells stably overexpressing l-2-HG dehydrogenase exhibited a blunted HIF response to acid. Together, these results suggest that acidosis is an important and previously overlooked regulator of 2-HG accumulation and other oncometabolic events, with implications for HIF signaling.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Aortic dissection is a severe inflammatory vascular disease with high mortality and limited therapeutic options. The hallmarks of aortic dissection comprise aortic inflammatory cell infiltration and elastic fiber disruption, highlighting the involvement of macrophage. Here a role for macrophage hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1?) in aortic dissection was uncovered. METHODS:Immunochemistry, immunofluorescence, western blot and qPCR were performed to test the change of macrophage HIF-1? in two kinds of aortic dissection models and human tissues. Metabolomics and Seahorse extracellular flux analysis were used to detect the metabolic state of macrophages involved in the development of aortic dissection. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and cytometric bead array (CBA) were employed for mechanistic studies. FINDINGS:Macrophages involved underwent distinct metabolic reprogramming, especially fumarate accumulation, thus inducing HIF-1? activation in the development of aortic dissection in human and mouse models. Mechanistic studies revealed that macrophage HIF-1? activation triggered vascular inflammation, extracellular matrix degradation and elastic plate breakage through increased a disintegrin and metallopeptidase domain 17 (ADAM17), identified as a novel target gene of HIF-1?. A HIF-1? specific inhibitor acriflavine elicited protective effects on aortic dissection dependent on macrophage HIF-1?. INTERPRETATION:This study reveals that macrophage metabolic reprogramming activates HIF-1? and subsequently promotes aortic dissection progression, suggesting that macrophage HIF-1? inhibition might be a potential therapeutic target for treating aortic dissection.
Project description:Oxygen sensing is central to metazoan biology and has implications for human disease. Mammalian cells express multiple oxygen-dependent enzymes called 2-oxoglutarate (OG)-dependent dioxygenases (2-OGDDs), but they vary in their oxygen affinities and hence their ability to sense oxygen. The 2-OGDD histone demethylases control histone methylation. Hypoxia increases histone methylation, but whether this reflects direct effects on histone demethylases or indirect effects caused by the hypoxic induction of the HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor) transcription factor or the 2-OG antagonist 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) is unclear. Here, we report that hypoxia promotes histone methylation in a HIF- and 2-HG-independent manner. We found that the H3K27 histone demethylase KDM6A/UTX, but not its paralog KDM6B, is oxygen sensitive. KDM6A loss, like hypoxia, prevented H3K27 demethylation and blocked cellular differentiation. Restoring H3K27 methylation homeostasis in hypoxic cells reversed these effects. Thus, oxygen directly affects chromatin regulators to control cell fate.
Project description:The downstream targets of hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1?) play an important role in tumor progression and angiogenesis. Therefore, inhibition of HIF-mediated transcription has potential in the treatment of cancer. One attractive strategy for inhibiting HIF activity is the disruption of the HIF-1?/p300 complex, as p300 is a crucial coactivator of hypoxia-inducible transcription. Several members of the epidithiodiketopiperazine (ETP) family of natural products have been shown to disrupt the HIF-1?/p300 complex in vitro; namely, gliotoxin, chaetocin, and chetomin. Here, we further characterized the molecular mechanisms underlying the antiangiogenic and antitumor effects of these ETPs using a preclinical model of prostate cancer. In the rat aortic ring angiogenesis assay, gliotoxin, chaetocin, and chetomin significantly inhibited microvessel outgrowth at a GI50 of 151, 8, and 20 nM, respectively. In vitro co-immunoprecipitation studies in prostate cancer cell extracts demonstrated that these compounds disrupted the HIF-1?/p300 complex. The downstream effects of inhibiting the HIF-1?/p300 interaction were evaluated by determining HIF-1? target gene expression at the mRNA and protein levels. Dose-dependent decreases in levels of secreted VEGF were detected by ELISA in the culture media of treated cells, and the subsequent downregulation of VEGFA, LDHA, and ENO1 HIF-1? target genes were confirmed by semi-quantitative real-time PCR. Finally, treatment with ETPs in mice bearing prostate tumor xenografts resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth. These results suggest that directly targeting the HIF-1?/p300 complex with ETPs may be an effective approach for inhibiting angiogenesis and tumor growth.
Project description:Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are transcription factors that activate expression of multiple gene products and promote tumor adaptation to a hypoxic environment. To become transcriptionally active, HIFs associate with cofactors p300 or CBP. Previously, we found that arylsulfonamides can antagonize HIF transcription in a bioassay, block the p300/HIF-1? interaction, and exert potent anticancer activity in several animal models. In the present work, KCN1-bead affinity pull down, (14)C-labeled KCN1 binding, and KCN1-surface plasmon resonance measurements provide initial support for a mechanism in which KCN1 can bind to the CH1 domain of p300 and likely prevent the p300/HIF-1? assembly. Using a previously reported NMR structure of the p300/HIF-1? complex, we have identified potential binding sites in the p300-CH1 domain. A two-site binding model coupled with IC50 values has allowed establishment of a modest ROC-based enrichment and creation of a guide for future analogue synthesis.
Project description:Tumor hypoxia and the hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) play a central role in the development of cancer. To study the relationship between tumor growth, tumor hypoxia, the stabilization of HIF-1alpha, and HIF transcriptional activity, we have established an in vivo imaging tool that allows longitudinal and noninvasive monitoring of these processes in a mouse C51 allograft tumor model. We used positron emission tomography (PET) with the hypoxia-sensitive tracer [(18)F]-fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) to measure tumor hypoxia over 14 days. Stabilization of HIF-1alpha and HIF transcriptional activity were assessed by bioluminescence imaging using the reporter constructs HIF-1alpha-luciferase and hypoxia response element-luciferase, respectively, stably expressed in C51 cells. Interestingly, we did not observe any major change in the level of tumor hypoxia throughout the observation period whereas HIF-1alpha levels and HIF activity showed drastic temporal variations. When comparing the readouts as a function of time we found a good correlation between HIF-1alpha levels and HIF activity. In contrast, there was no significant correlation between the [(18)F]-FMISO PET and HIF readouts. The tool developed in this work allows for the longitudinal study of tumor hypoxia and HIF-1alpha in cancer in an individual animal and will be of value when monitoring the efficacy of therapeutical interventions targeting the HIF pathway.
Project description:Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDHs) have a gain-of-function effect leading to R(-)-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG) accumulation. By using biochemical, structural and cellular assays, we show that either or both R- and S-2HG inhibit 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-dependent oxygenases with varying potencies. Half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values for the R-form of 2HG varied from approximately 25 ?M for the histone N(?)-lysine demethylase JMJD2A to more than 5 mM for the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase. The results indicate that candidate oncogenic pathways in IDH-associated malignancy should include those that are regulated by other 2OG oxygenases than HIF hydroxylases, in particular those involving the regulation of histone methylation.