Ginsenoside Rg3 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion of lung cancer by down-regulating FUT4.
ABSTRACT: The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important factor in lung cancer metastasis, and targeting EMT is a potential therapeutic strategy. Fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) and its synthetic cancer sugar antigen Lewis Y (LeY) was abnormally elevated in many cancers. In this study, a traditional Chinese medicine ginsenoside Rg3 was used to investigate whether its inhibition to EMT and invasion of lung cancer is by the glycobiology mechanism. We found that Rg3 treatment (25, 50, 100 ?g/ml) inhibited cell migration and invasion by wound-healing and transwell assays. Rg3 could significantly alter EMT marker proteins with increased E-cadherin, but decreased Snail, N-cadherin and Vimentin expression. Rg3 also down-regulated FUT4 gene and protein expression in lung cancer cells by qPCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence. After FUT4 down-regulated with shFUT4, EMT was obviously inhibited. Furthermore, the activation of EGFR through decreased LeY biosynthesis was inhibited, which blocked the downstream MAPK and NF-?B signal pathways. In addition, Rg3 reduced tumor volume and weight in xenograft mouse model, and significantly decreased tumor metastasis nodules in lung tissues by tail vein injection. In conclusion, Rg3 inhibits EMT and invasion of lung cancer by down-regulating FUT4 mediated EGFR inactivation and blocking MAPK and NF-?B signal pathways. Rg3 may be a potentially effective agent for the treatment of lung cancer.
Project description:Malignant melanoma is a destructive and lethal form of skin cancer with poor prognosis. An effective treatment for melanoma is greatly needed. Ginsenoside Rg3 is a herbal medicine with high antitumor activity. It is reported that abnormal glycosylation is correlated with the tumor cell growth. However, the antitumor effect of Rg3 on melanoma and its mechanism on regulating glycosylation are unknown. We found that Rg3 did not only inhibit A375 melanoma cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, but also decreased the expression of fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) and its synthetic product Lewis Y (LeY), a tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen (TACA). Knocking down FUT4 expression by siRNA dramatically reduced FUT4/LeY level and inhibited cell proliferation through preventing the activation of EGFR/MAPK pathway. Consistently, the inhibitory effect of the Rg3 and FUT4 knockdown on melanoma growth was also seen in a xenograft melanoma mouse model. In conclusion, Rg3 effectively inhibited melanoma cell growth by downregulating FUT4 both in vitro and in vivo. Targeting FUT4/LeY mediated fucosylation by Rg3 inhibited the activation of EGFR/MAPK pathway and prevented melanoma growth. Results from this study suggest Rg3 is a potential novel therapy agent for melanoma treatment.
Project description:Aberrant protein fucosylation is associated with cancer malignancy. Fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) is the key enzyme catalyzing the biosynthesis of α1,3-linkage fucosylated glycans carried by glycoproteins on the cell surface, such as the tumor-associated sugar antigen Lewis Y (LeY). An abnormal increase in the levels of FUT4 and LeY is observed in many cancers and correlated with cell proliferation and metastasis. Some microRNAs (miRNAs) are known to negatively regulate gene expression. FUT4 is an oncogenic glycogene, and thus it is important to identify the specific miRNA targeting FUT4. In current study, we first identified miR-200b as a specific miRNA that inhibited FUT4 expression. We found that miR-200b level was decreased, whereas that of FUT4 was increased in tissues and serum of breast cancer compared with that in the control by real-time PCR, western blotting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The alterations of miR-200b and FUT4 level were recovered after chemotherapy. The results also showed that miR-200b suppressed FUT4 expression and inhibited tumor growth and metastasis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, as well as in the xenografted tumor tissues and metastatic lung tissues. miR-200b decreased the α1,3-fucosylation and LeY biosynthesis on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), as well as inactivation of EGFR and downstream phosphoinositide-3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway. In conclusion, the study highlights that FUT4 could apply as a novel target for miR-200b that suppress the proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer cells by reducing α1,3-fucosylation and LeY biosynthesis of glycoproteins. miR-200b and FUT4 are potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets for breast cancer.
Project description:The prognosis of patients with ovarian cancer has remained poor mainly because of aggressive cancer progression. Since epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important mechanism mediating invasion and metastasis of cancer cells, targeting the EMT process with more efficacious and less toxic compounds to inhibit metastasis is of great therapeutic value for the treatment of ovarian cancer. We have found for the first time that the ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3, a pharmacologically active component of the traditional Chinese herb Panax ginseng, potently blocks hypoxia-induced EMT of ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic studies confirm the mode of action of 20(S)-Rg3, which reduces the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) by activating the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway to promote HIF-1? degradation. A decrease in HIF-1? in turn leads to up-regulation, via transcriptional suppression of Snail, of the epithelial cell-specific marker E-cadherin and down-regulation of the mesenchymal cell-specific marker vimentin under hypoxic conditions. Importantly, 20(S)-Rg3 effectively inhibits EMT in nude mouse xenograft models of ovarian cancer, promising a novel therapeutic agent for anticancer therapy.
Project description:The present study aimed to investigate the effect of glutathione S-transferase A1 (GSTA1) on lung cancer cell viability, invasion and adhesion in the presence of nicotine in vitro. Furthermore, the effect of GSTA1 on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process strongly associated with lung cancer metastasis, was examined. Human lung carcinoma A549 cells were treated with various concentrations of nicotine (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 µM) and levels of GSTA1 mRNA and protein were measured by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. To knock down GSTA1 expression, GSTA1-small interfering RNA was transfected into A549 cells. Cell viability, invasion and adhesion abilities were determined by MTT, Transwell-Matrigel invasion and cell adhesion assays, respectively. The expression of the epithelial cell markers E-cadherin and keratin, and the mesenchymal cell markers vimentin and N-cadherin in A549 cells were examined by western blot analysis. The current study indicated that the expression of GSTA1 was increased in A549 cells following nicotine treatment. GSTA1 suppression inhibited the viability, invasion and adhesion of lung cancer cells. In addition, the increase in lung cancer cell viability, invasion and adhesion by nicotine was suppressed following GSTA1 knockdown. Furthermore, GSTA1 affected the expression of EMT markers in nicotine-treated or untreated lung cancer cells. Thus the present study demonstrates that GSTA1 promotes lung cancer cell invasion and adhesion and mediates the effect of nicotine on lung cancer cell metastasis in vitro. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that GSTA1 exerts its effect on lung cancer cell metastasis by promoting the EMT.
Project description:Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a crucial step in tumor progression and has an important role during cancer invasion and metastasis. Although fucosyltransferase IV (FUT4) has been implicated in the modulation of cell migration, invasion and cancer metastasis, its role during EMT is unclear. This study explores the molecular mechanisms of the involvement of FUT4 in EMT in breast cancer cells. Breast cancer cell lines display increased expression of FUT4, which is accompanied by enhanced appearance of the mesenchymal phenotype and which can be reversed by knockdown of endogenous FUT4. Moreover, FUT4 induced activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, and inactivation of GSK3? and nuclear translocation of NF-?B, resulting in increased Snail and MMP-9 expression and greater cell motility. Taken together, these findings indicate that FUT4 has a role in EMT through activation of the PI3K/Akt and NF-?B signaling systems, which induce the key mediators Snail and MMP-9 and facilitate the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype. Our findings support the possibility that FUT4 is a novel regulator of EMT in breast cancer cells and a promising target for cancer therapy.
Project description:Protein kinase D2 (PKD2) has been reported to be related with progression and invasion in various cancers. However, its prognostic value and the underlying mechanism in lung cancer remains unclear. Herein we evaluated the expression of PKD2 in lung adenocarcinoma and investigated its relationship with EMT. GSEA, TCGA and K-M plotter database were applied and revealed that high PKD2 expression predicted poor outcome and related with lymph nodes metastasis in lung cancer. IHC and qRT-PCR were performed and found PKD2 was elevated in lung adenocarcinoma and negatively related with OS (p?=?0.015), PFS (p?=?0.006) and the level of E-cadherin (p?=?0.021). Experiment in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines demonstrated up-regulation of PKD2 led to high expression of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, vim, mmp9 et al.) and EMT transcription factors(zeb1, twist, snail), and the results were reversed when PKD2 was knocked down. Further investigation showed that abrogation of PKD2 inhibited A549 cell migration, invasion, proliferation and induced cell arrest in G2/M phase. We concluded that high expression of PKD2 was associated with poor prognosis and cancer progression in lung adenocarcinoma patients by promoting EMT.
Project description:Recently, we found that a novel Traf2- and Nck-interacting kinase (TNIK) inhibitor, named NCB-0846, was capable of attenuating tumor-initiating cells among human colorectal cancer. The cross link between EMT and cancer stemness has been revealed in several studies and other group showed another TNIK inhibitor named KY-05009 had inhibited the TGF-β-induced EMT. Therefore we evaluated whether this small-molecule compound could have efficacy to inhibit TGF-β-induced EMT. NCB-0846 reduced the expression of mesenchymal markers (Vimentin and N-cadherin) and upregulated the expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin in A549 and H2228 non-small cell lung cancer cells. NCB-0846 suppressed the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Smad proteins and also inhibited migration, invasion, and metastasis. NCB-0846 inhibited TGF-β1-induced EMT through the down-regulation of TGF-β receptor-1 (TβRI) in mRNA levels. MiR-186-5p and miR-320 family were identified as candidate miRNAs that could target TβRI and we found that miR-186-5p and miR-320s inhibited TβRI expression. NCB-0846 might be a novel therapeutics drugs that targets the invasion and metastasis through inhibiting TGF-β-induced EMT in lung cancer. Overall design: EMT related markers and ability of migration, invasion, and metastasis were examined after exposure to TGF-B1 only or co-treated with TGF-B1 and NCB-0846 or NCB-970.
Project description:The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and its reversal, mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), are fundamental processes involved in tumor cell invasion and metastasis. SEMA3F is a secreted semaphorin and tumor suppressor downregulated by TGF-?1 and ZEB1-induced EMT. Here, we report that neuropilin (NRP)-2, the high-affinity receptor for SEMA3F and a coreceptor for certain growth factors, is upregulated during TGF-?1-driven EMT in lung cancer cells. Mechanistically, NRP2 upregulation was T?RI dependent and SMAD independent, occurring mainly at a posttranscriptional level involving increased association of mRNA with polyribosomes. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and AKT inhibition blocked NRP2 upregulation, whereas RNA interference-mediated attenuation of ZEB1 reduced steady-state NRP2 levels. In addition, NRP2 attenuation inhibited TGF-?1-driven morphologic transformation, migration/invasion, ERK activation, growth suppression, and changes in gene expression. In a mouse xenograft model of lung cancer, NRP2 attenuation also inhibited locally invasive features of the tumor and reversed TGF-?1-mediated growth inhibition. In support of these results, human lung cancer specimens with the highest NRP2 expression were predominantly E-cadherin negative. Furthermore, the presence of NRP2 staining strengthened the association of E-cadherin loss with high-grade tumors. Together, our results demonstrate that NRP2 contributes significantly to TGF-?1-induced EMT in lung cancer.
Project description:Epithelial-mesenchymal transition plays an important role in many patho-physiological processes, including cancer invasion and metastatic progression. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 6 (HNF6) has been known to be an important factor for both physiological and pathological functions in liver and pancreas. However, its role in EMT and lung cancer progression remains unidentified. We observed that HNF6 level can be down-regulated by TGF-?1 in human lung cancer cells. Knockdown of HNF6 induced EMT and increased cell migration. In contrast, ectopically expression of HNF6 inhibited cell migration and attenuated TGF-?1-induced EMT. The data suggest that HNF6 plays a role in maintaining epithelial phenotype, which suppresses EMT. HNF6 also inhibits both colony formation and proliferation of lung cancer cells. It pronouncedly reduced the formation of tumor xenografts in nude mice. In addition, HNF6 can activate the promoter activity of p53 by directly binding to a specific region of its promoter and therefore increase the protein level of tumor suppressor p53. p53 knockdown induced EMT and increased cell migration, whereas the opposite effect was generated by p53 overexpression. p53 knockdown also inhibited the effect of HNF6 on EMT and cell migration, indicating that p53 is required for the functions of HNF6 herein. Moreover, there is a high positive correlation among the expression levels of HNF6, p53, and E-cadherin in human lung cancer cells and tissues. The data suggest that HNF6 inhibits EMT, cell migration, and invasive growth through a mechanism involving the transcriptional activation of p53.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Aberrant fucosylation plays a critical role in lung cancer progression. Nevertheless, the key fucosyltransferase with prognostic significance in lung cancer patients, the enzyme's intracellular targets, and complex molecular mechanisms underlying lung cancer metastasis remain incompletely understood. METHODS:We performed a large-scale transcriptome-clinical correlation to identify major fucosyltransferases with significant prognostic values. Invasion, migration, cell adhesion assays were performed using lung cancer cells subject to genetic manipulation of FUT4 levels. Genome-wide RNA-seq and immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry were used to characterize major cellular processes driven by FUT4, as well as profiling its intracellular protein targets. We also performed lung homing and metastasis assays in mouse xenograft models to determine in vivo phenotypes of high FUT4-expressing cancer cells. FINDINGS:We show that FUT4 is associated with poor overall survival in lung adenocarcinoma patients. High FUT4 expression promotes lung cancer invasion, migration, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and cell adhesion. FUT4-mediated aberrant fucosylation markedly activates multiple cellular processes, including membrane trafficking, cell cycle, and major oncogenic signaling pathways. The effects are independent of receptor tyrosine kinase mutations. Notably, genetic depletion of FUT4 or targeting FUT4-driven pathways diminishes lung colonization and distant metastases of lung cancer cells in mouse xenograft models. INTERPRETATION:We propose that FUT4 can be a prognostic predictor and therapeutic target in lung cancer metastasis. Our data provide a scientific basis for a potential therapeutic strategy using targeted therapy in a subset of patients with high FUT4-expressing tumors with no targetable mutations.