QTLs for Woolly Poplar Aphid (Phloeomyzus passerinii L.) Resistance Detected in an Inter-Specific Populus deltoides x P. nigra Mapping Population.
ABSTRACT: The genus Populus represents one of the most economically important groups of forest trees. It is composed by approximately 30 species used for wood and non-wood products, phytoremediation and biomass. Poplar is subjected to several biological and environmental threats although, compared to annual crops, we know far less about the genetic bases of biotic stress resistance. Woolly poplar aphid (Phloeomyzus passerinii) is considered a main pest of cultivated poplars in European and American countries. In this work we present two high density linkage maps in poplar obtained by a genotyping by sequencing (GBS) approach and the identification of QTLs involved in Ph. passerinii resistance. A total of 5,667 polymorphic markers (5,606 SNPs and 61 SSRs) identified on expressed sequences have been used to genotype 131 plants of an F1 population P ×canadensis obtained by an interspecific mate between Populus deltoides (resistant to woolly poplar aphid) and Populus nigra (susceptible to woolly poplar aphid). The two linkage maps, obtained following the two-way pseudo-testcross mapping strategy, have been used to investigate the genetic bases of woolly poplar aphid resistance. One major QTL and two QTLs with minor effects (mapped on LGV, LGXVI and LG XIX) explaining the 65.8% of the genetic variance observed in the progeny in response to Ph. passerinii attack were found. The high density coverage of functional markers allowed the identification of three genes belonging to disease resistance pathway as putative candidates for P. deltoides resistance to woolly poplar aphid. This work is the first report on genetic of woolly poplar aphid genetic resistance and the resistant loci associated markers identified represent a valuable tool in resistance poplar breeding programs.
Project description:Black poplar (Populus deltoides, P. nigra, and their hybrids) is the main poplar cultivars in China. It offers interesting options of large-scale biomass production for bioenergy due to its rapid growth and high yield. Poplar wood properties were associated with chemical components and physical structures during wood formation. In this study, five poplar cultivars, P. euramericana 'Zhonglin46' (Pe1), P. euramericana 'Guariento' (Pe2), P. nigra 'N179' (Pn1), P. deltoides 'Danhong' (Pd1), and P. deltoides 'Nanyang' (Pd2), were used to explore the molecular mechanism of xylem development. We analyzed the structural differences of developing xylem in the five cultivars and profiled the transcriptome-wide gene expression patterns through RNA sequencing. The cross sections of the developing xylem showed that the cell wall thickness of developed fiber in Pd1 was thickest and the number of xylem vessels of Pn1 was the least. A total of 10,331 differentially expressed genes were identified among 10 pairwise comparisons of the five cultivars, most of them were related to programmed cell death and secondary cell wall thickening. K-means cluster analysis and Gene Ontology enrichment analysis showed that the genes highly expressed in Pd1 were related to nucleotide decomposition, metabolic process, transferase, and microtubule cytoskeleton; whereas the genes highly expressed in Pn1 were involved in cell wall macromolecule decomposition and polysaccharide binding processes. Based on a weighted gene co-expression network analysis, a large number of candidate regulators for xylem development were identified. And their potential regulatory roles to cell wall biosynthesis genes were validated by a transient overexpression system. This study provides a set of promising candidate regulators for genetic engineering to improve feedstock and enhance biofuel conversion in the bioenergy crop Populus.
Project description:Four highly inducible genes of poplar trees, PtdKTI5, PtdWIN4, PtdPOP3 from hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa × P. deltoides) and PtKTI2 from trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) have been individually transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana for overexpression. High transcriptional level of each transgene in transgenic Arabidopsis lines was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis. The development, body weight and survivorship of cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera) fed on four types of transgenic Arabidopis plants were evaluated in the laboratory. Our data indicated that these four Populus defense-related genes exhibited various degree of insectital activity on larval and postlarval development of cotton bollworm and may be utilized for herbivore resistance improvement in plant genetic engineering.
Project description:Drought dramatically affects wood production by adversely impacting cambial cells and their derivatives. Photosynthesis and assimilate transport are also affected by drought conditions. Two poplar genotypes, Populus deltoides 'Dvina' and Populus alba 'Marte', demonstrated contrasting growth performance and water-carbon balance strategies; a mechanistic understanding of the water deficit response was provided by these poplar species. 'Marte' was found to be more anisohydric than 'Dvina'. This characteristic was associated with the capacity to reallocate carbohydrates during water deficits. In contrast, 'Dvina' displayed more conservative water management; carbohydrates were preferably stored or used for cellulose production rather than to achieve an osmotic balance between the phloem and the xylem. Data confirmed that the more 'risk-taking' characteristic of 'Marte' allowed a rapid recovery following water deficit and was connected to a different carbohydrate metabolism.
Project description:Osmotin-like proteins (OLPs) mediate defenses against abiotic and biotic stresses and fungal pathogens in plants. However, no OLPs have been functionally elucidated in poplar. Here, we report an osmotin-like protein designated PdOLP1 from Populus deltoides (Marsh.). Expression analysis showed that PdOLP1 transcripts were mainly present in immature xylem and immature phloem during vascular tissue development in P. deltoides. We conducted phenotypic, anatomical, and molecular analyses of PdOLP1-overexpressing lines and the PdOLP1-downregulated hybrid poplar 84K (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa) (Hybrid poplar 84K PagOLP1, PagOLP2, PagOLP3 and PagOLP4 are highly homologous to PdOLP1, and are downregulated in PdOLP1-downregulated hybrid poplar 84K). The overexpression of PdOLP1 led to a reduction in the radial width and cell layer number in the xylem and phloem zones, in expression of genes involved in lignin biosynthesis, and in the fibers and vessels of xylem cell walls in the overexpressing lines. Additionally, the xylem vessels and fibers of PdOLP1-downregulated poplar exhibited increased secondary cell wall thickness. Elevated expression of secondary wall biosynthetic genes was accompanied by increases in lignin content, dry weight biomass, and carbon storage in PdOLP1-downregulated lines. A PdOLP1 coexpression network was constructed and showed that PdOLP1 was coexpressed with a large number of genes involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis and wood development in poplar. Moreover, based on transcriptional activation assays, PtobZIP5 and PtobHLH7 activated the PdOLP1 promoter, whereas PtoBLH8 and PtoWRKY40 repressed it. A yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) assay confirmed interaction of PtoBLH8, PtoMYB3, and PtoWRKY40 with the PdOLP1 promoter in vivo. Together, our results suggest that PdOLP1 is a negative regulator of secondary wall biosynthesis and may be valuable for manipulating secondary cell wall deposition to improve carbon fixation efficiency in tree species.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Hybrid poplars species are candidates for biomass production but breeding efforts are needed to combine productivity and water use efficiency in improved cultivars. The understanding of the genetic architecture of growth in poplar by a Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) approach can help us to elucidate the molecular basis of such integrative traits but identifying candidate genes underlying these QTLs remains difficult. Nevertheless, the increase of genomic information together with the accessibility to a reference genome sequence (Populus trichocarpa Nisqually-1) allow to bridge QTL information on genetic maps and physical location of candidate genes on the genome. The objective of the study is to identify QTLs controlling productivity, architecture and leaf traits in a P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa F1 progeny and to identify candidate genes underlying QTLs based on the anchoring of genetic maps on the genome and the gene ontology information linked to genome annotation. The strategy to explore genome annotation was to use Gene Ontology enrichment tools to test if some functional categories are statistically over-represented in QTL regions. RESULTS: Four leaf traits and 7 growth traits were measured on 330 F1 P. deltoides x P. trichocarpa progeny. A total of 77 QTLs controlling 11 traits were identified explaining from 1.8 to 17.2% of the variation of traits. For 58 QTLs, confidence intervals could be projected on the genome. An extended functional annotation was built based on data retrieved from the plant genome database Phytozome and from an inference of function using homology between Populus and the model plant Arabidopsis. Genes located within QTL confidence intervals were retrieved and enrichments in gene ontology (GO) terms were determined using different methods. Significant enrichments were found for all traits. Particularly relevant biological processes GO terms were identified for QTLs controlling number of sylleptic branches: intervals were enriched in GO terms of biological process like 'ripening' and 'adventitious roots development'. CONCLUSION: Beyond the simple identification of QTLs, this study is the first to use a global approach of GO terms enrichment analysis to fully explore gene function under QTLs confidence intervals in plants. This global approach may lead to identification of new candidate genes for traits of interest.
Project description:Understanding the genetic architecture of adventitious root and related shoot traits will facilitate the cultivation of superior genotypes. In this study, we measured 12 adventitious root and related shoot traits of 434 F1 genotypes originating from Populus deltoides 'Danhong' × Populus simonii 'Tongliao1' and conducted an integrative analysis of quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping and RNA-Seq data to dissect their genetic architecture and regulatory genes. Extensive segregation, high repeatability, and significant correlation relationship were detected for the investigated traits. A total of 150 QTLs were associated with adventitious root traits, explaining 3.1-6.1% of phenotypic variation (PVE); while 83 QTLs were associated with shoot traits, explaining 3.1-19.8% of PVE. Twenty-five QTL clusters and 40 QTL hotspots were identified for the investigated traits. Ten QTL clusters were overlapped in both adventitious root traits and related shoot traits. Transcriptome analysis identified 10,172 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) among two parents, three fine rooting and three poor-rooting genotypes, 143 of which were physically located within the QTL intervals. K-means cluster and weighted gene co-expression network analysis showed that PtAAAP19 (Potri.004G111400) encoding amino acid transport protein was tightly associated with adventitious roots and highly expressed in fine-rooting genotypes. Compare with 'Danhong', 153 bp deletion in the coding sequence of PtAAAP19 in 'Tongliao1' gave rise to lack one transmembrane domain, which might cause the variation of adventitious roots. Taken together, this study deciphered the genetic basis of adventitious root and related shoot traits and provided potential function genes for genetic improvement of poplar breeding.
Project description:Many recent studies have emphasized the important role of structural variation (SV) in determining human genetic and phenotypic variation. In plants, studies aimed at elucidating the extent of SV are still in their infancy. Evidence has indicated a high presence and an active role of SV in driving plant genome evolution in different plant species.With the aim of characterizing the size and the composition of the poplar pan-genome, we performed a genome-wide analysis of structural variation in three intercrossable poplar species: Populus nigra, Populus deltoides, and Populus trichocarpa We detected a total of 7,889 deletions and 10,586 insertions relative to the P. trichocarpa reference genome, covering respectively 33.2?Mb and 62.9?Mb of genomic sequence, and 3,230 genes affected by copy number variation (CNV). The majority of the detected variants are inter-specific in agreement with a recent origin following separation of species.Insertions and deletions (INDELs) were preferentially located in low-gene density regions of the poplar genome and were, for the majority, associated with the activity of transposable elements. Genes affected by SV showed lower-than-average expression levels and higher levels of dN/dS, suggesting that they are subject to relaxed selective pressure or correspond to pseudogenes.Functional annotation of genes affected by INDELs showed over-representation of categories associated with transposable elements activity, while genes affected by genic CNVs showed enrichment in categories related to resistance to stress and pathogens. This study provides a genome-wide catalogue of SV and the first insight on functional and structural properties of the poplar pan-genome.
Project description:Movement of insect pests between spatially subdivided populations can allow them to recolonize areas where local extinction has occurred, increasing pest persistence. Populations of woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum [Hausmann]; Hemiptera: Aphididae), a worldwide pest of apple (Malus domestica [Borkhausen]), occur both below- and aboveground. These spatially subdivided subpopulations encounter different abiotic conditions, natural enemies, and control tactics. Restricting movement between them might be an effective management tactic to decrease woolly apple aphid persistence and abundance. We examined this possibility in the field, using sticky barriers to restrict upward woolly apple aphid movement to tree canopies, and in the greenhouse, using mulches and sand amendments to restrict downward movement to roots. In the field, blocking aphid movement up tree trunks did not decrease the number of colonies in tree canopies. Instead, sticky-banded apple trees had higher aphid colony counts late in the study. Earwigs, which are woolly apple aphid predators, were excluded from tree canopies by sticky bands. In the greenhouse, fewer root galls (indicative of aphid feeding) occurred on trees in sandy potting media and on those with mulch (wood chips or paper slurry). Our results suggest that upward movement is less important than other factors that affect aboveground aerial woolly apple aphid population dynamics. In addition, apple orchards planted in sandier soils or with mulches may be partially protected from woolly apple aphid root feeding.
Project description:Hybridization and introgression are pervasive evolutionary phenomena that provide insight into the selective forces that maintain species boundaries, permit gene flow, and control the direction of evolutionary change. Poplar trees (Populus L.) are well known for their ability to form viable hybrids and maintain their distinct species boundaries despite this interspecific gene flow. We sought to quantify the hybridization dynamics and postzygotic fitness within a hybrid stand of balsam poplar (Populus balsamifera L.), eastern cottonwood (P. deltoides Marsh.), and their natural hybrids to gain insight into the barriers maintaining this stable hybrid zone. We observed asymmetrical hybrid formation with P. deltoides acting as the seed parent, but with subsequent introgression biased toward P. balsamifera. Native hybrids expressed fitness traits intermediate to the parental species and were not universally unfit. That said, native hybrid seedlings were absent from the seedling population, which may indicate additional selective pressures controlling their recruitment. It is imperative that we understand the selective forces maintaining this native hybrid zone in order to quantify the impact of exotic poplar hybrids on this native system.
Project description:Populus species are currently being domesticated through intensive time- and resource-dependent programs for utilization in phytoremediation, wood and paper products, and conversion to biofuels. Poplar leaf rust disease can greatly reduce wood volume. Genetic resistance is effective in reducing economic losses but major resistance loci have been race-specific and can be readily defeated by the pathogen. Developing durable disease resistance requires the identification of non-race-specific loci. In the presented study, area under the disease progress curve was calculated from natural infection of Melampsora ×columbiana in three consecutive years. Association analysis was performed using 412 P. trichocarpa clones genotyped with 29,355 SNPs covering 3,543 genes. We found 40 SNPs within 26 unique genes significantly associated (permutated P<0.05) with poplar rust severity. Moreover, two SNPs were repeated in all three years suggesting non-race-specificity and three additional SNPs were differentially expressed in other poplar rust interactions. These five SNPs were found in genes that have orthologs in Arabidopsis with functionality in pathogen induced transcriptome reprogramming, Ca²?/calmodulin and salicylic acid signaling, and tolerance to reactive oxygen species. The additive effect of non-R gene functional variants may constitute high levels of durable poplar leaf rust resistance. Therefore, these findings are of significance for speeding the genetic improvement of this long-lived, economically important organism.