Crystal structure of quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Pseudogluconobacter saccharoketogenes. A versatile dehydrogenase oxidizing alcohols and carbohydrates.
ABSTRACT: The quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (PQQ-ADH, E.C. 18.104.22.168) from the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudogluconobacter saccharoketogenes IFO 14464 oxidizes primary alcohols (e.g. ethanol, butanol), secondary alcohols (monosaccharides), as well as aldehydes, polysaccharides, and cyclodextrins. The recombinant protein, expressed in Pichia pastoris, was crystallized, and three-dimensional (3D) structures of the native form, with PQQ and a Ca(2+) ion, and of the enzyme in complex with a Zn(2+) ion and a bound substrate mimic were determined at 1.72 Å and 1.84 Å resolution, respectively. PQQ-ADH displays an eight-bladed ?-propeller fold, characteristic of Type I quinone-dependent methanol dehydrogenases. However, three of the four ligands of the Ca(2+) ion differ from those of related dehydrogenases and they come from different parts of the polypeptide chain. These differences result in a more open, easily accessible active site, which explains why PQQ-ADH can oxidize a broad range of substrates. The bound substrate mimic suggests Asp333 as the catalytic base. Remarkably, no vicinal disulfide bridge is present near the PQQ, which in other PQQ-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases has been proposed to be necessary for electron transfer. Instead an associated cytochrome c can approach the PQQ for direct electron transfer.
Project description:Cell-free extracts of Pseudomonas testosteroni, grown on alcohols, contain quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase apoenzyme, as was demonstrated by the detection of dye-linked alcohol dehydrogenase activity after the addition of PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone). The apoenzyme was purified to homogeneity, and the holoenzyme was characterized. Primary alcohols (except methanol), secondary alcohols and aldehydes were substrates, and a broad range of dyes functioned as artificial electron acceptor. Optimal activity was observed at pH 7.7, and the presence of Ca2+ in the assay appeared to be essential for activity. The apoenzyme was found to be a monomer (Mr 67,000 +/- 5000), with an absorption spectrum similar to that of oxidized cytochrome c. After reconstitution to the holoenzyme by the addition of PQQ, addition of substrate changed the absorption spectrum to that of reduced cytochrome c, indicating that the haem c group participated in the enzymic mechanism. The enzyme contained one haem c group, and full reconstitution was achieved with 1 mol of PQQ/mol. In view of the aberrant properties, it is proposed to distinguish the enzyme from the common quinoprotein alcohol dehydrogenases by using the name 'quinohaemoprotein alcohol dehydrogenase'. Incorporation of PQQ into the growth medium resulted in a significant shortening of lag time and increase in growth rate. Therefore PQQ appears to be a vitamin for this organism during growth on alcohols, reconstituting the apoenzyme to a functional holoenzyme.
Project description:Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is an ortho-quinone cofactor of several prokaryotic oxidases. Widely available in the diet and necessary for the correct growth of mice, PQQ has been suspected to be a vitamin for eukaryotes. However, no PQQ-dependent eukaryotic enzyme had been identified to use the PQQ until 2014, when a basidiomycete enzyme catalyzing saccharide dehydrogenation using PQQ as a cofactor was characterized and served to define auxiliary activity family 12 (AA12). Here we report the biochemical characterization of the AA12 enzyme encoded by the genome of the ascomycete Trichoderma reesei (TrAA12). Surprisingly, only weak activity against uncommon carbohydrates like l-fucose or d-arabinose was measured. The three-dimensional structure of TrAA12 reveals important similarities with bacterial soluble glucose dehydrogenases (sGDH). The enzymatic characterization and the structure solved in the presence of calcium confirm the importance of this ion in catalysis, as observed for sGDH. The structural characterization of TrAA12 was completed by modeling PQQ and l-fucose in the enzyme active site. Based on these results, the AA12 family of enzymes is likely to have a catalytic mechanism close to that of bacterial sGDH.IMPORTANCE Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is an important cofactor synthesized by prokaryotes and involved in enzymatic alcohol and sugar oxidation. In eukaryotes, the benefit of PQQ as a vitamin has been suggested but never proved. Recently, the first eukaryotic enzyme using PQQ was characterized in the basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea, demonstrating that fungi are able to use PQQ as an enzyme cofactor. This discovery led to the classification of the fungal PQQ-dependent enzymes in auxiliary activity family 12 (AA12) of the Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZy) database (www.cazy.org) classification. In the present paper, we report on the characterization of the ascomycete AA12 enzyme from Trichoderma reesei (TrAA12). Our enzymatic and phylogenetic results show divergence with the only other member of the family characterized, that from the basidiomycete Coprinopsis cinerea The crystallographic structure of TrAA12 shows similarities to the global active-site architecture of bacterial glucose dehydrogenases, suggesting a common evolution between the two families.
Project description:The oxidation of alcohols and aldehydes is crucial for detoxification and efficient catabolism of various volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Thus, many Gram-negative bacteria have evolved periplasmic oxidation systems based on pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (PQQ-ADHs) that are often functionally redundant. Here we report the first description and characterization of a lanthanide-dependent PQQ-ADH (PedH) in a nonmethylotrophic bacterium based on the use of purified enzymes from the soil-dwelling model organism Pseudomonas putida KT2440. PedH (PP_2679) exhibits enzyme activity on a range of substrates similar to that of its Ca2+-dependent counterpart PedE (PP_2674), including linear and aromatic primary and secondary alcohols, as well as aldehydes, but only in the presence of lanthanide ions, including La3+, Ce3+, Pr3+, Sm3+, or Nd3+ Reporter assays revealed that PedH not only has a catalytic function but is also involved in the transcriptional regulation of pedE and pedH, most likely acting as a sensory module. Notably, the underlying regulatory network is responsive to as little as 1 to 10 nM lanthanum, a concentration assumed to be of ecological relevance. The present study further demonstrates that the PQQ-dependent oxidation system is crucial for efficient growth with a variety of volatile alcohols. From these results, we conclude that functional redundancy and inverse regulation of PedE and PedH represent an adaptive strategy of P. putida KT2440 to optimize growth with volatile alcohols in response to the availability of different lanthanides.IMPORTANCE Because of their low bioavailability, lanthanides have long been considered biologically inert. In recent years, however, the identification of lanthanides as a cofactor in methylotrophic bacteria has attracted tremendous interest among various biological fields. The present study reveals that one of the two PQQ-ADHs produced by the model organism P. putida KT2440 also utilizes lanthanides as a cofactor, thus expanding the scope of lanthanide-employing bacteria beyond the methylotrophs. Similar to the system described in methylotrophic bacteria, a complex regulatory network is involved in lanthanide-responsive switching between the two PQQ-ADHs encoded by P. putida KT2440. We further show that the functional production of at least one of the enzymes is crucial for efficient growth with several volatile alcohols. Overall, our study provides a novel understanding of the redundancy of PQQ-ADHs observed in many organisms and further highlights the importance of lanthanides for bacterial metabolism, particularly in soil environments.
Project description:Due to their ability for direct electron transfer to electrodes, the utilization of rare earth metals as cofactor, and their periplasmic localization, pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (PQQ-ADHs) represent an interesting class of biocatalysts for various biotechnological applications. For most biocatalysts protein stability is crucial, either to increase the performance of the protein under a given process condition or to maximize robustness of the protein towards mutational manipulations, which are often needed to enhance or introduce a functionality of interest. In this study, we describe a whole-cell screening assay, suitable for probing PQQ-ADH activities in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) cells, and use this assay to screen smart mutant libraries for increased thermal stability of the PQQ-ADH PedE (PP_2674) from Pseudomonas putida KT2440. Upon three consecutive rounds of screening, we identified three different amino acid positions, which significantly improve enzyme stability. The subsequent combination of the beneficial mutations finally results in the triple mutant R91D/E408P/N410K, which not only exhibits a 7°C increase in thermal stability but also a twofold increase in residual activity upon incubation with up to 50% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), while showing no significant difference in enzymatic efficiency (kcat /KM ).
Project description:The l-lysine-?-dehydrogenase (LysEDH) from Geobacillus stearothermophilus naturally catalyzes the oxidative deamination of the ?-amino group of l-lysine. We previously engineered this enzyme to create amine dehydrogenase (AmDH) variants that possess a new hydrophobic cavity in their active site such that aromatic ketones can bind and be converted into ?-chiral amines with excellent enantioselectivity. We also recently observed that LysEDH was capable of reducing aromatic aldehydes into primary alcohols. Herein, we harnessed the promiscuous alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity of LysEDH to create new variants that exhibited enhanced catalytic activity for the reduction of substituted benzaldehydes and arylaliphatic aldehydes to primary alcohols. Notably, these novel engineered dehydrogenases also catalyzed the reductive amination of a variety of aldehydes and ketones with excellent enantioselectivity, thus exhibiting a dual AmDH/ADH activity. We envisioned that the catalytic bi-functionality of these enzymes could be applied for the direct conversion of alcohols into amines. As a proof-of-principle, we performed an unprecedented one-pot "hydrogen-borrowing" cascade to convert benzyl alcohol to benzylamine using a single enzyme. Conducting the same biocatalytic cascade in the presence of cofactor recycling enzymes (i.e., NADH-oxidase and formate dehydrogenase) increased the reaction yields. In summary, this work provides the first examples of enzymes showing "alcohol aminase" activity.
Project description:Enzymes originating from hostile environments offer exceptional stability under industrial conditions and are therefore highly in demand. Using single-cell genome data, we identified the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene, adh/a1a, from the Atlantis II Deep Red Sea brine pool. ADH/A1a is highly active at elevated temperatures and high salt concentrations (optima at 70 °C and 4 m KCl) and withstands organic solvents. The polyextremophilic ADH/A1a exhibits a broad substrate scope including aliphatic and aromatic alcohols and is able to reduce cinnamyl-methyl-ketone and raspberry ketone in the reverse reaction, making it a possible candidate for the production of chiral compounds. Here, we report the affiliation of ADH/A1a to a rare enzyme family of microbial cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases and explain unique structural features for halo- and thermoadaptation.
Project description:Purified Drosophila lebanonensis alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) revealed one enzymically active zone in starch gel electrophoresis at pH 8.5. This zone was located on the cathode side of the origin. Incubation of D. lebanonensis Adh with NAD+ and acetone altered the electrophoretic pattern to more anodal migrating zones. D. lebanonensis Adh has an Mr of 56,000, a subunit of Mr of 28 000 and is a dimer with two active sites per enzyme molecule. This agrees with a polypeptide chain of 247 residues. Metal analysis by plasma emission spectroscopy indicated that this insect alcohol dehydrogenase is not a metalloenzyme. In studies of the substrate specificity and stereospecificity, D. lebanonensis Adh was more active with secondary than with primary alcohols. Both alkyl groups in the secondary alcohols interacted hydrophobically with the alcohol binding region of the active site. The catalytic centre activity for propan-2-ol was 7.4 s-1 and the maximum velocity of most secondary alcohols was approximately the same and indicative of rate-limiting enzyme-coenzyme dissociation. For primary alcohols the maximum velocity varied and was much lower than for secondary alcohols. The catalytic centre activity for ethanol was 2.4 s-1. With [2H6]ethanol a primary kinetic 2H isotope effect of 2.8 indicated that the interconversion of the ternary complexes was rate-limiting. Pyrazole was an ethanol-competitive inhibitor of the enzyme. The difference spectra of the enzyme-NAD+-pyrazole complex gave an absorption peak at 305 nm with epsilon 305 14.5 X 10(3) M-1 X cm-1. Concentrations and amounts of active enzyme can thus be determined. A kinetic rate assay to determine the concentration of enzyme active sites is also presented. This has been developed from active site concentrations established by titration at 305 nm of the enzyme and pyrazole with NAD+. In contrast with the amino acid composition, which indicated that D. lebanonensis Adh and the D. melanogaster alleloenzymes were not closely related, the enzymological studies showed that their active sites were similar although differing markedly from those of zinc alcohol dehydrogenases.
Project description:The amination of alcohols is an important transformation in chemistry. The redox-neutral (i.e., hydrogen-borrowing) asymmetric amination of alcohols is enabled by the combination of an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) with an amine dehydrogenase (AmDH). In this work, we enhanced the efficiency of hydrogen-borrowing biocatalytic amination by co-immobilizing both dehydrogenases on controlled porosity glass FeIII ion-affinity beads. The recyclability of the dual-enzyme system was demonstrated (5 cycles) with total turnover numbers of >4000 and >1000 for ADH and AmDH, respectively. A set of (S)-configured alcohol substrates was aminated with up to 95% conversion and >99%ee (R). Preparative-scale amination of (S)-phenylpropan-2-ol resulted in 90% conversion and 80% yield of the product in 24 h.
Project description:Pyrroquinoline quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (PQQ-ADH) is a key enzyme in the ethanol oxidase respiratory chain of acetic acid bacteria (AAB). To investigate the effect of PQQ-ADH on acetic acid production by Acetobacter pasteurianus JST-S, subunits I (adhA) and II (adhB) of PQQ-ADH were over-expressed, the fermentation parameters and the metabolic flux analysis were compared in the engineered strain and the original one. The acetic acid production was improved by the engineered strain (61.42 g L-1) while the residual ethanol content (4.18 g L-1) was decreased. Analysis of 2D maps indicated that 19 proteins were differently expressed between the two strains; of these, 17 were identified and analyzed by mass spectrometry and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. With further investigation of metabolic flux analysis (MFA) of the pathway from ethanol and glucose, the results reveal that over-expression of PQQ-ADH is an effective way to improve the ethanol oxidation respiratory chain pathway and these can offer theoretical references for potential mechanism of metabolic regulation in AAB and researches with its acetic acid resistance.
Project description:Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) was discovered as a redox cofactor of prokaryotic glucose dehydrogenases in the 1960s, and subsequent studies have demonstrated its importance not only in bacterial systems but also in higher organisms. We have previously reported a novel eukaryotic quinohemoprotein that exhibited PQQ-dependent catalytic activity in a eukaryote. The enzyme, pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH), from the filamentous fungus Coprinopsis cinerea (CcPDH) of the Basidiomycete division, is composed of a catalytic PQQ-dependent domain classified as a member of the novel auxiliary activity family 12 (AA12), an AA8 cytochrome b domain, and a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM1), as defined by the Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes (CAZy) database. Here, we present the crystal structures of the AA12 domain in its apo- and holo-forms and the AA8 domain of this enzyme. The crystal structures of the holo-AA12 domain bound to PQQ provide direct evidence that eukaryotes have PQQ-dependent enzymes. The AA12 domain exhibits a six-blade ?-propeller fold that is also present in other known PQQ-dependent glucose dehydrogenases in bacteria. A loop structure around the active site and a calcium ion binding site are unique among the known structures of bacterial quinoproteins. The AA8 cytochrome domain has a positively charged area on its molecular surface, which is partly due to the propionate group of the heme interacting with Arg181; this feature differs from the characteristics of cytochrome b in the AA8 domain of the fungal cellobiose dehydrogenase and suggests that this difference may affect the pH dependence of electron transfer.IMPORTANCE Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is known as the "third coenzyme" following nicotinamide and flavin. PQQ-dependent enzymes have previously been found only in prokaryotes, and the existence of a eukaryotic PQQ-dependent enzyme was in doubt. In 2014, we found an enzyme in mushrooms that catalyzes the oxidation of various sugars in a PQQ-dependent manner and that was a PQQ-dependent enzyme found in eukaryotes. This paper presents the X-ray crystal structures of this eukaryotic PQQ-dependent quinohemoprotein, which show the active site, and identifies the amino acid residues involved in the binding of the cofactor PQQ. The presented X-ray structures reveal that the AA12 domain is in a binary complex with the coenzyme, clearly proving that PQQ-dependent enzymes exist in eukaryotes as well as prokaryotes. Because no biosynthetic system for PQQ has been reported in eukaryotes, future research on the symbiotic systems is expected.