Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Duck Ovarian Follicles Infected with Duck Tembusu Virus by Label-Free LC-MS.
ABSTRACT: Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is a newly emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has caused massive economic losses to the duck industry in China. DTMUV infection mainly results in significant decreases in egg production in egg-laying ducks within 1-2 weeks post infection. However, information on the comparative protein expression of host tissues in response to DTMUV infection is limited. In the present study, the cellular protein response to DTMUV infection in duck ovarian follicles was analyzed using nano-flow high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Quantitative proteomic analysis revealed 131 differentially expressed proteins, among which 53 were up regulated and 78 were down regulated. The identified proteins were involved in the regulation of essential processes such as cellular structure and integrity, RNA processing, protein biosynthesis and modification, vesicle transport, signal transduction, and mitochondrial pathway. Some selected proteins that were found to be regulated in DTMUV-infected tissues were screened by quantitative real-time PCR to examine their regulation at the transcriptional level, western blot analysis was used to validate the changes of some selected proteins on translational level. To our knowledge, this study is the first to analyze the proteomic changes in duck ovarian follicles following DTMUV infection. The protein-related information obtained in this study may be useful to understand the host response to DTMUV infection and the inherent mechanism of DTMUV replication and pathogenicity.
Project description:Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is an emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has caused a substantial drop in egg production and severe neurological disorders in domestic waterfowl. Several studies have revealed that viral proteins encoded by DTMUV antagonize host IFN-mediated antiviral responses to facilitate virus replication. However, the role of host gene expression regulated by DTMUV in innate immune evasion remains largely unknown. Here, we utilized a stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC)-based proteomics analysis of DTMUV-infected duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs) to comprehensively investigate host proteins involved in DTMUV replication and innate immune response. A total of 250 differentially expressed proteins were identified from 2697 quantified cellular proteins, among which duck interferon-induced protein 35 (duIFI35) was dramatically up-regulated due to DTMUV infection in DEFs. Next, we demonstrated that duIFI35 expression promoted DTMUV replication and impaired Sendai virus-induced IFN-β production. Moreover, duIFI35 was able to impede duck RIG-I (duRIG-I)-induced IFN-β promoter activity, rather than IFN-β transcription mediated by MDA5, MAVS, TBK1, IKKϵ, and IRF7. Importantly, we found that because of the specific interaction with duIFI35, the capacity of duRIG-I to recognize double-stranded RNA was significantly impaired, resulting in the decline of duRIG-I-induced IFN-β production. Taken together, our data revealed that duIFI35 expression stimulated by DTMUV infection disrupted duRIG-I-mediated host antiviral response, elucidating a distinct function of duIFI35 from human IFI35, by which DTMUV escapes host innate immune response, and providing information for the design of antiviral drug.
Project description:Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) and duck plague virus (DPV) are typical DNA and RNA viruses of waterfowl, causing drastic economic losses to the duck farm industry in terms of high mortality and decreased egg production. These 2 viruses reappear from time to time because the available vaccines fail to provide complete immunity and no clinical antiviral drugs are available for them. In the present study, we evaluated the antiviral activity of SC75741 for DTMUV, DPV, and the model virus, vesicular stomatitis virus infection in duck cells. SC75741, a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)-specific inhibitor in mammal cells, revealed the highest antiviral activity among the inhibitors specific to c-Jun NH<sub>2</sub>-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), and NF-κB signaling. The antiviral activity of SC75741 was dose-dependent and showed effects in different duck cell types. Time-addition and duration assay demonstrated that SC75741 inhibited virus infection in the middle of and after virus infection at least for 72 h in duck embro fibroblast cells. The DPV viral adsorption and genomic copy number were reduced, indicating that SC75741 blocks the phase of the virus life cycle at viral entry and genomic replication. In addition, SC75741 enhanced the expression of interferon only when stimulator of interferon genes (STING) was overexpressed or pre-activated by the virus infection, suggesting that SC75741 acts as a STING agonist. In conclusion, SC75741 is a candidate antiviral agent for DTMUV and DPV.
Project description:Duck is a major waterfowl species in China, providing high-economic benefit with a population of up to 20?30 billion per year. Ducks are commonly affected by severe diseases, including egg-drop syndrome caused by duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV). The immune mechanisms against DTMUV invasion and infection remain poorly understood. In this study, duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs) were infected with DTMUV and harvested at 12 and 24 h post-infection (hpi), and their genomes were sequenced. In total, 911 (764 upregulated and 147 downregulated genes) and 3008 (1791 upregulated and 1217 downregulated) differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified at 12 and 24 hpi, respectively. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analysis revealed that DEGs were considerably enriched in immune-relevant pathways, including Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, Cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway, RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway, Chemokine signaling pathway, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, and Hematopoietic cell lineage at both time points. The key DEGs in immune system included those of the cytokines (IFN ?2, IL-6, IL-8L, IL-12B, CCR7, CCL19, and CCL20), transcription factors or signaling molecules (IRF7, NF-?B, STAT1, TMEM173, and TNFAIP3), pattern recognition receptors (RIG-I and MDA5), and antigen-presenting proteins (CD44 and CD70). This suggests DTMUV infection induces strong proinflammatory/antiviral effects with enormous production of cytokines. However, these cytokines could not protect DEFs against viral attack. Our data revealed valuable transcriptional information regarding DTMUV-infected DEFs, thereby broadening our understanding of the immune response against DTMUV infection; this information might contribute in developing strategies for controlling the prevalence of DTMUV infection.
Project description:Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV), which is similar to other mosquito-borne flaviviruses that replicate well in most mammalian cells, is an emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has caused epidemics in egg-laying and breeding waterfowl. Immune organ defects and neurological dysfunction are the main clinical symptoms of DTMUV infection. Preinfection with DTMUV makes the virus impervious to later interferon (IFN) treatment, revealing that DTMUV has evolved some strategies to defend against host IFN-dependent antiviral responses. Immune inhibition was further confirmed by screening for DTMUV-encoded proteins, which suggested that NS2A significantly inhibited IFN-? and IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner and facilitated reinfection with duck plague virus (DPV). DTMUV NS2A was able to inhibit duck retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-, and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5)-, mitochondrial-localized adaptor molecules (MAVS)-, stimulator of interferon genes (STING)-, and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1)-induced IFN-? transcription, but not duck TBK1- and interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7)-mediated effective phases of IFN response. Furthermore, we found that NS2A competed with duTBK1 in binding to duck STING (duSTING), impaired duSTING-duSTING binding, and reduced duTBK1 phosphorylation, leading to the subsequent inhibition of IFN production. Importantly, we first identified that the W164A, Y167A, and S361A mutations in duSTING significantly impaired the NS2A-duSTING interaction, which is important for NS2A-induced IFN-? inhibition. Hence, our data demonstrated that DTMUV NS2A disrupts duSTING-dependent antiviral cellular defenses by binding with duSTING, which provides a novel mechanism by which DTMUV subverts host innate immune responses. The potential interaction sites between NS2A and duSTING may be the targets of future novel antiviral therapies and vaccine development.IMPORTANCE Flavivirus infections are transmitted through mosquitos or ticks and lead to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide with a spectrum of manifestations. Infection with an emerging flavivirus, DTMUV, manifests with clinical symptoms that include lesions of the immune organs and neurological dysfunction, leading to heavy egg drop and causing serious harm to the duck industry in China, Thailand, Malaysia, and other Southeast Asian countries. Mosquito cells, bird cells, and mammalian cell lines are all susceptible to DTMUV infection. An in vivo study revealed that BALB/c mice and Kunming mice were susceptible to DTMUV after intracerebral inoculation. Moreover, there are no reports about DTMUV-related human disease, but antibodies against DTMUV and viral RNA were detected in serum samples of duck industry workers. This information implies that DTMUV has expanded its host range and may pose a threat to mammalian health. However, the pathogenesis of DTMUV is largely unclear. Our results show that NS2A strongly blocks the STING-induced signal transduction cascade by binding with STING, which subsequently blocks STING-STING binding and TBK1 phosphorylation. More importantly, the W164, Y167, or S361 residues in duSTING were identified as important interaction sites between STING and NS2A that are vital for NS2A-induced IFN production and effective phases of IFN response. Uncovering the mechanism by which DTMUV NS2A inhibits IFN in the cells of its natural hosts, ducks, will help us understand the role of NS2A in DTMUV pathogenicity.
Project description:Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV), the causative agent of egg-drop syndrome, has caused substantial economic losses to duck industry. DTMUV infection leads to profound changes of host cells, including transcriptome and proteome. However, the lncRNA expression profile and the biological function of lncRNA have not been revealed. Therefore, DTMUV was used to inoculate duck embryo fibroblast cells (DEFs) for high-throughput RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). The results showed that 34 and 339 differently expressed lncRNAs were, respectively, identified at 12 and 24 h post-infection (hpi). To analyze their biological functions, target genes in cis were searched and the regulatory network was formed. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis revealed that the target genes were strongly associated with immune system, signaling molecular and interaction, endocrine system, and signal transduction. The differently expressed lncRNAs were selected and verified by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Our study, for the first time, analyzed a comprehensive lncRNA expression profile in DEFs following DTMUV infection. The analysis provided a view on the important roles of lncRNAs in gene regulation and DTMUV infection.
Project description:Outbreaks of duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) have caused substantial economic losses in the major duck-producing regions of China since 2010. To improve our understanding of the host cellular responses to virus infection and the pathogenesis of DTMUV infection, we applied isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) labeling coupled with multidimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to detect the protein changes in duck embryo fibroblast cells (DEFs) infected and mock-infected with DTMUV. In total, 434 cellular proteins were differentially expressed, among which 116, 76, and 339 proteins were differentially expressed in the DTMUV-infected DEFs at 12, 24, and 42 hours postinfection, respectively. The Gene Ontology analysis indicated that the biological processes of the differentially expressed proteins were primarily related to cellular processes, metabolic processes, biological regulation, response to stimulus, and cellular organismal processes and that the molecular functions in which the differentially expressed proteins were mainly involved were binding and catalytic activity. Some selected proteins that were found to be differentially expressed in DTMUV-infected DEFs were further confirmed by real-time PCR. The results of this study provide valuable insight into DTMUV-host interactions. This could lead to a better understanding of DTMUV infection mechanisms.
Project description:Tripartite motif-containing 32 (TRIM32) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase with multiple functions. In this study, we amplified TRIM32 gene from the Cherry Valley duck, and its cDNA sequence contained an open reading frame of 1,950 bp that encodes 649 amino acids. Duck TRIM32 (duTRIM32) mRNA was expressed in all tissues tested. A series of immune-related genes that were induced by viral infection, including interferon alfa, IL-1β, retinoic acid-inducible gene-I, Mx, and OAS, were regulated by duTRIM32 expression. DuTRIM32 overexpression inhibits duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) replication in the early stages of viral infection. Knockdown of duTRIM32 expression by siRNA reduced the ability of duck embryo fibroblast cells to mount a type Ⅰ interferon response to DTMUV. Therefore, our results suggest that the duTRIM32-mediated signal pathway plays an essential role in DTMUV infection-induced innate immune response.
Project description:Duck Tembusu virus disease, caused by the duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV), can lead to a severe reduction in egg production and growth retardation in laying ducks and ducklings, respectively. In this study, we engineered a novel recombinant adenovirus expressing the E protein of DTMUV (rAd-E) in AAV-293 cells (analyzed by western blot and indirect immunofluorescence assays). Intramuscular immunization of Cherry Valley ducks with rAd-E was performed to evaluate host cellular and humoral immune responses. Compared to the phosphate-buffered saline administered group and the negative control wild-type adenovirus (wtAd) group, the rAd-E vaccinated group showed increased cellular and humoral responses. The results from the cytokine release and lymphocyte proliferation assays showed that rAd-E induced a stronger cellular immune response than the control group (P<0.01), 4 weeks after primary immunization. The results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent and virus neutralization assays showed that rAd-E induced higher titers of specific neutralizing antibodies, 2 weeks after primary immunization. The DTMUV challenge experiment showed a higher survival rate (80%) of ducks in the rAd-E group, when challenged with 0.5 ml (ELD50=10-2.67/0.2 ml) of the DTMUV strain AH-F10. These results indicate that rAd-E effectively protects ducks against DTMUV infection. Therefore, rAd-E could be a vaccine candidate to provide an effective and safe method for prevention and control of DTMUV infection.
Project description:The duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus. It causes severe symptoms of egg-drop, as well as neurological symptoms and brain damage in ducks. However, the specific molecular mechanisms of DTMUV-induced neurovirulence and host responses in the brain remain obscure. To better understand the host-pathogen and neuro-immune interactions of DTMUV infection, we conducted high-throughput RNA-sequencing to reveal the transcriptome profiles of DTMUV-infected duck brain. Totals of 117, 212, and 150 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified at 12, 24, and 48 h post infection (hpi). Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses uncovered genes and pathways related to the nervous system and immune responses in duck brain. Neuro-related genes, including WNT3A, GATA3, and CHRNA6, were found to be significantly downregulated. RIG-I-like receptors (DHX58, IFIH1) and Toll-like receptors (TLR2 and TLR3) were activated, inducing the expression of 22 interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) and antigen-processing and -presenting genes (TAP1 and TAP2) in the brain. Our research provides comprehensive information for the molecular mechanisms of neuro-immune and host-pathogen interactions of DTMUV.
Project description:Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) can cause serious disease in ducks, characterized by reduced egg production. Although the virus has been isolated and detection methods developed, the host immune responses to DTMUV infection are unclear. Therefore, we systematically examined the expression of immune-related genes and the viral distribution in DTMUV-infected ducks, using quantitative real-time PCR. Our results show that DTMUV replicates quickly in many tissues early in infection, with the highest viral titers in the spleen 1 day after infection. Rig-1, Mda5, and Tlr3 are involved in the host immune response to DTMUV, and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (Il-1?, -2, -6, Cxcl8) and antiviral proteins (Mx, Oas, etc.) are also upregulated early in infection. The expression of Il-6 increased most significantly in the tissues tested. The upregulation of Mhc-I was observed in the brain and spleen, but the expression of Mhc-II was upregulated in the brain and downregulated in the spleen. The expression of the interferons was also upregulated to different degrees in the spleen but that of the brain was various. Our study suggests that DTMUV replicates rapidly in various tissues and that the host immune responses are activated early in infection. However, the overexpression of cytokines may damage the host. These results extend our understanding of the immune responses of ducks to DTMUV infection, and provide insight into the pathogenesis of DTMUV attributable to host factors.