DMSO Represses Inflammatory Cytokine Production from Human Blood Cells and Reduces Autoimmune Arthritis.
ABSTRACT: Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is currently used as an alternative treatment for various inflammatory conditions as well as for cancer. Despite its widespread use, there is a paucity of data regarding its safety and efficacy as well as its mechanism of action in human cells. Herein, we demonstrate that DMSO has ex-vivo anti-inflammatory activity using Escherichia coli- (E. coli) and herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1)-stimulated whole human blood. Specifically, we found that between 0.5%-2%, DMSO significantly suppressed the expression of many pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). However, a significant reduction in monocyte viability was also observed at 2% DMSO, suggesting a narrow window of efficacy. Anti-inflammatory concentrations of DMSO suppressed E. coli-induced ERK1/2, p38, JNK and Akt phosphorylation, suggesting DMSO acts on these signaling pathways to suppress inflammatory cytokine/chemokine production. Although DMSO induces the differentiation of B16/F10 melanoma cells in vitro, topical administration of DMSO to mice subcutaneously implanted with B16 melanoma cells was ineffective at reducing tumor growth, DMSO was also found to block mouse macrophages from polarizing to either an M1- or an M2-phenotype, which may contribute to its inability to slow tumor growth. Topical administration of DMSO, however, significantly mitigated K/BxN serum-induced arthritis in mice, and this was associated with reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the joints and white blood cell levels in the blood. Thus, while we cannot confirm the efficacy of DMSO as an anti-cancer agent, the use of DMSO in arthritis warrants further investigation to ascertain its therapeutic potential.
Project description:Ingenol mebutate is approved for the topical treatment of actinic keratoses and may ultimately also find utility in treating skin cancers. Here we show that relapse rates of subcutaneous B16 melanoma tumours treated topically with ingenol mebutate were not significantly different in C57BL/6 and Rag1-/- mice, suggesting B and T cells do not play a major role in the anti-cancer efficacy of ingenol mebutate. Relapse rates were, however, significantly increased in MyD88-/- mice and in C57BL/6 mice treated with the anti-IL-1 agent, anakinra. Ingenol mebutate treatment induces a pronounced infiltration of neutrophils, which have been shown to have anti-cancer activity in mice. Herein we provide evidence that IL-1 promotes neutrophil recruitment to the tumour, decreases apoptosis of infiltrating neutrophils and increases neutrophil tumour killing activity. These studies suggest IL-1, via its action on neutrophils, promotes the anti-cancer efficacy of ingenol mebutate, with ingenol mebutate treatment causing both IL-1? induction and IL-1? released from keratinocytes.
Project description:Since electroporation (EP) can increase the permeability of biological membranes, we hypothesized that it offers an opportunity to enhance the transdermal delivery of drugs for intra-articular indications. Our aim was to compare the anti-inflammatory and analgesic efficacy of EP-combined topical administration of diclofenac sodium hydrogel (50 mg mL-1 in 230 µL volume) with that of an equivalent dose of oral (75 mg kg-1) and simple topical administration.Arthritis was induced with the injection of 2% ?-carrageenan and 4% kaolin into the right knee joints of male Sprague Dawley rats. EP was applied for 8 min with 900 V high-voltage pulses for 5 ms followed by a 20 ms break. Drug penetration into the synovial fluid and plasma was detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. Leukocyte-endothelial interactions were visualized by intravital videomicroscopy on the internal surface of the synovium. Inflammation-induced thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia reactions, knee joint edema, and inflammatory enzyme activities were assessed at 24 and 48 h after arthritis induction.EP significantly increased the plasma level of diclofenac as compared with the topical controls 10 min after the 2% ?-carrageenan and 4% kaolin injection. Increased leukocyte-endothelial interactions were accompanied by joint inflammation, which was significantly reduced by oral and EP diclofenac (by 45% and by 30%, respectively) and only slightly ameliorated by simple topical diclofenac treatment (by 18%). The arthritis-related secondary hyperalgesic reactions were significantly ameliorated by oral and EP-enhanced topical diclofenac treatments. The knee cross-section area (which increased by 35%) was also reduced with both approaches. However, simple topical application did not influence the development of joint edema and secondary hyperalgesia.The study provides evidence for the first time of the potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of EP-enhanced topical diclofenac during arthritis. The therapeutic benefit provided by EP is comparable with that of oral diclofenac; EP is a useful alternative to conventional routes of administration.
Project description:Tumor growth and metastasis depend on angiogenesis. Thus, inhibiting tumor angiogenesis has become promising cancer therapeutic strategy in recent years. Tumstatin is a more powerful angiogenesis inhibitor than endostatin. Anti-angiogenic active fragment encoding amino acids 45-132 (Tum-5) of tumstatin was subcloned into four different inducible expression vectors and successfully solubly expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) in this study. Subsequently, an anaerobic inducible expression vector was constructed under Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene promoter Pvhb in E. coli Nissle 1917 (EcN). The secretory expression of Tum-5 in the engineered bacterium was determined in vitro and in vivo by Western blot or immunochemistry. The anti-tumor effect detection demonstrated that EcN could specifically colonize the tumor, and B16 melanoma tumor growth was remarkably restrained by EcN (Tum-5) in mice bearing B16 melanoma tumor. Abundant infiltrating inflammatory cells were observed in tumor areas of the EcN-treated group through hematoxylin and eosin staining, with a relatively reduced expression of endothelial marker platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31) by immunofluorescence in tumor sections of EcN (Tum-5)-treated mice. No significant morphological differences were observed in the liver, kidney and spleen between EcN-treated mice and the control group, indicating that EcN was cleared by the immune system and did not cause systemic toxicity in mice. These findings demonstrated that the gene delivery of Tum-5 to solid tumors could be an effective strategy for cancer therapy.
Project description:Povidone iodine (PVP-I) 10% aqueous solution is a commonly utilized anti-septic employed for sterilization of the ocular surface prior to interventional procedures. Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) is a well-known skin penetration agent scarcely utilized in ophthalmic drug formulations. We describe here a low-dose formulation of 1% PVP-I (w/w) in a gel containing DMSO for use in the setting of recalcitrant rosacea blepharoconjunctivitis. A review of the ocular uses of dimethylsulfoxide is also presented.A 78-year-old male presented with chronic, long-standing blepharitis involving both the anterior and posterior lid margins. Posterior lid and skin inflammatory changes were consistent with ocular rosacea. Previous oral and topical therapies had been largely ineffective at controlling his condition.The topical PVP-I/DMSO system was effective in abating the signs and symptoms of rosacea blepharoconjunctivitis. Further investigation of this novel agent is warranted.
Project description:The expression of the CC chemokine receptor-7 (CCR7) by cancers, including melanoma, augments lymph node (LN) metastasis, but little is known about its role in lymphangiogenesis and anti-tumor immunity. We injected control B16 murine melanoma cells (pLNCX2-B16) and CCR7-overexpressing B16 cells (CCR7-B16) in murine footpads and compared resulting tumors at the protein and mRNA level using immunostaining, Affymetrix gene microarray and quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR. Although control and CCR7-B16 primary tumors were of similar size, LN metastasis was dramatically enhanced in CCR7-B16 tumors. Microarray analysis of leukocyte-depleted pLNCX2-B16 and CCR7-B16 tumor cell suspensions showed that three major groups of genes linked to interferon (IFN)-? signaling pathways (for example, STAT1, CXCR 9-11, CCL5 and CXCL10, major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I and MHC II) were downregulated in the CCR7-B16 tumor microenvironment, suggesting activation through CCR7 can downregulate pathways critical for host anti-tumor immunity. In addition, mRNA expression of the lymphatic marker podoplanin was upregulated in CCR7-B16 tumors by 3.35-fold versus control tumors. Anti-podoplanin monoclonal antibody staining revealed a three-fold increase in intratumoral CCL21-expressing lymphatic vessels, as well as a two-fold increase in the number of invading tumor cells per lymphatic vessel in CCR7-B16 versus control tumors. Enhanced anti-vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) staining was present in CCR7-B16 versus control tumors, suggesting that VEGF-C may have a role in the CCR7-mediated lymphangiogenesis. In summary, CCR7-B16 tumors show a striking decrease in IFN-?-mediated inflammatory gene expression in contrast to increased expression of VEGF-C, CCL21 and podoplanin by lymphatic vessels. Enhanced lymphangiogenesis may contribute to the dramatic increase in LN metastasis that is observed in the CCR7-expressing tumors.
Project description:We focused on the ability of the pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors AR42 and sodium valproate to alter the immunogenicity of melanoma cells. Treatment of melanoma cells with HDAC inhibitors rapidly reduced the expression of multiple HDAC proteins as well as the levels of PD-L1, PD-L2 and ODC, and increased expression of MHCA. In a cell-specific fashion, melanoma isolates released the immunogenic protein HMGB1 into the extracellular environment. Very similar data were obtained in ovarian and H&NSCC PDX isolates, and in established tumor cell lines from the lung and kidney. Knock down of HDAC1, HDAC3, HDAC8 and HDAC10, but not HDAC6, recapitulated the effects of the HDAC inhibitors on the immunotherapy biomarkers. Using B16 mouse melanoma cells we discovered that pre-treatment with AR42 or sodium valproate enhanced the anti-tumor efficacy of an anti-PD-1 antibody and of an anti-CTLA4 antibody. In the B16 model, both AR42 and sodium valproate enhanced the anti-tumor efficacy of the multi-kinase inhibitor pazopanib. In plasma from animals exposed to [HDAC inhibitor + anti-PD-1], but not [HDAC inhibitor + anti-CTLA4], the levels of CCL2, CCL5, CXCL9 and CXCL2 were increased. The cytokine data from HDAC inhibitor plus anti-PD-1 exposed tumors correlated with increased activated T cell, M1 macrophage, neutrophil and NK cell infiltration. Collectively, our data support the use of pan-HDAC inhibitors in combination with kinase inhibitors or with checkpoint inhibitor antibodies as novel melanoma therapeutic strategies.
Project description:Acquired resistance to standard therapies remains a serious challenge, requiring novel therapeutic approaches that incorporate potential factors involved in tumor resistance. As cancers including melanoma express inflammatory cyclooxygenases generating prostaglandins implicated in tumor growth, we investigated mechanism of anti-inflammatory drug, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) which has been shown to inhibit various tumor types, however, its effects against highly aggressive melanoma model are unclear. Given our reports that an activation of platelet-activating factor-receptor (PAF-R) augments the growth and impede efficacies of therapeutic agents in experimental melanoma, we also sought to determine if PAF-R mediates anti-melanoma activity of ASA. The current studies using stably PAF-R-positive (B16-PAFR) and negative (B16-MSCV) murine melanoma cells and PAF-R-expressing and deficient mice, demonstrate that ASA inhibits the in-vitro and in-vivo growth of highly aggressive B16F10 melanoma via bypassing tumoral or stromal PAF-R signaling. Similar ASA-induced effects in-vitro were seen in human melanoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells positive or negative in PAF-R. Mechanistically, the ASA-induced decrease in cell survival and increase in apoptosis were significantly blocked by prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2?) agonists. Importantly, PCR array and qRT-PCR analysis of B16-tumors revealed significant downregulation of sry-related high-mobility-box-2 (SOX2) oncogene by ASA treatment. Interestingly, modulation of SOX2 expression by PGF2? agonists and upregulation by fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF-1) rescued melanoma cells from ASA-induced decreased survival and increased apoptosis. Moreover, PGF2?-receptor antagonist, AL8810 mimics ASA-induced decreased melanoma cells survival which was significantly blocked by PGF2? and FGF-1. These findings indicate that ASA inhibits the growth of aggressive melanoma via SOX2-dependent-PAF-R-indepedent pathway.
Project description:We have previously designed and characterized versions of anthrax lethal toxin that are selectively cytotoxic in the tumor microenvironment and which display broad and potent anti-tumor activities in vivo. Here, we have performed the first direct comparison of the safety and efficacy of three engineered anthrax lethal toxin variants requiring activation by either matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs), urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) or co-localized MMP/uPA activities. C57BL/6J mice were challenged with six doses of engineered toxins via intraperitoneal (I.P.) or intravenous (I.V.) dose routes to determine the maximum tolerated dose for six administrations (MTD6) and dose-limiting toxicities. Efficacy was evaluated using the B16-BL6 syngraft model of melanoma; mice bearing established tumors were treated with six I.P. doses of toxin and tumor measurements and immunohistochemistry, paired with terminal blood work, were used to elaborate upon the anti-tumor mechanism and relative efficacy of each variant. We found that MMP-, uPA- and dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxins exhibited the same dose-limiting toxicity; dose-dependent GI toxicity. In terms of efficacy, all three toxins significantly reduced primary B16-BL6 tumor burden, ranging from 32% to 87% reduction, and they also delayed disease progression as evidenced by dose-dependent normalization of blood work values. While target organ toxicity and effective doses were similar amongst the variants, the dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxin exhibited the highest I.P. MTD6 and was 1.5-3-fold better tolerated than the single MMP- and uPA-activated toxins. Overall, we demonstrate that this dual MMP/uPA-activated anthrax lethal toxin can be administered safely and is highly effective in a preclinical model of melanoma. This modified bacterial cytotoxin is thus a promising candidate for further clinical development and evaluation for use in treating human cancers.
Project description:Recently, we showed that infection of primary lung tumor-bearing mice with oncolytic influenza A viruses (IAVs) led to strong virus-induced tumor cell lysis but also to restoration of immune competence of innate immune cells. Murine B16-F10 melanoma cells are known for their high lung tropism and progressive growth. As these cells are also highly permissive for IAVs, we analyzed their oncolytic and immunomodulatory efficiency against pulmonary B16-F10 lung metastases in vivo. IAV infection abrogated the melanoma-mediated immune suppression in the lung and induced a more than 50% cancer cell lysis. The oncolytic effect reached maximal efficacy 3 days post-infection, but it was not sustained over time. In order to maintain the virus-induced anti-tumor effect, mice with melanoma-derived lung cancers were treated in addition to influenza virus infection with an immune checkpoint inhibitor against programmed death-1 receptor (PD-1). The combined IAV and immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) therapy resulted in a sustained anti-tumor efficacy, keeping the lung melanoma mass at day 12 of IAV infection still reduced by 50% over the control mice. In conclusion, ICI treatment strongly enhanced the oncolytic effect of influenza virus infection, suggesting that combined treatment is a promising approach against metastatic pulmonary melanoma.
Project description:2'-hydroxyflavanone (2HF) is a dietary flavonoid with anticancer activity towardsmultiple cancers. Here, we report that topically applied 2HF inhibits the growth of intradermalimplants of melanoma in immunocompetent mice. 2HF induced apoptosis and inhibited the growthof the human SK-MEL-24 as well as murine B16-F0 and B16-F10 melanoma cell lines in vitro.Apoptosis was associated with depletion of caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP1 in B16-F0 and SKMEL-24 cells. Caspase-9 and MEKK-15 were undetected even in untreated B16-F10 cells. Signalingproteins TNF?, and phospho-PDGFR-? were depleted in all three cell lines; MEKK-15 was depletedby 2HF in SK-MEL-24 cells. 2HF enhanced sunitinib (an MEK and PDGFR-? inhibitor) and AZD2461 (a PARP1 inhibitor) cytotoxicity. 2HF also depleted the Ral-regulated, stress-responsive,antiapoptotic endocytic protein RLIP76 (RALBP1), the inhibition of which has previously beenshown to inhibit B16-F0 melanoma growth in vivo. Functional inhibition of RLIP76 was evidentfrom inhibition of epidermal growth factor (EGF) endocytosis by 2HF. We found that topicallyapplied 2HF-Pluronic Lecithin Organogel (PLO) gel inhibited B16-F0 and B16-F10 tumorsimplanted in mice and caused no overt toxicity despite significant systemic absorption. 2HFtreatment reduced phospho-AKT, vimentin, fibronectin, CDK4, cyclinB1, and BCL2, whereas itincreased BIM and phospho-AMPK in excised tumors. Several cancer signals are controlled byendocytosis, a process strongly inhibited by RLIP76 depletion. We conclude that 2HF-PLO gel maybe useful for topical therapy of cutaneous metastases of melanoma and could enhance theantineoplastic effects of sunitinib and PARP1 inhibitors. The mechanism of action of 2HF inmelanoma overlaps with RLI76 inhibitors.