Genetic Polymorphisms Affect Mouse and Human Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 Function.
ABSTRACT: Methamphetamine (MA) and neurotransmitter precursors and metabolites such as tyramine, octopamine, and ?-phenethylamine stimulate the G protein-coupled trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1). TAAR1 has been implicated in human conditions including obesity, schizophrenia, depression, fibromyalgia, migraine, and addiction. Additionally TAAR1 is expressed on lymphocytes and astrocytes involved in inflammation and response to infection. In brain, TAAR1 stimulation reduces synaptic dopamine availability and alters glutamatergic function. TAAR1 is also expressed at low levels in heart, and may regulate cardiovascular tone. Taar1 knockout mice orally self-administer more MA than wild type and are insensitive to its aversive effects. DBA/2J (D2) mice express a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in Taar1 that does not respond to MA, and D2 mice are predisposed to high MA intake, compared to C57BL/6 (B6) mice. Here we demonstrate that endogenous agonists stimulate the recombinant B6 mouse TAAR1, but do not activate the D2 mouse receptor. Progeny of the B6XD2 (BxD) family of recombinant inbred (RI) strains have been used to characterize the genetic etiology of diseases, but contrary to expectations, BXDs derived 30-40 years ago express only the functional B6 Taar1 allele whereas some more recently derived BXD RI strains express the D2 allele. Data indicate that the D2 mutation arose subsequent to derivation of the original RIs. Finally, we demonstrate that SNPs in human TAAR1 alter its function, resulting in expressed, but functional, sub-functional and non-functional receptors. Our findings are important for identifying a predisposition to human diseases, as well as for developing personalized treatment options.
Project description:Inbred mouse strains serve as important models for human presbycusis or age-related hearing loss. We previously mapped a locus (ahl8) contributing to the progressive hearing loss of DBA/2J (D2) mice and later showed that a missense variant of the Fscn2 gene, unique to the D2 inbred strain, was responsible for the ahl8 effect. Although ahl8 can explain much of the hearing loss difference between C57BL/6J (B6) and D2 strain mice, other loci also contribute. Here, we present results of our linkage analyses to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that modify the severity of hearing loss associated with the D2 strain Fscn2 (ahl8) allele. We searched for modifier loci by analyzing 31 BXD recombinant inbred (RI) lines fixed for the predisposing D2-derived Fscn2 (ahl8/ahl8) genotype and found a statistically significant linkage association of threshold means with a QTL on Chr 5, which we designated M5ahl8. The highest association (LOD 4.6) was with markers at the 84-90 Mb position of Chr 5, which could explain about 46 % of the among-RI strain variation in auditory brainstem response (ABR) threshold means. The semidominant nature of the modifying effect of M5ahl8 on the Fscn2 (ahl8/ahl8) phenotype was demonstrated by analysis of a backcross involving D2 and B6.D2-Chr11D/LusJ strain mice. The Chr 5 map position of M5ahl8 and the D2 origin of its susceptibility allele correspond to Tmc1m4, a previously reported QTL that modifies outer hair cell degeneration in Tmc1 (Bth) mutant mice, suggesting that M5ahl8 and Tmc1m4 may represent the same gene affecting maintenance of stereocilia structure and function during aging.
Project description:Recombinant inbred (RI) strains are an important resource for mapping complex traits in many species. While large RI panels are available for Arabidopsis, maize, C. elegans, and Drosophila, mouse RI panels typically consist of fewer than 30 lines. This is a severe constraint on the power and precision of mapping efforts and greatly hampers analysis of epistatic interactions.In order to address these limitations and to provide the community with a more effective collaborative RI mapping panel we generated new BXD RI strains from two independent advanced intercrosses (AI) between C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) progenitor strains. Progeny were intercrossed for 9 to 14 generations before initiating inbreeding, which is still ongoing for some strains. Since this AI base population is highly recombinant, the 46 advanced recombinant inbred (ARI) strains incorporate approximately twice as many recombinations as standard RI strains, a fraction of which are inevitably shared by descent. When combined with the existing BXD RI strains, the merged BXD strain set triples the number of previously available unique recombinations and quadruples the total number of recombinations in the BXD background.The combined BXD strain set is the largest mouse RI mapping panel. It is a powerful tool for collaborative analysis of quantitative traits and gene function that will be especially useful to study variation in transcriptome and proteome data sets under multiple environments. Additional strains also extend the value of the extensive phenotypic characterization of the previously available strains. A final advantage of expanding the BXD strain set is that both progenitors have been sequenced, and approximately 1.8 million SNPs have been characterized. This provides unprecedented power in screening candidate genes and can reduce the effective length of QTL intervals. It also makes it possible to reverse standard mapping strategies and to explore downstream effects of known sequence variants.
Project description:A quantitative trait locus (QTL) approach was used to define the genetic architecture underlying variation in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR), measured indirectly on seven occasions by the tail cuff procedure. The tests were conducted in 395 F(2) adult mice (197 males, 198 females) derived from a cross of the C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) strains and in 22 BXD recombinant-inbred (RI) strains. Interval mapping of F(2) data for the first 5 days of measurement nominated one statistically significant and one suggestive QTL for SBP on chromosomes (Chr) 4 and 14, respectively, and two statistically significant QTL for HR on Chr 1 (which was specific to female mice) and Chr 5. New suggestive QTL emerged for SBP on Chr 3 (female-specific) and 8 and for HR on Chr 11 for measurements recorded several weeks after mice had undergone stressful blood sampling procedures. The two statistically significant HR QTL were confirmed by analyses of BXD RI strain means. Male and female F(2) mice did not differ in SBP or HR but RI strain analyses showed pronounced strain-by-sex interactions and a negative genetic correlation between the two measures in both sexes. Evidence for a role for mitochondrial DNA was found for both HR and SBP. QTL for HR and SBP may differ in males and females and may be sensitive to different environmental contexts.
Project description:Individual genetic variation affects gene expression and cell phenotype by acting within complex molecular circuits, but this relationship is still largely unknown. Here, we combine genomic and meso-scale profiling with novel computational methods to detect genetic variants that affect the responsiveness of gene expression to stimulus (responsiveness QTLs) and position them in circuit diagrams. We apply this approach to study individual variation in transcriptional responsiveness to three different pathogen components in the model response of primary bone marrow dendritic cells (DCs) from recombinant inbred mice strains. We show that reQTLs are common both in cis (affecting a single target gene) and in trans (pleiotropically affecting co-regulated gene modules) and are specific to some stimuli but not others. Leveraging the stimulus-specific activity of reQTLs and the differential responsiveness of their associated targets, we show how to position reQTLs within the context of known pathways in this regulatory circuit. For example, we find that a pleiotropic trans-acting genetic factor in chr1:129-165Mb affects the responsiveness of 35 anti-viral genes only during an anti-viral like stimulus. Using RNAi we uncover RGS16 the likely causal gene in this interval, and an activator of the antiviral response. Our approach charts an experimental and analytic path to decipher the mechanisms underlying genetic variation in other complex circuits in primary mammalian cells. The transcriptional response of DCs to pathogen components in the context of the mouse BXD recombinant inbred lines. We isolated DCs from individual age-synchronized female mice of different BXD and parental strains. We measured 30 global transcription profiles in resting and stimulated DCs from two parental strains (B6 and D2) and six BXD strains. We used bone marrow derived primary DCs from a panel of recombinant inbred (RI) BXD mice derived from a cross of the parental C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) strains. We measured transcriptional responses in DCs from each of two parental strains and 6 BXD strains stimulated by three ligands of Toll-like receptors: LPS (TLR4 ligand), Pam3CSK ('PAM', TLR2 ligand) and poly IC (TLR3/RIG-I ligand).
Project description:Continued methamphetamine (MA) use is dependent on a positive MA experience and is likely attenuated by sensitivity to the aversive effects of MA. Bidirectional selective breeding of mice for high (MAHDR) or low (MALDR) voluntary consumption of MA demonstrates a genetic influence on MA intake. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping identified a QTL on mouse chromosome 10 that accounts for greater than 50% of the genetically-determined differences in MA intake in the MAHDR and MALDR lines. The trace amine-associated receptor 1 gene (Taar1) is within the confidence interval of the QTL and encodes a receptor (TAAR1) that modulates monoamine neurotransmission and at which MA serves as an agonist. We demonstrate the existence of a non-functional allele of Taar1 in the DBA/2J mouse strain, one of the founder strains of the selected lines, and show that this non-functional allele co-segregates with high MA drinking and with reduced sensitivity to MA-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and hypothermia. The functional Taar1 allele, derived from the other founder strain, C57BL/6J, segregates with low MA drinking and heightened sensitivity to MA-induced CTA and hypothermia. A role for TAAR1 in these phenotypes is corroborated in Taar1 transgenic mice: Taar1 knockout mice consume more MA and exhibit insensitivity to MA-induced CTA and hypothermia, compared with Taar1 wild-type mice. These are the first data to show that voluntary MA consumption is, in part, regulated by TAAR1 function. Behavioral and physiological studies indicate that TAAR1 function increases sensitivity to aversive effects of MA, and may thereby protect against MA use.
Project description:Current model DBA/2J (D2J) mice lack CD94 expression due to a deletion spanning the last coding exon of the Klrd1 gene that occurred in the mid- to late 1980s. In contrast, DBA/2JRj (D2Rj) mice, crosses derived from DBA/2J before 1984, and C57BL/6J (B6) mice lack the deletion and have normal CD94 expression. For example, BXD lines (BXD1-32) generated in the 1970s by crossing B6 and D2J do not segregate for the exonic deletion and have high expression, whereas BXD lines 33 and greater were generated after 1990 are segregating for the deletion and have highly variable Klrd1 expression. We performed quantitative trait locus analysis of Klrd1 expression by using BXD lines with different generation times and found that the expression difference in Klrd1 in the later BXD set is driven by a strong cis-acting expression quantitative trait locus. Although the Klrd1/CD94 locus is essential for mousepox resistance, the genetic variation among D2 substrains and the later set of BXD strains is not associated with susceptibility to the Influenza A virus PR8 strain. Substrains with nearly identical genetic backgrounds that are segregating functional variants such as the Klrd1 deletion are useful genetic tools to investigate biological function.
Project description:Purpose:The goal of the present study is to provide an independent assessment of the retinal transcriptome signatures of C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) mice, and to enhance existing microarray data sets for accurately defining the allelic differences in the BXD recombinant inbred strains. Methods:Retinas from B6 and D2 mice (three of each) were used for the RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis. Transcriptome features were examined for both strains. Differentially expressed genes between the two strains were identified, and bioinformatic analysis was performed to analyze the transcriptome differences between the B6 and D2 strains, including Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, Phenotype and Reactome enrichment, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis. The RNA-seq data were then directly compared with one of the microarray data sets (Department of Defense [DoD] Retina Normal Affy MoGene 2.0 ST RMA Gene Level Microarray Database) hosted on GeneNetwork. Results:RNA-seq provided an in-depth analysis of the transcriptome of the B6 and D2 retinas with a total of more than 30,000,000 reads per sample. More than 70% of the reads were uniquely mapped, resulting in a total of 18,100 gene counts for all six samples. A total of 1,665 genes were differentially expressed, with 858 of these more highly expressed in the B6 retinas and 807 more highly expressed in the D2 retinas. Several molecular pathways were differentially active between the two strains, including the retinoic acid metabolic process, endoplasmic reticulum lumen, extracellular matrix (ECM) organization, and the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. The most enriched KEGG pathways were the pentose and glucuronate interconversions pathway, the cytochrome P450 pathway, the protein digestion and absorption pathway, and the ECM-receptor interaction pathway. Each of these pathways had a more than fourfold enrichment. The DoD Normal Retina Microarray Database provided expression profiling for 26,191 annotated transcripts for B6 mouse, D2 mouse, and 53 BXD strains. A total of 13,793 genes in this microarray data set were comparable to the RNA-seq data set. For the B6 and D2 retinas, the RNA-seq data and the microarray data were highly correlated with each other (Pearson's r=0.780 for the B6 mice and 0.784 for D2 mice). These results suggest that the microarray data set can reliably detect differentially expressed genes between the B6 and D2 retinas, with an overall accuracy of 91.1%. Examples of true positive and false positive genes are provided. Conclusions:Retinal transcriptome features of B6 and D2 mouse strains provide a useful reference for a better understanding of the mouse retina. Generally, the microarray database presented on GeneNetwork shows good agreement with the RNA-seq data, but we note that any allelic difference between B6 and D2 mice should be verified with the latter.
Project description:The objective of our study was to identify genetic factors that regulate bone mineral density (BMD) in mice using well defined recombinant inbred strains. For this purpose we chose the BXD recombinant inbred (RI) strains derived from progeny of the C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2) progenitor strains. We sampled both male and female mice (?4 each) of 46 strains at 3 months-of-age, measured their BMD, and conducted QTL mapping. The data were analyzed to identify candidates genes contained within the most significant quantitative trait locus (QTL). Evaluation of candidate genes included functional assessment, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping and direct sequencing. We established that there was a QTL for BMD in males on chromosome 15 that has the impact larger than QTLs on all other chromosomes. The QTL on chromosome 15 was narrowed to a genomic region between 38 Mbp and 52 Mbp. By examining transcripts within this region, we found an important candidate gene: trichorhinophalangeal syndrome, type I (Trps1). SNP analysis identified a nonsynonymous SNP (rs32398060) in Trps1 that co-segregated with bone mineral density. Analysis of association between this SNP within TRPS1 and BMD in a human population confirmed its significance.
Project description:Over the past half century, thousands of quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified by using animal models and plant populations. However, the none-reliability and imprecision of the genomic regions of these loci have remained the major hurdle for the identification of the causal genes for the correspondent traits. We used a none-experimental strategy of strain number reduction for testing accuracy and ascertainment of the candidate region for QTL. We tested the strategy in over 400 analyses with data from 47 studies. These studies include: 1) studies with recombinant inbred (RI) strains of mice. We first tested two previously mapped QTL with well-defined genomic regions; We then tested additional four studies with known QTL regions; and finally we examined the reliability of QTL in 38 sets of data which are produced from relatively large numbers of RI strains, derived from C57BL/6J (B6) X DBA/2J (D2), known as BXD RI mouse strains; 2) studies with RI strains of rats and plants; and 3) studies using F2 populations in mice, rats and plants. In these cases, our method identified the reliability of mapped QTL and localized the candidate genes into the defined genomic regions. Our data also suggests that LRS score produced by permutation tests does not necessarily confirm the reliability of the QTL. Number of strains are not the reliable indicators for the accuracy of QTL either. Our strategy determines the reliability and accuracy of the genomic region of a QTL without any additional experimental study such as congenic breeding.
Project description:There has been little investigation of genetic factors and associated mechanisms that influence risk for development of methamphetamine (MA) dependence. Selectively bred mouse lines that exhibit high (MAHDR) or low (MALDR) levels of MA intake in a two-bottle choice MA drinking (MADR) procedure provide a genetic tool for this purpose. These lines were used to determine whether opioid sensitivity and MA intake are genetically associated, because opioid-mediated pathways influence some effects of MA. Sensitivity to the analgesic effects of the ?-opioid receptor (MOP-r) agonist fentanyl (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4?mg/kg) was examined using two acute thermal tests (hot plate and tail flick) and one chronic pain test (magnesium sulfate abdominal constriction). Locomotor stimulant responses to fentanyl (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4?mg/kg) and morphine (10, 20, 30?mg/kg) were also examined. In addition, MADR was measured in the progenitor strains [(C57BL/6J (B6), DBA/2J (D2)] of the F2 population from which the selected lines were generated. The MADR lines did not differ in sensitivity to the analgesic effects of fentanyl; however, MALDR mice exhibited greater locomotor activation than MAHDR mice to both fentanyl and morphine. D2 mice consumed more MA than B6 mice. The line differences for MA consumption and morphine activation recapitulated B6 and D2 strain differences for these two traits, but not strain differences previously found for opioid analgesic responses. These results support a negative genetic correlation between MA consumption and sensitivity to the stimulant effects of opioids and suggest the involvement of MOP-r regulated systems in MA intake.