A partly-contacted epitaxial lateral overgrowth method applied to GaN material.
ABSTRACT: We have discussed a new crystal epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) method, partly-contacted ELO (PC-ELO) method, of which the overgrowth layer partly-contacts with underlying seed layer. The passage also illustrates special mask structures with and without lithography and provides three essential conditions to achieve the PC-ELO method. What is remarkable in PC-ELO method is that the tilt angle of overgrowth stripes could be eliminated by contacting with seed layer. Moreover, we report an improved monolayer microsphere mask method without lithography of PC-ELO method, which was used to grow GaN. From the results of scanning electron microscopy, cathodoluminescence, x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscope (AFM), overgrowth layer shows no tilt angle relative to the seed layer and high quality coalescence front (with average linear dislocation density <6.4 × 10(3) cm(-1)). Wing stripes peak splitting of the XRD rocking curve due to tilt is no longer detectable. After coalescence, surface steps of AFM show rare discontinuities due to the low misorientation of the overgrowth regions.
Project description:Uncoalesced a-plane GaN epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) structures have been synthesized along two mask stripe orientations on a-plane GaN template by MOCVD. The morphology of two ELO GaN structures is performed by Scanning electronic microscopy. The anisotropy of crystalline quality and stress are investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy. According to the Raman mapping spectra, the variations on the intensity, peak shift and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of GaN E2 (high) peak indicate that the crystalline quality improvement occurs in the window region of the GaN stripes along , which is caused by the dislocations bending towards the sidewalls. Conversely, the wing regions have better quality with less stress as the dislocations propagated upwards when the GaN stripes are along . Spatial cathodoluminescence mapping results further support the explanation for the different dislocation growth mechanisms in the ELO processes with two different mask stripe orientations.
Project description:This work describes a novel architecture to realize high-performance gallium nitride (GaN) bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators. The method is based on the growth of a thick GaN layer on a metal electrode grid. The fabrication process starts with the growth of a thin GaN buffer layer on a Si (111) substrate. The GaN buffer layer is patterned and trenches are made and refilled with sputtered tungsten (W)/silicon dioxide (SiO?) forming passivated metal electrode grids. GaN is then regrown, nucleating from the exposed GaN seed layer and coalescing to form a thick GaN device layer. A metal electrode can be deposited and patterned on top of the GaN layer. This method enables vertical piezoelectric actuation of the GaN layer using its largest piezoelectric coefficient (d33) for thickness-mode resonance. Having a bottom electrode also results in a higher coupling coefficient, useful for the implementation of acoustic filters. Growth of GaN on Si enables releasing the device from the frontside using isotropic xenon difluoride (XeF?) etch and therefore eliminating the need for backside lithography and etching.
Project description:The tilt after-effect (TAE) is thought to be a manifestation of gain control in mechanisms selective for spatial orientation in visual stimuli. It has been demonstrated with luminance-defined stripes, contrast-defined stripes, orientation-defined stripes and even with natural images. Of course, all images can be decomposed into a sum of stripes, so it should not be surprising to find a TAE when adapting and test images contain stripes that differ by 15° or so. We show this latter condition is not necessary for the TAE with natural images: adaptation to slightly tilted and vertically filtered houses produced a 'repulsive' bias in the perceived orientation of horizontally filtered houses. These results suggest gain control in mechanisms selective for spatial orientation in natural images.
Project description:Two-dimensional (2D) polymers hold great promise in the rational materials design tailored for next-generation applications. However, little is known about the grain boundaries in 2D polymers, not to mention their formation mechanisms and potential influences on the material's functionalities. Using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, we present a direct observation of the grain boundaries in a layer-stacked 2D polyimine with a resolution of 2.3 Å, shedding light on their formation mechanisms. We found that the polyimine growth followed a "birth-and-spread" mechanism. Antiphase boundaries implemented a self-correction to the missing-linker and missing-node defects, and tilt boundaries were formed via grain coalescence. Notably, we identified grain boundary reconstructions featuring closed rings at tilt boundaries. Quantum mechanical calculations revealed that boundary reconstruction is energetically allowed and can be generalized into different 2D polymer systems. We envisage that these results may open up the opportunity for future investigations on defect-property correlations in 2D polymers.
Project description:Cytochrome oxidase (CO) reveals two compartments in V1 (patches and interpatches) and three compartments in V2 (thin, pale, and thick stripes). Previously, it was shown that thin stripes receive input predominantly from patches. Here we examined the projections to thick and pale stripes in macaques, revealed by retrograde tracer injections. After thick stripe injection, cells were distributed in layer 2/3 (67%), layer 4A (7%), layer 4B (23%), and layer 5/6 (2%). Except in layer 5/6, cells were concentrated in interpatches, with a stronger bias in layer 2/3 (84%) than in layer 4B (75%). After pale stripe injection, cells were found in layer 2/3 (87%), layer 4A (2%), layer 4B (10%), and layer 5/6 (2%). As for thick stripes, cells were located preferentially in interpatches in layer 2/3 (84%) and layer 4B (72%) but not in layer 5/6. Thick stripes received a higher proportion of their input from layer 4B, compared with pale stripes, consistent with reports that thick stripe neurons exhibit a pronounced layer 4B influence. This difference aside, both stripe types receive similar inputs from V1, at least in terms of cortical layer and CO compartment. This finding was bolstered by injecting different tracers into pale and thick stripes; 10-27% of cells were double labeled, with most located in interpatches. These results suggest that the distinctive receptive field properties of neurons in thick and pale stripes are generated by local V2 circuits, or by other specific projections, rather than by differing sources of laminar and compartmental input from V1.
Project description:A chemically defined patterned surface was created via a combined process of controlled evaporative self-assembly of concentric polymer stripes and the selective surface modification of polymer brush. The former process involved physical adsorption of poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) segments into silicon oxide surface, thus forming ultrathin PMMA stripes, whereas the latter process was based on the brush treatment of silicon native oxide surface using a hydroxyl-terminated polystyrene (PS-OH). The resulting alternating PMMA- and PS-rich stripes provided energetically favorable regions for self-assembly of high ? polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-b-PDMS) in a simple and facile manner, dispensing the need for conventional lithography techniques. Subsequently, deep reactive ion etching and oxygen plasma treatment enabled the transition of the PDMS blocks into oxidized groove-shaped nanostructures.
Project description:Pushing the emission wavelength of efficient ultraviolet (UV) emitters further into the deep-UV requires material with high crystal quality, while also reducing the detrimental effects of built-in electric fields. Crack-free semi-polar [Formula: see text] Al x Ga1-x N epilayers with AlN contents up to x = 0.56 and high crystal quality were achieved using an overgrowth method employing GaN microrods on m-sapphire. Two dominant emission peaks were identified using cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging. The longer wavelength peak originates near and around chevron-shaped features, whose density is greatly increased for higher contents. The emission from the majority of the surface is dominated by the shorter wavelength peak, influenced by the presence of basal-plane stacking faults (BSFs). Due to the overgrowth technique BSFs are bunched up in parallel stripes where the lower wavelength peak is broadened and hence appears slightly redshifted compared with the higher quality regions in-between. Additionally, the density of threading dislocations in these region is one order of magnitude lower compared with areas affected by BSFs as ascertained by electron channelling contrast imaging. Overall, the luminescence properties of semi-polar AlGaN epilayers are strongly influenced by the overgrowth method, which shows that reducing the density of extended defects improves the optical performance of high AlN content AlGaN structures.
Project description:Here we describe the production, using lithography and micro-engineering technologies, of patterned arrays of nanofabricated gold dots on a thin Si3N4 electron transparent layer, supported by silicon. We illustrate that the support with a patterned structure of nanosized gold can be exploited for (cryo) electron tomography application as a specimen support with predefined alignment markers. This nanogold patterned support has several advantages. The Si3N4 window provides a 50 nm thin, strong and flat support with a ~0.7 mm(2) large electron-beam transparent window. The nanogold pattern has a user-defined size and density, is highly regular and stable. This facilitates accurate tracking during tilt series acquisition, provides sufficient contrast for accurate alignment during the image reconstruction step and avoids an uneven lateral distribution and movement of individual fiducials. We showed that the support is suitable for electron tomography on plastic sections.
Project description:Directed self-assembly of block copolymers (BCPs) enables nanofabrication at sub-10 nm dimensions, beyond the resolution of conventional lithography. However, directing the position, orientation, and long-range lateral order of BCP domains to produce technologically-useful patterns is a challenge. Here, we present a promising approach to direct assembly using spatial boundaries between planar, low-resolution regions on a surface with different composition. Pairs of boundaries are formed at the edges of isolated stripes on a background substrate. Vertical lamellae nucleate at and are pinned by chemical contrast at each stripe/substrate boundary, align parallel to boundaries, selectively propagate from boundaries into stripe interiors (whereas horizontal lamellae form on the background), and register to wide stripes to multiply the feature density. Ordered BCP line arrays with half-pitch of 6.4?nm are demonstrated on stripes >80?nm wide. Boundary-directed epitaxy provides an attractive path towards assembling, creating, and lithographically defining materials on sub-10?nm scales.
Project description:Single-electron transistors would represent an approach to developing less power-consuming microelectronic devices if room temperature operation and industry-compatible fabrication were possible. We present a concept based on stripes of small, self-assembled, colloidal, metal nanoparticles on a back-gate device architecture, which leads to well-defined and well-controllable transistor characteristics. This Coulomb transistor has three main advantages. By using the scalable Langmuir-Blodgett method, we combine high-quality chemically synthesized metal nanoparticles with standard lithography techniques. The resulting transistors show on/off ratios above 90%, reliable and sinusoidal Coulomb oscillations, and room temperature operation. Furthermore, this concept allows for versatile tuning of the device properties such as Coulomb energy gap and threshold voltage, as well as period, position, and strength of the oscillations.