Biogenesis of reactive sulfur species for signaling by hydrogen sulfide oxidation pathways.
ABSTRACT: The chemical species involved in H2S signaling remain elusive despite the profound and pleiotropic physiological effects elicited by this molecule. The dominant candidate mechanism for sulfide signaling is persulfidation of target proteins. However, the relatively poor reactivity of H2S toward oxidized thiols, such as disulfides, the low concentration of disulfides in the reducing milieu of the cell and the low steady-state concentration of H2S raise questions about the plausibility of persulfide formation via reaction between an oxidized thiol and a sulfide anion or a reduced thiol and oxidized hydrogen disulfide. In contrast, sulfide oxidation pathways, considered to be primarily mechanisms for disposing of excess sulfide, generate a series of reactive sulfur species, including persulfides, polysulfides and thiosulfate, that could modify target proteins. We posit that sulfide oxidation pathways mediate sulfide signaling and that sulfurtransferases ensure target specificity.
Project description:Signaling by H2S is proposed to occur via persulfidation, a posttranslational modification of cysteine residues (RSH) to persulfides (RSSH). Persulfidation provides a framework for understanding the physiological and pharmacological effects of H2S. Due to the inherent instability of persulfides, their chemistry is understudied. In this review, we discuss the biologically relevant chemistry of H2S and the enzymatic routes for its production and oxidation. We cover the chemical biology of persulfides and the chemical probes for detecting them. We conclude by discussing the roles ascribed to protein persulfidation in cell signaling pathways.
Project description:Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is thought to signal through protein S-sulfuration (persulfidation; S-sulfhydration) in both mammalian systems and bacteria. We previously profiled proteome S-sulfuration in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and identified two thioredoxin-like proteins, designated TrxP and TrxQ, that were capable of reducing protein persulfides as a potential regulatory mechanism. In this study, we further characterize TrxP, TrxQ and the canonical thioredoxin, TrxA, by identifying candidate protein substrates in S. aureus cells using a mechanism-based profiling assay where we trap mixed disulfides that exist between the attacking cysteine of a FLAG-tagged Trx and a persulfidated cysteine on the candidate substrate protein in cells. Largely non-overlapping sets of four, 32 and three candidate cellular substrates were detected for TrxA, TrxP, and TrxQ, respectively, many of which were previously identified as global proteome S-sulfuration targets including for example, pyruvate kinase, PykA. Both TrxA (k cat = 0.13 s-1) and TrxP (k cat = 0.088 s-1) are capable of reducing protein persulfides on PykA, a model substrate detected as a candidate substrate of TrxP; in contrast, TrxQ shows lower activity (k cat = 0.015 s-1). This work reveals that protein S-sulfuration, central to H2S and reactive sulfur species (RSS) signaling, may impact cellular activities and appears to be regulated in S. aureus largely by TrxP under conditions of sulfide stress.
Project description:Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) elicits pleiotropic physiological effects ranging from modulation of cardiovascular to CNS functions. A dominant method for transmission of sulfide-based signals is via posttranslational modification of reactive cysteine thiols to persulfides. However, the source of the persulfide donor and whether its relationship to H2S is as a product or precursor is controversial. The transsulfuration pathway enzymes can synthesize cysteine persulfide (Cys-SSH) from cystine and H2S from cysteine and/or homocysteine. Recently, Cys-SSH was proposed as the primary product of the transsulfuration pathway with H2S representing a decomposition product of Cys-SSH. Our detailed kinetic analyses demonstrate a robust capacity for Cys-SSH production by the human transsulfuration pathway enzymes, cystathionine beta-synthase and ?-cystathionase (CSE) and for homocysteine persulfide synthesis from homocystine by CSE only. However, in the reducing cytoplasmic milieu where the concentration of reduced thiols is significantly higher than of disulfides, substrate level regulation favors the synthesis of H2S over persulfides. Mathematical modeling at physiologically relevant hepatic substrate concentrations predicts that H2S rather than Cys-SSH is the primary product of the transsulfuration enzymes with CSE being the dominant producer. The half-life of the metastable Cys-SSH product is short and decomposition leads to a mixture of polysulfides (Cys-S-(S)n-S-Cys). These in vitro data, together with the intrinsic reactivity of Cys-SSH for cysteinyl versus sulfur transfer, are consistent with the absence of an observable increase in protein persulfidation in cells in response to exogenous cystine and evidence for the formation of polysulfides under these conditions.
Project description:Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) participates in prokaryotic metabolism and is associated with several physiological functions in mammals. H2S reacts with oxidized thiol derivatives (i.e. disulfides and sulfenic acids) and thereby forms persulfides, which are plausible transducers of the H2S-mediated signaling effects. The one-cysteine peroxiredoxin alkyl hydroperoxide reductase E from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtAhpE-SH) reacts fast with hydroperoxides, forming a stable sulfenic acid (MtAhpE-SOH), which we chose here as a model to study the interactions between H2S and peroxiredoxins (Prx). MtAhpE-SOH reacted with H2S, forming a persulfide (MtAhpE-SSH) detectable by mass spectrometry. The rate constant for this reaction was (1.4 ± 0.2) × 103 m-1 s-1 (pH 7.4, 25 °C), six times higher than that reported for the reaction with the main low-molecular-weight thiol in M. tuberculosis, mycothiol. H2S was able to complete the catalytic cycle of MtAhpE and, according to kinetic considerations, it could represent an alternative substrate in M. tuberculosis. MtAhpE-SSH reacted 43 times faster than did MtAhpE-SH with the unspecific electrophile 4,4'-dithiodipyridine, a disulfide that exhibits no preferential reactivity with peroxidatic cysteines, but MtAhpE-SSH was less reactive toward specific Prx substrates such as hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite. According to molecular dynamics simulations, this loss of specific reactivity could be explained by alterations in the MtAhpE active site. MtAhpE-SSH could transfer its sulfane sulfur to a low-molecular-weight thiol, a process likely facilitated by the low pKa of the leaving thiol MtAhpE-SH, highlighting the possibility that Prx participates in transpersulfidation. The findings of our study contribute to the understanding of persulfide formation and reactivity.
Project description:Recent studies of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) signaling implicate low molecular weight (LMW) thiol persulfides and other reactive sulfur species (RSS) as signaling effectors. Here, we show that a CstR protein from the human pathogen Enterococcus faecalis ( E. faecalis), previously identified in Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus), is an RSS-sensing repressor that transcriptionally regulates a cst-like operon in response to both exogenous sulfide stress and Angeli's salt, a precursor of nitroxyl (HNO). E. faecalis CstR reacts with coenzyme A persulfide (CoASSH) to form interprotomer disulfide and trisulfide bridges between C32 and C61', which negatively regulate DNA binding to a consensus CstR DNA operator. A ? cstR strain exhibits deficiency in catheter colonization in a catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) mouse model, suggesting sulfide regulation and homeostasis is critical for pathogenicity. Cellular polysulfide metabolite profiling of sodium sulfide-stressed E. faecalis confirms an increase in both inorganic polysulfides and LMW thiols and persulfides sensed by CstR. The cst-like operon encodes two authentic thiosulfate sulfurtransferases and an enzyme we characterize here as an NADH and FAD-dependent coenzyme A (CoA) persulfide reductase (CoAPR) that harbors an N-terminal CoA disulfide reductase (CDR) domain and a C-terminal rhodanese homology domain (RHD). Both cysteines in the CDR (C42) and RHD (C508) domains are required for CoAPR activity and complementation of a sulfide-induced growth phenotype of a S. aureus strain lacking cstB, encoding a nonheme FeII persulfide dioxygenase. We propose that S. aureus CstB and E. faecalis CoAPR employ orthogonal chemistries to lower CoASSH that accumulates under conditions of cellular sulfide toxicity and signaling.
Project description:Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an important biological signaling agent that exerts action on numerous (patho)physiological processes. Once generated, H2S can be oxidized to generate reductant-labile sulfane sulfur pools, which include hydrodisulfides/persulfides. Despite the importance of hydrodisulfides in H2S storage and signaling, little is known about the physical properties or chemical reactivity of these compounds. We report here the synthesis, isolation, and characterization (NMR, IR, Raman, HRMS, X-ray) of a small-molecule hydrodisulfide and highlight its reactivity with reductants, nucleophiles, electrophiles, acids, and bases. Our experimental results establish that hydrodisulfides release H2S upon reduction and that deprotonation results in disproportionation to the parent thiol and S(0), thus providing a mechanism for transsulfuration in the sulfane sulfur pool.
Project description:Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has emerged as a signalling molecule capable of regulating several important physiological functions such as blood pressure, neurotransmission and inflammation. The mechanisms behind these effects are still largely elusive and oxidative posttranslational modification of cysteine residues (protein persulfidation or S-sulfhydration) has been proposed as the main pathway for H2S-induced biological and pharmacological effects. As a signalling mechanism, persulfidation has to be controlled. Using an improved tag-switch assay for persulfide detection we show here that protein persulfide levels are controlled by the thioredoxin system. Recombinant thioredoxin showed an almost 10-fold higher reactivity towards cysteine persulfide than towards cystine and readily cleaved protein persulfides as well. This reaction resulted in H2S release suggesting that thioredoxin could be an important regulator of H2S levels from persulfide pools. Inhibition of the thioredoxin system caused an increase in intracellular persulfides, highlighting thioredoxin as a major protein depersulfidase that controls H2S signalling. Finally, using plasma from HIV-1 patients that have higher circulatory levels of thioredoxin, we could prove depersulfidase role in vivo.
Project description:Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously produced gas that is toxic at high concentrations. It is eliminated by a dedicated mitochondrial sulfide oxidation pathway, which connects to the electron transfer chain at the level of complex III. Direct reduction of cytochrome c (Cyt C) by H2S has been reported previously but not characterized. In this study, we demonstrate that reduction of ferric Cyt C by H2S exhibits hysteretic behavior, which suggests the involvement of reactive sulfur species in the reduction process and is consistent with a reaction stoichiometry of 1.5 mol of Cyt C reduced/mol of H2S oxidized. H2S increases O2 consumption by human cells (HT29 and HepG2) treated with the complex III inhibitor antimycin A, which is consistent with the entry of sulfide-derived electrons at the level of complex IV. Cyt C-dependent H2S oxidation stimulated protein persulfidation in vitro, while silencing of Cyt C expression decreased mitochondrial protein persulfidation in a cell culture. Cyt C released during apoptosis was correlated with persulfidation of procaspase 9 and with loss of its activity. These results reveal a potential role for the electron transfer chain in general, and Cyt C in particular, for potentiating sulfide-based signaling.
Project description:Investigations into hydrogen sulfide (H2S) signaling pathways have demonstrated both the generation and importance of persulfides, which are reactive sulfur species that contain both reduced and oxidized sulfur. These observations have led researchers to suggest that oxidized sulfur species, including sulfane sulfur (S0), are responsible for many of the physiological phenomena initially attributed to H2S. A common method of introducing S0 to biological systems is the administration of organic polysulfides, such as diallyl trisulfide (DATS). However, prior reports have demonstrated that commercially-available DATS often contains a mixture of polysulfides, and furthermore a lack of structure-activity relationships for organic polysulfides has limited our overall understanding of different polysulfides and their function in biological systems. Advancing our interests in the chemical biology of reactive sulfur species including H2S and S0, we report here our investigations into the rates and quantities of H2S release from a series of synthetic, pure benzyl polysulfides, ranging from monosulfide to tetrasulfide. We demonstrate that H2S is only released from the trisulfide and tetrasulfide, and that this release requires thiol-mediated reduction in the presence of cysteine or reduced glutathione. Additionally, we demonstrate the different effects of trisulfides and tetrasulfides on cell proliferation in murine epithelial bEnd.3 cells.
Project description:Hydrogen sulfide signaling involves persulfide formation at specific protein Cys residues. However, overcoming current methodological challenges in persulfide detection and elucidation of Cys regeneration mechanisms from persulfides are prerequisites for constructing a bona fide signaling model. We here establish a novel, highly specific protein persulfide detection protocol, ProPerDP, with which we quantify 1.52 ± 0.6 and 11.6 ± 6.9 ?g/mg protein steady-state protein persulfide concentrations in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells and mouse liver, respectively. Upon treatment with polysulfides, HEK293 and A549 cells exhibited increased protein persulfidation. Deletion of the sulfide-producing cystathionine-?-lyase or cystathionine-?-synthase enzymes in yeast diminished protein persulfide levels, thereby corroborating their involvement in protein persulfidation processes. We here establish that thioredoxin (Trx) and glutathione (GSH) systems can independently catalyze reductions of inorganic polysulfides and protein persulfides. Increased endogenous persulfide levels and protein persulfidation following polysulfide treatment in thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR1) or thioredoxin-related protein of 14 kDa (TRP14) knockdown HEK293 cells indicated that these enzymes constitute a potent regeneration system of Cys residues from persulfides in a cellular context. Furthermore, TrxR1-deficient cells were less viable upon treatment with toxic amounts of polysulfides compared to control cells. Emphasizing the dominant role of cytosolic disulfide reduction systems in maintaining sulfane sulfur homeostasis in vivo, protein persulfide levels were markedly elevated in mouse livers where hepatocytes lack both TrxR1 and glutathione reductase (TR/GR-null). The different persulfide patterns observed in wild-type, GR-null, and TR/GR-null livers suggest distinct roles for the Trx and GSH systems in regulating subsets of protein persulfides and thereby fine-tuning sulfide signaling pathways.