Role(s) of IL-2 inducible T cell kinase and Bruton's tyrosine kinase in mast cell response to lipopolysaccharide.
ABSTRACT: Mast cells play critical roles during immune responses to the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that can lead to fatal septic hypothermia , , . IL-2 inducible T cell kinase (ITK) and Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) are non-receptor tyrosine kinases that act downstream of numerous receptors, and have been shown to modulate mast cell responses downstream of Fc?RI? , however, their roles in regulating mast cell responses to endotoxic stimuli were unclear. We found that the absence of ITK and BTK alters the mast cell response to LPS, and leads to enhanced pro-inflammatory cytokine production by mast cells and more severe LPS-induced hypothermia in mice . Here, we detail our investigation using microarray analysis to study the transcriptomic profiles of mast cell responses to LPS, and the roles of ITK and/or BTK expression in this process. Mouse whole genome array data of WT, Itk (-/-) , Btk (-/-) , and Itk (-/-) Btk (-/-) bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) stimulated by PBS (control) or LPS for 1 h were used in our latest research article  and is available in the Gene Expression Omnibus under accession number GSE64287.
Project description:Mast cells are indispensable for LPS-induced septic hypothermia, in which TNF-? plays an essential role to initiate septic responses. ITK and BTK regulate mast cell responses to allergens, but their roles in mast cell responses in LPS-induced sepsis are unclear.We sought to investigate the roles of ITK and BTK in mast cell responses during LPS-induced septic inflammation.Mice (genetically modified or bone marrow-derived mast cell-reconstituted Sash) were given LPS to induce septic hypothermia in the presence or absence of indicated inhibitors. Flow cytometry was used to determine LPS-induced cell influx and TNF-? production in peritoneal cells. Microarray was used for genomewide gene expression analysis on bone marrow-derived mast cells. Quantitative PCR and multiplex were used to determine transcribed and secreted proinflammatory cytokines. Microscopy and Western blotting were used to determine activation of signal transduction pathways.The absence of ITK and BTK leads to exacerbation of LPS-induced septic hypothermia and neutrophil influx. Itk(-/-)Btk(-/-) mast cells exhibit hyperactive preformed and LPS-induced TNF-? production, and lead to more severe LPS-induced septic hypothermia when reconstituted into mast cell-deficient Sash mice. LPS-induced nuclear factor kappa B, Akt, and p38 activation is enhanced in Itk(-/-)Btk(-/-) mast cells, and blockage of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, Akt, or p38 downstream mitogen-activated protein kinase interacting serine/threonine kinase 1 activation significantly suppresses TNF-? hyperproduction and attenuates septic hypothermia.ITK and BTK regulate thermal homeostasis during septic response through mast cell function in mice. They share regulatory function downstream of Toll-like receptor 4/LPS in mast cells, through regulating the activation of canonical nuclear factor kappa B, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase/Akt, and p38 signaling pathways.
Project description:Mast cells are critical effector cells in the pathophysiology of allergic asthma and other IgE-mediated diseases. The Tec family of tyrosine kinases Itk and Btk serve as critical signal amplifiers downstream of antigen receptors. Although both kinases are expressed and activated in mast cells following Fc?RI stimulation, their individual contributions are not clear. To determine whether these kinases play unique and/or complementary roles in Fc?RI signaling and mast cell function, we generated Itk and Btk double knock-out mice. Analyses of these mice show decreased mast cell granularity and impaired passive systemic anaphylaxis responses. This impaired response is accompanied by a significant elevation in serum IgE in Itk/Btk double knock-out mice. In vitro analyses of bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) indicated that Itk/Btk double knock-out BMMCs are defective in degranulation and cytokine secretion responses downstream to Fc?RI activation. These responses were accompanied by a significant reduction in PLC?2 phosphorylation and severely impaired calcium responses in these cells. This defect also results in altered NFAT1 nuclear localization in double knock-out BMMCs. Network analysis suggests that although they may share substrates, Itk plays both positive and negative roles, while Btk primarily plays a positive role in mast cell Fc?RI-induced cytokine secretion.
Project description:Mast cells are indispensable for LPS-induced septic hypothermia, in which TNF-α plays an essential role to initiate sepsis. Tec family non-receptor tyrosine kinases ITK and BTK regulate mast cell-derived TNF-α in response to allergic antigen, but their role in LPS-induced TNF-α production by mast cells and related pathology is unclear. We sought to investigate the role(s) of ITK and BTK in mast cell response in septic condition. We found that the absence of ITK and BTK leads to enhanced TNF-α production by bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC). Itk-/-Btk-/- mast cells exhibit hyperactive preformed and LPS-induced TNF-α production, along with enhanced expression of other related genes such as NF-κB targeted genes, compared to WT cells. Bone marrow cells from 8-week old WT, Itk-/-, Btk-/- and Itk-/-Btk-/- (double knockout: DKO) C57Bl/6 mice were cultured in murine Interleukin-3/Stem cell factor (IL-3/SCF) supplemented medium for 5 weeks to derive mast cells. WT, Itk-/-, Btk-/- and DKO bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) were factor starved in medium without IL-3/SCF for 12 hours, followed by treatment with PBS (control) or 100 ng/ml LPS for 1 hour. Triplicates of each group were subjected to mouse whole genome genechip microarray analysis. Replicates were randomized on different chips to avoid systematic error.
Project description:Mast cells infiltrate the sites of inflammation associated with chronic atopic disease and during helminth and bacterial infection. This process requires receptor-mediated cell chemotaxis across a concentration gradient of their chemotactic ligands. In vivo, mast cells are likely to be exposed to several such agents, which can cooperate in a synergistic manner to regulate mast cell homing. Here, we report that chemotaxis of mouse bone-marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) in response to the chemoattractants stem-cell factor (SCF) and prostaglandin (PG)E(2), is substantially enhanced following antigen-dependent ligation of the high-affinity receptor for IgE (Fc?RI). These responses were associated with enhanced activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and downstream activation of the tyrosine protein kinase Btk, with subsequent enhanced phospholipase (PL)C?-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization, Rac activation and F-actin rearrangement. Antigen-induced chemotaxis, and the ability of antigen to amplify responses mediated by SCF, adenosine and PGE(2) were suppressed following inhibition of PI3K, and were impaired in BMMCs derived from Btk(-/-) mice. There were corresponding decreases in the PLC?-mediated Ca(2+) signal, Rac activation and F-actin rearrangement, which, as they are essential for BMMC chemotaxis, accounts for the impaired migration of Btk-deficient cells. Taken together, these data demonstrate that, by regulating signaling pathways that control F-actin rearrangement, Btk is crucial for the ability of antigen to amplify mast-cell chemotactic responses.
Project description:Life stress is a major risk factor in the onset and exacerbation of mast cell-associated diseases, including allergy/anaphylaxis, asthma, and irritable bowel syndrome. Although it is known that mast cells are highly activated upon stressful events, the mechanisms by which stress modulates mast cell function and disease pathophysiology remains poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor subtype 1 (CRF1) in mast cell degranulation and associated disease pathophysiology. In a mast cell-dependent model of IgE-mediated passive systemic anaphylaxis (PSA), prophylactic administration of the CRF1-antagonist antalarmin attenuated mast cell degranulation and hypothermia. Mast cell-deficient KitW-sh/W-sh mice engrafted with CRF1-/- bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) exhibited attenuated PSA-induced serum histamine, hypothermia, and clinical scores compared with wild-type BMMC-engrafted KitW-sh/W-sh mice. KitW-sh/W-sh mice engrafted with CRF1-/- BMMCs also exhibited suppressed in vivo mast cell degranulation and intestinal permeability in response to acute restraint stress. Genetic and pharmacologic experiments with murine BMMCs, rat RBL-2H3, and human LAD2 mast cells demonstrated that although CRF1 activation did not directly induce MC degranulation, CRF1 signaling potentiated the degranulation responses triggered by diverse mast cell stimuli and was associated with enhanced release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores. Taken together, our results revealed a prominent role for CRF1 signaling in mast cells as a positive modulator of stimuli-induced degranulation and in vivo pathophysiologic responses to immunologic and psychologic stress.
Project description:Dasatinib is a small-molecule kinase inhibitor used for the treatment of imatinib-resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). We have analyzed the kinases targeted by dasatinib by using an unbiased chemical proteomics approach to detect binding proteins directly from lysates of CML cells. Besides Abl and Src kinases, we have identified the Tec kinases Btk and Tec, but not Itk, as major binders of dasatinib. The kinase activity of Btk and Tec, but not of Itk, was inhibited by nanomolar concentrations of dasatinib in vitro and in cultured cells. We identified the gatekeeper residue as the critical determinant of dasatinib susceptibility. Mutation of Thr-474 in Btk to Ile and Thr-442 in Tec to Ile conferred resistance to dasatinib, whereas mutation of the corresponding residue in Itk (Phe-435) to Thr sensitized the otherwise insensitive Itk to dasatinib. The configuration of this residue may be a predictor for dasatinib sensitivity across the kinome. Analysis of mast cells derived from Btk-deficient mice suggested that inhibition of Btk by dasatinib may be responsible for the observed reduction in histamine release upon dasatinib treatment. Furthermore, dasatinib inhibited histamine release in primary human basophils and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in immune cells. The observed inhibition of Tec kinases by dasatinib predicts immunosuppressive (side) effects of this drug and may offer therapeutic opportunities for inflammatory and immunological disorders.
Project description:Itk (interleukin-2-inducible T cell kinase) and Btk (Bruton's tyrosine kinase) are nonreceptor tyrosine kinases of the Tec family that signal downstream of the T cell receptor (TCR) and B cell receptor (BCR), respectively. Despite their high sequence similarity and related signaling roles, Btk is a substantially more active kinase than Itk. We showed that substitution of 6 of the 619 amino acid residues of Itk with the corresponding residues of Btk (and vice versa) was sufficient to completely switch the activities of Itk and Btk. The substitutions responsible for the swap in activity are all localized to the activation segment of the kinase domain. Nuclear magnetic resonance and hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry analyses revealed that Itk and Btk had distinct protein dynamics in this region, which could explain the differences in catalytic efficiency between these kinases. Introducing Itk with enhanced activity into T cells led to enhanced and prolonged TCR signaling compared to that in cells with wild-type Itk. These findings imply that evolutionary pressures have led to Tec kinases having distinct enzymatic properties, depending on the cellular context. We suggest that the weaker catalytic activities of T cell-specific kinases serve to regulate cellular activation and prevent aberrant immune responses.
Project description:In a mouse experimental asthma model, the administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), particularly at low doses, enhances the levels of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced eosinophilic airway inflammation. In an effort to clarify the cellular and molecular basis for the LPS effect, we demonstrate that the OVA-induced eosinophilic inflammation in the lung is dramatically increased by the administration of LPS in wild-type mice, whereas such increase was not observed in mast-cell-deficient mice or Toll-like receptor (TLR)4-deficient mice. Adoptive transfer of bone-marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) from wild-type, but not from TLR4-deficient, mice restored the increased eosinophilic inflammation in mast-cell-deficient mice. Wild-type BMMCs pretreated with LPS in vitro also reconstituted the eosinophilic inflammation. Moreover, in vitro analysis revealed that the treatment of BMMCs with LPS resulted in NF-kappaB activation, sustained up-regulation of GATA1 and -2 expression, and increased the capability to produce IL-5 and -13. Dramatic increases in the expression of IL-5 and -13 and Eotaxin 2 were detected in LPS-treated BMMCs after costimulation with LPS and IgE/Ag. Overexpression of GATA1, but not GATA2, in MC9 mast cells resulted in increased transcriptional activity of IL-4, -5, and -13. Furthermore, the levels of transcription of Th2 cytokines in BMMCs were decreased by the introduction of small interfering RNA for GATA1. Thus, mast cells appear to control allergic airway inflammation after their activation and modulation through TLR4-mediated induction of GATA1 and subsequent increase in Th2 cytokine production.
Project description:Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a member of the TEC family of kinases, plays a crucial role in B-cell maturation and mast cell activation. Although the structures of the unphosphorylated mouse BTK kinase domain and the unphosphorylated and phosphorylated kinase domains of human ITK are known, understanding the kinase selectivity profiles of BTK inhibitors has been hampered by the lack of availability of a high resolution, ligand-bound BTK structure. Here, we report the crystal structures of the human BTK kinase domain bound to either Dasatinib (BMS-354825) at 1.9 A resolution or to 4-amino-5-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-7H-pyrrolospyrimidin- 7-yl-cyclopentane at 1.6 A resolution. This data provides information relevant to the development of small molecule inhibitors targeting BTK and the TEC family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases. Analysis of the structural differences between the TEC and Src families of kinases near the Trp-Glu-Ile motif in the N-terminal region of the kinase domain suggests a mechanism of regulation of the TEC family members.
Project description:Mast cells are key participants in allergic diseases via activation of high-affinity IgE receptors (FcepsilonRI) resulting in release of proinflammatory mediators. The biochemical pathways linking IgE activation to calcium influx and cytoskeletal changes required for intracellular granule release are incompletely understood. We demonstrate, genetically, that Pak1 is required for this process. In a passive cutaneous anaphylaxis experiment, W(sh)/W(sh) mast cell-deficient mice locally reconstituted with Pak1(-/-) bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) experienced strikingly decreased allergen-induced vascular permeability compared with controls. Consistent with the in vivo phenotype, Pak1(-/-) BMMCs exhibited a reduction in FcepsilonRI-induced degranulation. Further, Pak1(-/-) BMMCs demonstrated diminished calcium mobilization and altered depolymerization of cortical filamentous actin (F-actin) in response to FcepsilonRI stimulation. These data implicate Pak1 as an essential molecular target for modulating acute mast cell responses that contribute to allergic diseases.