Treatment Response Assessment in IDH-Mutant Glioma Patients by Noninvasive 3D Functional Spectroscopic Mapping of 2-Hydroxyglutarate.
ABSTRACT: Measurements of objective response rates are critical to evaluate new glioma therapies. The hallmark metabolic alteration in gliomas with mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is the overproduction of oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), which plays a key role in malignant transformation. 2HG represents an ideal biomarker to probe treatment response in IDH-mutant glioma patients, and we hypothesized a decrease in 2HG levels would be measureable by in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) as a result of antitumor therapy.We report a prospective longitudinal imaging study performed in 25 IDH-mutant glioma patients receiving adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy. A newly developed 3D MRS imaging was used to noninvasively image 2HG. Paired Student t test was used to compare pre- and posttreatment tumor 2HG values. Test-retest measurements were performed to determine the threshold for 2HG functional spectroscopic maps (fSM). Univariate and multivariate regression were performed to correlate 2HG changes with Karnofsky performance score (KPS).We found that mean 2HG (2HG/Cre) levels decreased significantly (median = 48.1%; 95% confidence interval = 27.3%-56.5%;P= 0.007) in the posttreatment scan. The volume of decreased 2HG correlates (R(2)= 0.88,P= 0.002) with clinical status evaluated by KPS.We demonstrate that dynamic measurements of 2HG are feasible by 3D fSM, and the decrease of 2HG levels can monitor treatment response in patients with IDH-mutant gliomas. Our results indicate that quantitative in vivo 2HG imaging may be used for precision medicine and early response assessment in clinical trials of therapies targeting IDH-mutant gliomas.
Project description:The majority of WHO grades II and III gliomas harbor a missense mutation in the metabolic gene isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and accumulate the metabolite R-2-hydroxyglutarate (R-2HG). Prior studies showed that this metabolite can be detected in vivo using proton magnetic-resonance spectroscopy (MRS), but the sensitivity of this methodology and its clinical implications are unknown.We developed an MR imaging protocol to integrate 2HG-MRS into routine clinical glioma imaging and examined its performance in 89 consecutive glioma patients.Detection of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) in IDH-mutant gliomas was closely linked to tumor volume, with sensitivity ranging from 8% for small tumors (<3.4 mL) to 91% for larger tumors (>8 mL). In patients undergoing 2HG-MRS prior to surgery, tumor levels of 2HG corresponded with tumor cellularity but not with tumor grade or mitotic index. Cytoreductive therapy resulted in a gradual decrease in 2HG levels with kinetics that closely mirrored changes in tumor volume.Our study demonstrates that 2HG-MRS can be linked with routine MR imaging to provide quantitative measurements of 2HG in glioma and may be useful as an imaging biomarker to monitor the abundance of IDH-mutant tumor cells noninvasively during glioma therapy and disease monitoring.
Project description:Background:Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations result in abnormal accumulation of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) in gliomas that can be detected by MRS. We examined the diagnostic accuracy of 2HG single-voxel spectroscopy (SVS) and chemical shift imaging (CSI) in both newly diagnosed and posttreatment settings. Methods:Long echo time (97 ms) SVS and CSI were acquired in 85 subjects, including a discovery cohort of 39 patients who had postoperative residual or recurrent glioma with confirmed IDH-mutation status and 6 normal volunteers, a prospective preoperative validation cohort of 24 patients with newly diagnosed brain mass, and a prospective recurrent-lesion validation cohort of 16 previously treated IDH-mutant glioma patients with suspected tumor recurrence. The optimal thresholds for both methods in diagnosing IDH status were determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis in the discovery cohort and then applied to the 2 validation cohorts to assess the diagnostic performance. Results:The optimal 2HG/creatine thresholds of SVS and 75th percentile CSI for IDH mutations were 0.11 and 0.23, respectively. When applied to the validation sets, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in distinguishing IDH-mutant gliomas in the preoperative cohort were 85.71%, 100.00%, and 94.12% for SVS, and 100.00%, 69.23%, and 81.82% for CSI, respectively. In the recurrent-lesion cohort, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for discriminating IDH-positive recurrent gliomas were 40.00%, 62.50%, and 53.85% for SVS, and 66.67%, 100.00%, and 86.67% for CSI, respectively. Conclusions:2HG MRS provides diagnostic utility for IDH-mutant gliomas both preoperatively and at time of suspected tumor recurrence. SVS has a better diagnostic performance for untreated IDH-mutant gliomas, whereas CSI demonstrates greater performance in identifying recurrent tumors.
Project description:Background:Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) enzyme affect 40% of gliomas and represent a major diagnostic and prognostic marker. The goals of this study were to evaluate the performance of noninvasive magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) methods to determine the IDH status of patients with brain gliomas through detection of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) and to compare performance of these methods with DNA sequencing and tissue 2HG analysis. Methods:Twenty-four subjects with suspected diagnosis of low-grade glioma were included prospectively in the study. For all subjects, MRS data were acquired at 3T using 2 MRS methods, edited MRS using Mescher-Garwood point-resolved spectroscopy (MEGA-PRESS) sequence and a PRESS sequence optimized for 2HG detection, using a volume of interest larger than 6 mL. IDH mutational status was determined by a combination of automated immunohistochemical analysis and Sanger sequencing. Levels of 2HG in tissue samples measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were compared with those estimated by MRS. Results:Edited MRS provided 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity in the detection of 2HG. The 2HG levels estimated by this technique were in line with those derived from tissue samples. Optimized PRESS provided lower performance, in agreement with previous findings. Conclusions:Our results suggest that edited MRS is one of the most reliable tools to predict IDH mutation noninvasively, showing high sensitivity and specificity for 2HG detection. Integrating edited MRS in clinical practice may be highly beneficial for noninvasive diagnosis of glioma, prognostic assessment, and treatment planning.
Project description:Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene that are frequently observed in low-grade glioma are strongly associated with the accumulation of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG), which is a valuable diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of IDH1 mutant glioma. However, conventional MR spectroscopy (MRS)-based noninvasive detection of 2HG is challenging. In this study, we aimed to determine the additional value of other metabolites in predicting IDH1 mutations with conventional MRS.Forty-seven patients with glioma underwent conventional single voxel short echo time MRS prior to surgery. A stereotactic navigation-guided operation was performed to resect tumor tissues in the center of the MRS voxel. MRS-based measurements of metabolites were validated with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We also conducted integrated analyses of glioma cell lines and clinical samples to examine the other metabolite levels and molecular findings in IDH1 mutant gliomas.A metabolomic analysis demonstrated higher levels of 2HG in IDH1 mutant glioma cells and surgical tissues. Interestingly, glutamate levels were significantly decreased in IDH1 mutant gliomas. Through an analysis of metabolic enzyme genes in glutamine pathways, it was shown that the expressions of branched-chain amino acid transaminase 1 were reduced and glutamate dehydrogenase levels were elevated in IDH1 mutant gliomas. Conventional MRS detection of glutamate and 2HG resulted in a high diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 72%, specificity 96%) for IDH1 mutant glioma.IDH1 mutations alter glutamate metabolism. Combining glutamate levels optimizes the 2HG-based monitoring of IDH1 mutations via MRS and represents a reliable clinical application for diagnosing IDH1 mutant gliomas.
Project description:Background:Noninvasive and accurate modality to predict isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutant glioma may have great potential in routine clinical practice. We aimed to investigate the diagnostic performance of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for prediction of IDH mutant glioma and provide an optimal cutoff value for 2HG. Methods:A systematic literature search of Ovid-MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed to identify original articles investigating the diagnostic performance of 2HG MRS up to March 20, 2018. Pooled sensitivity and specificity were calculated using a bivariate random-effects model. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were performed to explain heterogeneity effects. An optimal cutoff value for 2HG was calculated from studies providing individual patient data. Results:Fourteen original articles with 460 patients were included. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for the diagnostic performance of 2HG MRS for prediction of IDH mutant glioma were 95% (95% CI, 85-98%) and 91% (95% CI, 83-96%), respectively. The Higgins I2 statistic demonstrated that heterogeneity was present in the sensitivity (I2 = 50.69%), but not in the specificity (I2 = 30.37%). In the meta-regression, echo time (TE) was associated with study heterogeneity. Among the studies using point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS), a long TE (97 ms) resulted in higher sensitivity (92%) and specificity (97%) than a short TE (30-35 ms; sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 88%; P < 0.01). The optimal 2HG cutoff value of 2HG using individual patient data was 1.76 mM. Conclusion:2HG MRS demonstrated excellent specificity for prediction of IDH mutant glioma, with TE being associated with heterogeneity in the sensitivity. Key Points:1. HG MRS has excellent diagnostic performance in the prediction of IDH mutant glioma. 2. The pooled sensitivity was 95% and the pooled specificity was 91%. 3. Echo time was associated with study heterogeneity in the meta-regression.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Gliomas with mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) produce high levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) that can be quantitatively measured by 3D magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI). Current glioma MRI primarily relies upon fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyperintensity for treatment planning, although this lacks specificity for tumor cells. Here, we investigated the relationship between 2HG and FLAIR in mutant IDH glioma patients to determine whether 2HG mapping is valuable for radiotherapy planning.<h4>Methods</h4>Seventeen patients with mutant IDH1 gliomas were imaged by 3 T MRI. A 3D MRSI sequence was employed to specifically image 2HG. FLAIR imaging was performed using standard clinical protocol. Regions of interest (ROIs) were determined for FLAIR and optimally thresholded 2HG hyperintensities. The overlap, displacement, and volumes of 2HG and FLAIR ROIs were calculated.<h4>Results</h4>In 8 of 17 (47%) patients, the 2HG volume was larger than FLAIR volume. Across the entire cohort, the mean volume of 2HG was 35.3 cc (range, 5.3-92.7 cc), while the mean volume of FLAIR was 35.8 cc (range, 6.3-140.8 cc). FLAIR and 2HG ROIs had mean overlap of 0.28 (Dice coefficients range, 0.03-0.57) and mean displacement of 12.2 mm (range, 3.2-23.5 mm) between their centers of mass.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results indicate that for a substantial number of patients, the 2HG volumetric assessment of tumor burden is more extensive than FLAIR volume. In addition, there is only partial overlap and asymmetric displacement between the centers of FLAIR and 2HG ROIs. These results may have important implications for radiotherapy planning of IDH mutant glioma.
Project description:Somatic mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)-1 and -2 have recently been described in glioma. This mutation leads to a neomorphic enzymatic activity as the conversion of isocitrate to alpha ketoglutarate (?KG) is replaced by the conversion of ?KG to D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG) with NADPH oxidation. It has been suggested that this oncometabolite D-2HG via inhibition of ?KG-dioxygenases is involved in multiple functions such as epigenetic modifications or hypoxia responses. The present study is aimed at deciphering how the mutant IDH can affect cancer pathogenesis, in particular with respect to its associated oncometabolite D-2HG. We show that the overexpression of mutant IDH in glioma cells or treatment with D-2HG triggered an increase in cell proliferation. However, although mutant IDH reduced cell sensitivity to the apoptotic inducer etoposide, D-2HG exhibited no effect on apoptosis. Instead, we found that the apoptotic effect was mediated through the mitochondrial NADH pool reduction and could be inhibited by oxamate. These data show that besides D-2HG production, mutant IDH affects other crucial metabolite pools. These observations lead to a better understanding of the biology of IDH mutations in gliomas and their response to therapy.
Project description:Mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase genes IDH1 and IDH2 are among the first genetic alterations observed during the development of lower-grade glioma (LGG). LGG-associated IDH mutations confer gain-of-function activity by converting ?-ketoglutarate to the oncometabolite R-2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). Clinical samples and gene expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) demonstrate reduced expression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated genes and IFN-?-inducible chemokines, including CXCL10, in IDH-mutated (IDH-MUT) tumors compared with IDH-WT tumors. Given these findings, we have investigated the impact of IDH mutations on the immunological milieu in LGG. In immortalized normal human astrocytes (NHAs) and syngeneic mouse glioma models, the introduction of mutant IDH1 or treatment with 2HG reduced levels of CXCL10, which was associated with decreased production of STAT1, a regulator of CXCL10. Expression of mutant IDH1 also suppressed the accumulation of T cells in tumor sites. Reductions in CXCL10 and T cell accumulation were reversed by IDH-C35, a specific inhibitor of mutant IDH1. Furthermore, IDH-C35 enhanced the efficacy of vaccine immunotherapy in mice bearing IDH-MUT gliomas. Our findings demonstrate a mechanism of immune evasion in IDH-MUT gliomas and suggest that specific inhibitors of mutant IDH may improve the efficacy of immunotherapy in patients with IDH-MUT gliomas.
Project description:IDH1 mutations are common in low-grade gliomas and secondary glioblastomas and cause overproduction of (R)-2HG. (R)-2HG modulates the activity of many enzymes, including some that are linked to transformation and some that are probably bystanders. Although prior work on (R)-2HG targets focused on 2OG-dependent dioxygenases, we found that (R)-2HG potently inhibits the 2OG-dependent transaminases BCAT1 and BCAT2, likely as a bystander effect, thereby decreasing glutamate levels and increasing dependence on glutaminase for the biosynthesis of glutamate and one of its products, glutathione. Inhibiting glutaminase specifically sensitized IDH mutant glioma cells to oxidative stress in vitro and to radiation in vitro and in vivo. These findings highlight the complementary roles for BCATs and glutaminase in glutamate biosynthesis, explain the sensitivity of IDH mutant cells to glutaminase inhibitors, and suggest a strategy for maximizing the effectiveness of such inhibitors against IDH mutant gliomas.