Genome-based microbial ecology of anammox granules in a full-scale wastewater treatment system.
ABSTRACT: Partial-nitritation anammox (PNA) is a novel wastewater treatment procedure for energy-efficient ammonium removal. Here we use genome-resolved metagenomics to build a genome-based ecological model of the microbial community in a full-scale PNA reactor. Sludge from the bioreactor examined here is used to seed reactors in wastewater treatment plants around the world; however, the role of most of its microbial community in ammonium removal remains unknown. Our analysis yielded 23 near-complete draft genomes that together represent the majority of the microbial community. We assign these genomes to distinct anaerobic and aerobic microbial communities. In the aerobic community, nitrifying organisms and heterotrophs predominate. In the anaerobic community, widespread potential for partial denitrification suggests a nitrite loop increases treatment efficiency. Of our genomes, 19 have no previously cultivated or sequenced close relatives and six belong to bacterial phyla without any cultivated members, including the most complete Omnitrophica (formerly OP3) genome to date.
Project description:Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a promising new process to treat high-strength nitrogenous wastewater. Due to the low growth rate of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria, efficient biomass retention is essential for reactor operation. Therefore, we studied the settling ability and community composition of the anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing granules, which were cultivated in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor seeded with aerobic granules. With this seed, the start-up period was less than 160 days at a NH(4)(+)-N removal efficiency of 94% and a loading rate of 0.064 kg N per kg volatile suspended solids per day. The formed granules were bright red and had a high settling velocity (41 to 79 m h(-1)). Cells and extracellular polymeric substances were evenly distributed over the anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing granules. The high percentage of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the granules could be visualized by fluorescent in situ hybridization and electron microscopy. The copy numbers of 16S rRNA genes of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in the granules were determined to be 4.6 x 10(8) copies ml(-1). The results of this study could be used for a better design, shorter start-up time, and more stable operation of anammox systems for the treatment of nitrogen-rich wastewaters.
Project description:Bio-augmentation could be a promising strategy to improve processes for treatment and resource recovery from wastewater. In this study, the Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis was co-cultured with the microbial communities present in wastewater samples with high concentrations of nitrate or ammonium. Glucose supplementation (1%) was used to boost biomass growth in all wastewater samples. In anaerobic conditions, the indigenous microbial community bio-augmented with B. subtilis was able to rapidly remove nitrate from wastewater. In these conditions, B. subtilis overexpressed nitrogen assimilatory and respiratory genes including NasD, NasE, NarG, NarH, and NarI, which arguably accounted for the observed boost in denitrification. Next, we attempted to use the the ammonium- and nitrate-enriched wastewater samples bio-augmented with B. subtilis in the cathodic compartment of bioelectrochemical systems (BES) operated in anaerobic condition. B. subtilis only had low relative abundance in the microbial community, but bio-augmentation promoted the growth of Clostridium butyricum and C. beijerinckii, which became the dominant species. Both bio-augmentation with B. subtilis and electrical current from the cathode in the BES promoted butyrate production during fermentation of glucose. A concentration of 3.4 g/L butyrate was reached with a combination of cathodic current and bio-augmentation in ammonium-enriched wastewater. With nitrate-enriched wastewater, the BES effectively removed nitrate reaching 3.2 mg/L after 48 h. In addition, 3.9 g/L butyrate was produced. We propose that bio-augmentation of wastewater with B. subtilis in combination with bioelectrochemical processes could both boost denitrification in nitrate-containing wastewater and enable commercial production of butyrate from carbohydrate- containing wastewater, e.g. dairy industry discharges. These results suggest that B. subtilis bio-augmentation in our BES promotes simultaneous wastewater treatment and butyrate production. Overall design: Examination of 8 different samples in MEC cells and each sample was sequenced four times to ensure sufficient sequencing depth.
Project description:Partial nitritation-anammox (PNA) permits energy effective nitrogen removal. Today PNA is used for treatment of concentrated and warm side streams at wastewater treatment plants, but not the more diluted and colder main stream. To implement PNA in the main stream, better knowledge about microbial communities at the typical environmental conditions is necessary. In order to investigate the response of PNA microbial communities to decreasing substrate availability, we have operated a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) at decreasing reactor concentrations (311-27 mg-N l-1 of ammonium) and low temperature (13°C) for 302 days and investigated the biofilm community using high throughput amplicon sequencing; quantitative PCR; and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The anammox bacteria (Ca. Brocadia) constituted a large fraction of the biomass with fewer aerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and even less nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB; Nitrotoga, Nitrospira and Nitrobacter). Still, NOB had considerable impact on the process performance. The anammox bacteria, AOB and NOB all harboured more than one population, indicating some diversity, and the heterotrophic bacterial community was diverse (seven phyla). Despite the downshifts in substrate availability, changes in the relative abundance and composition of anammox bacteria, AOB and NOB were small and also the heterotrophic community showed little changes in composition. This indicates stability of PNA MBBR communities towards decreasing substrate availability and suggests that even heterotrophic bacteria are integral components of these communities.
Project description:Implementation of partial nitritation anammox (PNA) in the mainstream (municipal wastewater treatment) is still under investigation. Microbial community structure and reactor type can influence the performance of PNA reactor; yet, little is known about the role of the community composition of the inoculum and the reactor configuration under mainstream conditions. Therefore, this study investigated the community structure of inocula of different origin and their consecutive community dynamics in four different lab-scale PNA reactors with 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. These reactors were operated for almost 1 year and subjected to realistic seasonal temperature fluctuations as in moderate climate regions, that is, from 20°C in summer to 10°C in winter. The sequencing analysis revealed that the bacterial community in the reactors comprised: (1) a nitrifying community (consisting of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB), ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB)); (2) different heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria and other putative heterotrophic bacteria (HB). The nitrifying community was the same in all four reactors at the genus level, although the biomasses were of different origin. Community dynamics revealed a stable community in the moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) in contrast to the sequencing batch reactors (SBR) at the genus level. Moreover, the reactor design seemed to influence the community dynamics, and reactor operation significantly influenced the overall community composition. The MBBR seems to be the reactor type of choice for mainstream wastewater treatment.
Project description:Anaerobic wastewater treatment offers several advantages; however, the effluent of anaerobic digesters still contains high levels of ammonium and dissolved methane that need to be removed before these effluents can be discharged to surface waters. The simultaneous anaerobic removal of methane and ammonium by denitrifying (N-damo) methanotrophs in combination with anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria could be a potential solution to this challenge. After a molecular survey of a wastewater plant treating brewery effluent, indicating the presence of both N-damo and anammox bacteria, we started an anaerobic bioreactor with a continuous supply of methane, ammonium, and nitrite to enrich these anaerobic microorganisms. After 14 months of operation, a stable enrichment culture containing two types of 'Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera' bacteria and two strains of 'Ca. Brocadia'-like anammox bacteria was achieved. In this community, anammox bacteria converted 80% of the nitrite with ammonium, while 'Ca. Methylomirabilis' contributed to 20% of the nitrite consumption. The analysis of metagenomic 16S rRNA reads and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) correlated well and showed that, after 14 months, 'Ca. Methylomirabilis' and anammox bacteria constituted approximately 30 and 20% of the total microbial community. In addition, a substantial part (10%) of the community consisted of Phycisphaera-related planctomycetes. Assembly and binning of the metagenomic sequences resulted in high-quality draft genome of two 'Ca. Methylomirabilis' species containing the marker genes pmoCAB, xoxF, and nirS and putative NO dismutase genes. The anammox draft genomes most closely related to 'Ca. Brocadia fulgida' included the marker genes hzsABC, hao, and hdh. Whole-reactor and batch anaerobic activity measurements with methane, ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate revealed an average anaerobic methane oxidation rate of 0.12 mmol h-1 L-1 and ammonium oxidation rate of 0.5 mmol h-1 L-1. Together, this study describes the enrichment and draft genomes of anaerobic methanotrophs from a brewery wastewater treatment plant, where these organisms together with anammox bacteria can contribute significantly to the removal of methane and ammonium in a more sustainable way. KEY POINTS: • An enrichment culture containing both N-damo and anammox bacteria was obtained. • Simultaneous consumption of ammonia, nitrite, and methane under anoxic conditions. • In-depth metagenomic biodiversity analysis of inoculum and enrichment culture.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The metabolic capacities of anammox bacteria and associated microbial community interactions in partial-nitritation anammox (PNA) reactors have received considerable attention for their crucial roles in energy-efficient nitrogen removal from wastewater. However, a comprehensive understanding of how abiotic and biotic factors shape bacterial community assembly in PNA reactors is not well reported.<h4>Results</h4>Here, we used integrated multi-omics (i.e., high-throughput 16S rRNA gene, metagenomic, metatranscriptomic, and metaproteomic sequencing) to reveal how abiotic and biotic factors shape the bacterial community assembly in a lab-scale one-stage PNA reactor treating synthetic wastewater. Analysis results of amplicon sequences (16S rRNA gene) from a time-series revealed distinct relative abundance patterns of the key autotrophic bacteria, i.e., anammox bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), and the associated heterotrophic populations in the seed sludge and the sludge at the new stable state after deterioration. Using shotgun metagenomic sequences of anammox sludge, we recovered 58 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), including 3 MAGs of anammox bacteria and 3 MAGs of AOB. The integrated metagenomic, metatranscriptomic, and metaproteomic data revealed that nitrogen metabolism is the most active process in the studied PNA reactor. The abundant heterotrophs contribute to the reduction of nitrate to nitrite/ammonium for autotrophic bacteria (anammox bacteria and AOB). Genomic and transcriptomic data revealed that the preference for electron donors of the dominant heterotrophs in different bacterial assemblages (seed and new stable state) varied along with the shift in anammox bacteria that have different metabolic features in terms of EPS composition. Notably, the most abundant heterotrophic bacteria in the reactor were more auxotrophic than the less abundant heterotrophs, regarding the syntheses of amino acids and vitamins. In addition, one of the abundant bacteria observed in the bacterial community exhibited highly transcribed secretion systems (type VI).<h4>Conclusions</h4>These findings provide the first insight that the bacterial communities in the PNA reactor are defined by not only abiotic factors (operating mode) but also metabolic interactions, such as nitrogen metabolism, exchange of electron donors, and auxotrophies.
Project description:The microbial community diversity in anaerobic-, anoxic- and oxic-biological zones of a conventional Carrousel oxidation ditch system for domestic wastewater treatment was systematically investigated. The monitored results of the activated sludge sampled from six full-scale WWTPs indicated that Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Acidobacteria and Nitrospirae were dominant phyla, and Nitrospira was the most abundant and ubiquitous genus across the three biological zones. The anaerobic-, anoxic- and oxic-zones shared approximately similar percentages across the 50 most abundant genera, and three genera (i.e. uncultured bacterium PeM15, Methanosaeta and Bellilinea) presented statistically significantly differential abundance in the anoxic-zone. Illumina high-throughput sequences related to ammonium oxidizer organisms and denitrifiers with top50 abundance in all samples were Nitrospira, uncultured Nitrosomonadaceae, Dechloromonas, Thauera, Denitratisoma, Rhodocyclaceae (norank) and Comamonadaceae (norank). Moreover, environmental variables such as water temperature, water volume, influent ammonium nitrogen, influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and effluent COD exhibited significant correlation to the microbial community according to the Monte Carlo permutation test analysis (p < 0.05). The abundance of Nitrospira, uncultured Nitrosomonadaceae and Denitratisoma presented strong positive correlations with the influent/effluent concentration of COD and ammonium nitrogen, while Dechloromonas, Thauera, Rhodocyclaceae (norank) and Comamonadaceae (norank) showed positive correlations with water volume and temperature. The established relationship between microbial community and environmental variables in different biologically functional zones of the six representative WWTPs at different geographical locations made the present work of potential use for evaluation of practical wastewater treatment processes.
Project description:To understand the diversity and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in pharmaceutical wastewater treatment bioreactors, the ARGs in sludge from two full-scale pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants (PWWTPs) were investigated and compared with sludge samples from three sewage treatment plants (STPs) using metagenomic approach. The results showed that the ARG abundances in PWWTP sludge ranged from 54.7 to 585.0 ppm, which were higher than those in STP sludge (27.2 to 86.4 ppm). Moreover, the diversity of ARGs in PWWTP aerobic sludge (153 subtypes) was higher than that in STP aerobic sludge (118 subtypes). In addition, it was found that the profiles of ARGs in PWWTP aerobic sludge were similar to those in STP aerobic sludge but different from those in PWWTP anaerobic sludge, suggesting that dissolve oxygen (DO) could be one of the important factors affecting the profiles of ARGs. In PWWTP aerobic sludge, aminoglycoside, sulfonamide and multidrug resistance genes were frequently detected. While, tetracycline, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin and polypeptide resistance genes were abundantly present in PWWTP anaerobic sludge. Furthermore, we investigated the microbial community and the correlation between microbial community and ARGs in PWWTP sludge. And, significant correlations between ARG types and seven bacterial genera were found. In addition, the mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were also examined and correlations between the ARGs and MGEs in PWWTP sludge were observed. Collectively, our results suggested that the microbial community and MGEs, which could be affected by DO, might be the main factors shaping the profiles of ARGs in PWWTP sludge.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Manufactured silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most commonly used nanomaterials in consumer goods and consequently their concentrations in wastewater and hence wastewater treatment plants are predicted to increase. We investigated the fate of AgNPs in sludge that was subjected to aerobic and anaerobic treatment and the impact of AgNPs on microbial processes and communities. The initial identification of AgNPs in sludge was carried out using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The solid phase speciation of silver in sludge and wastewater influent was then examined using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The effects of transformed AgNPs (mainly Ag-S phases) on nitrification, wastewater microbial populations and, for the first time, methanogenesis was investigated. RESULTS: Sequencing batch reactor experiments and anaerobic batch tests, both demonstrated that nitrification rate and methane production were not affected by the addition of AgNPs [at 2.5 mg Ag L(-1) (4.9 g L(-1) total suspended solids, TSS) and 183.6 mg Ag kg (-1) (2.9 g kg(-1) total solids, TS), respectively]. The low toxicity is most likely due to AgNP sulfidation. XAS analysis showed that sulfur bonded Ag was the dominant Ag species in both aerobic (activated sludge) and anaerobic sludge. In AgNP and AgNO3 spiked aerobic sludge, metallic Ag was detected (~15%). However, after anaerobic digestion, Ag(0) was not detected by XAS analysis. Dominant wastewater microbial populations were not affected by AgNPs as determined by DNA extraction and pyrotag sequencing. However, there was a shift in niche populations in both aerobic and anaerobic sludge, with a shift in AgNP treated sludge compared with controls. This is the first time that the impact of transformed AgNPs (mainly Ag-S phases) on anaerobic digestion has been reported. CONCLUSIONS: Silver NPs were transformed to Ag-S phases during activated sludge treatment (prior to anaerobic digestion). Transformed AgNPs, at predicted future Ag wastewater concentrations, did not affect nitrification or methanogenesis. Consequently, AgNPs are very unlikely to affect the efficient functioning of wastewater treatment plants. However, AgNPs may negatively affect sub-dominant wastewater microbial communities.
Project description:Deep-sea hydrothermal vents are hotspots for productivity and biodiversity. Thermal pyrolysis and circulation produce fluids rich in hydrocarbons and reduced compounds that stimulate microbial activity in surrounding sediments. Several studies have characterized the diversity of Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California) sediment-inhabiting microorganisms; however, many of the identified taxa lack cultures or genomic representations. Here, we resolved the metabolic potential and community-level interactions of these diverse communities by reconstructing and analyzing microbial genomes from metagenomic sequencing data.We reconstructed 115 microbial metagenome-assembled genomes comprising 27 distinct archaeal and bacterial phyla. The archaea included members of the DPANN and TACK superphyla, Bathyarchaeota, novel Methanosarcinales (GoM-Arc1), and anaerobic methane-oxidizing lineages (ANME-1). Among the bacterial phyla, members of the Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, and Deltaproteobacteria were metabolically versatile and harbored potential pathways for hydrocarbon and lipid degradation and a variety of respiratory processes. Genes encoding enzymes that activate anaerobic hydrocarbons for degradation were detected in Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Latescibacteria, and KSB1 phyla, while the reconstructed genomes for most candidate bacteria phyla (Aminicenantes, Atribacteria, Omnitrophica, and Stahlbacteria) indicated a fermentative metabolism. Newly obtained GoM-Arc1 archaeal genomes encoded novel pathways for short-chain hydrocarbon oxidation by alkyl-coenzyme M formation. We propose metabolic linkages among different functional groups, such as fermentative community members sharing substrate-level interdependencies with sulfur- and nitrogen-cycling microbes.Overall, inferring the physiologies of archaea and bacteria from metagenome-assembled genomes in hydrothermal deep-sea sediments has revealed potential mechanisms of carbon cycling in deep-sea sediments. Our results further suggest a network of biogeochemical interdependencies in organic matter utilization, hydrocarbon degradation, and respiratory sulfur cycling among deep-sea-inhabiting microbial communities.