Practical carbon-carbon bond formation from olefins through nickel-catalyzed reductive olefin hydrocarbonation.
ABSTRACT: New carbon-carbon bond formation reactions expand our horizon of retrosynthetic analysis for the synthesis of complex organic molecules. Although many methods are now available for the formation of C(sp(2))-C(sp(3)) and C(sp(3))-C(sp(3)) bonds via transition metal-catalyzed cross-coupling of alkyl organometallic reagents, direct use of readily available olefins in a formal fashion of hydrocarbonation to make C(sp(2))-C(sp(3)) and C(sp(3))-C(sp(3)) bonds remains to be developed. Here we report the discovery of a general process for the intermolecular reductive coupling of unactivated olefins with alkyl or aryl electrophiles under the promotion of a simple nickel catalyst system. This new reaction presents a conceptually unique and practical strategy for the construction of C(sp(2))-C(sp(3)) and C(sp(3))-C(sp(3)) bonds without using any organometallic reagent. The reductive olefin hydrocarbonation also exhibits excellent compatibility with varieties of synthetically important functional groups and therefore, provides a straightforward approach for modification of complex organic molecules containing olefin groups.
Project description:This Article details the development of the iron-catalyzed conversion of olefins to radicals and their subsequent use in the construction of C-C bonds. Optimization of a reductive diene cyclization led to the development of an intermolecular cross-coupling of electronically-differentiated donor and acceptor olefins. Although the substitution on the donor olefins was initially limited to alkyl and aryl groups, additional efforts culminated in the expansion of the scope of the substitution to various heteroatom-based functionalities, providing a unified olefin reactivity. A vinyl sulfone acceptor olefin was developed, which allowed for the efficient synthesis of sulfone adducts that could be used as branch points for further diversification. Moreover, this reactivity was extended into an olefin-based Minisci reaction to functionalize heterocyclic scaffolds. Finally, mechanistic studies resulted in a more thorough understanding of the reaction, giving rise to the development of a more efficient second-generation set of olefin cross-coupling conditions.
Project description:Conjugate addition of organometallic reagents to enones to form silyl enol ether products is a versatile method to difunctionalize activated olefins, but the organometallic reagents required can be limiting. The reductive cross-electrophile coupling of unhindered primary alkyl bromides with enones and chlorosilanes to form silyl enol ether products is catalyzed by a nickel-complexed ortho-brominated terpyridine ligand. The conditions are compatible with a variety of cyclic/acyclic enones and functional groups.
Project description:Carbon-carbon bonds, including those between sp3-hybridized carbon atoms (alkyl-alkyl bonds), typically comprise much of the framework of organic molecules. In the case of sp3-hybridized carbon, the carbon can be stereogenic and the particular stereochemistry can have implications for structure and function1-3. As a consequence, the development of methods that simultaneously construct alkyl-alkyl bonds and control stereochemistry is important, although challenging. Here we describe a strategy for enantioselective alkyl-alkyl bond formation, in which a racemic alkyl electrophile is coupled with an olefin in the presence of a hydrosilane, rather than via a traditional electrophile-nucleophile cross-coupling, through the action of a chiral nickel catalyst. We demonstrate that families of racemic alkyl halides-including secondary and tertiary electrophiles, which have not previously been shown to be suitable for enantioconvergent coupling with alkyl metal nucleophiles-cross-couple with olefins with good enantioselectivity and yield under very mild reaction conditions. Given the ready availability of olefins, our approach opens the door to developing more general methods for enantioconvergent alkyl-alkyl coupling.
Project description:Photoinduced, copper-catalyzed coupling reactions are emerging as a powerful method for generating Csp3-Y (Y = C or heteroatom) bonds from alkyl electrophiles and nucleophiles. Corresponding three-component couplings of alkyl electrophiles, olefins, and nucleophiles have the potential to generate an additional Csp3-Y bond and to efficiently add functional groups to both carbons of an olefin, which serves as a readily available linchpin. In this report, we establish that a variety of electrophiles and a trifluoromethylthiolate nucleophile can add across an array of olefins (including styrenes and electron-poor olefins) in the presence of CuI/binap and blue-LED irradiation, thereby generating trifluoromethyl thioethers in good yield. The process tolerates a wide range of functional groups, and an initial survey of other nucleophiles (i.e., bromide, cyanide, and azide) suggests that this three-component coupling strategy is versatile. Mechanistic studies are consistent with a photoexcited Cu(I)/binap/SCF3 complex serving as a reductant to generate an alkyl radical from the electrophile, which likely reacts in turn with the olefin and a Cu(II)/SCF3 complex to afford the coupling product.
Project description:Metal-catalyzed cross-couplings provide powerful, concise, and accurate methods to construct carbon-carbon bonds from organohalides and organometallic reagents. Recent developments extended cross-couplings to reactions where one of the two partners connects with an aryl or alkyl carbon-hydrogen bond. From an economic and environmental point of view, oxidative couplings between two carbon-hydrogen bonds would be ideal. Oxidative coupling between phenyl and "inert" alkyl carbon-hydrogen bonds still awaits realization. It is very difficult to develop successful strategies for oxidative coupling of two carbon-hydrogen bonds owning different chemical properties. This article provides a solution to this challenge in a convenient preparation of dihydrobenzofurans from substituted phenyl alkyl ethers. For the phenyl carbon-hydrogen bond activation, our choice falls on the carboxylic acid fragment to form the palladacycle as a key intermediate. Through careful manipulation of an additional ligand, the second "inert" alkyl carbon-hydrogen bond activation takes place to facilitate the formation of structurally diversified dihydrobenzofurans.Cross-dehydrogenative coupling is finding increasing application in synthesis, but coupling two chemically distinct sites remains a challenge. Here, the authors report an oxidative coupling between sp <sup>2</sup> and sp <sup>3</sup> carbons by sequentially activating the more active aryl site followed by the alkyl position.
Project description:Olefin chemistry, through pericyclic reactions, polymerizations, oxidations, or reductions, has an essential role in the manipulation of organic matter. Despite its importance, olefin synthesis still relies largely on chemistry introduced more than three decades ago, with metathesis being the most recent addition. Here we describe a simple method of accessing olefins with any substitution pattern or geometry from one of the most ubiquitous and variegated building blocks of chemistry: alkyl carboxylic acids. The activating principles used in amide-bond synthesis can therefore be used, with nickel- or iron-based catalysis, to extract carbon dioxide from a carboxylic acid and economically replace it with an organozinc-derived olefin on a molar scale. We prepare more than 60 olefins across a range of substrate classes, and the ability to simplify retrosynthetic analysis is exemplified with the preparation of 16 different natural products across 10 different families.
Project description:Radical hydrofunctionalization occurs with ease using metal-hydride hydrogen atom transfer (MHAT) catalysis to couple alkenes and competent radicalophilic electrophiles. Traditional two-electron electrophiles have remained unreactive. Herein we report the reductive coupling of electronically unbiased olefins with imines and aldehydes. Iron catalysis allows addition of alkyl-substituted olefins into imines through the intermediacy of free radicals, whereas a combination of catalytic Co(Sal t-Bu, t-Bu) and chromium salts enables a branch-selective coupling of olefins and aldehydes through the formation of a putative alkyl chromium intermediate.
Project description:Nickel-catalyzed cross-electrophile couplings have recently emerged as highly effective and practical methods for the formation of C-C bonds. By merging this process with well-established ?-? coupling chemistry, a new method for the synthesis of tetrasubstituted alkenes has been developed. The procedure relies on the use of chlorosilanes as a means of generating reactive vinylnickel intermediates, which are capable of undergoing a reductive cross-electrophile coupling with alkyl halides. The method not only generates highly substituted allylic alcohol derivatives but also obviates the need for stoichiometric organometallic nucleophiles and provides greatly improved scope and functional group tolerance compared with previously developed methods.
Project description:Classic nucleophilic substitution reactions (SN1 and SN2) are not generally amenable to the enantioselective variants that use simple and racemic alkyl halide electrophiles. The merging of transition metal catalysis and radical chemistry with organometallic nucleophiles is a versatile method for addressing this limitation. Here, we report that visible light-driven catalytic asymmetric photoredox radical coupling can act as a complementary and generic strategy for the enantioconvergent formal substitution of alkyl haldies with readily available and bench-stable organic molecules. Single-electron reductive debrominations of racemic ?-bromoketones generate achiral alkyl radicals that can participate in asymmetric Csp3-Csp3 bonds forming cross-coupling reactions with ?-amino radicals derived from N-aryl amino acids. A wide range of valuable enantiomerically pure ?2- and ?2,2-amino ketones were obtained in satisfactory yields with good-to-excellent enantioselectivities by using chiral phosphoric acid catalysts to control the stereochemistry and chemoselectivity. Fluoro-hetero-quaternary and full-carbon quaternary stereocenters that are challenging to prepare were successfully constructed.
Project description:In the past 50 years, cross-coupling reactions mediated by transition metals have changed the way in which complex organic molecules are synthesized. The predictable and chemoselective nature of these transformations has led to their widespread adoption across many areas of chemical research. However, the construction of a bond between two sp(3)-hybridized carbon atoms, a fundamental unit of organic chemistry, remains an important yet elusive objective for engineering cross-coupling reactions. In comparison to related procedures with sp(2)-hybridized species, the development of methods for sp(3)-sp(3) bond formation via transition metal catalysis has been hampered historically by deleterious side-reactions, such as ?-hydride elimination with palladium catalysis or the reluctance of alkyl halides to undergo oxidative addition. To address this issue, nickel-catalysed cross-coupling processes can be used to form sp(3)-sp(3) bonds that utilize organometallic nucleophiles and alkyl electrophiles. In particular, the coupling of alkyl halides with pre-generated organozinc, Grignard and organoborane species has been used to furnish diverse molecular structures. However, the manipulations required to produce these activated structures is inefficient, leading to poor step- and atom-economies. Moreover, the operational difficulties associated with making and using these reactive coupling partners, and preserving them through a synthetic sequence, has hindered their widespread adoption. A generically useful sp(3)-sp(3) coupling technology that uses bench-stable, native organic functional groups, without the need for pre-functionalization or substrate derivatization, would therefore be valuable. Here we demonstrate that the synergistic merger of photoredox and nickel catalysis enables the direct formation of sp(3)-sp(3) bonds using only simple carboxylic acids and alkyl halides as the nucleophilic and electrophilic coupling partners, respectively. This metallaphotoredox protocol is suitable for many primary and secondary carboxylic acids. The merit of this coupling strategy is illustrated by the synthesis of the pharmaceutical tirofiban in four steps from commercially available starting materials.