Airway bacteria drive a progressive COPD-like phenotype in mice with polymeric immunoglobulin receptor deficiency.
ABSTRACT: Mechanisms driving persistent airway inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are incompletely understood. As secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) deficiency in small airways has been reported in COPD patients, we hypothesized that immunobarrier dysfunction resulting from reduced SIgA contributes to chronic airway inflammation and disease progression. Here we show that polymeric immunoglobulin receptor-deficient (pIgR(-/-)) mice, which lack SIgA, spontaneously develop COPD-like pathology as they age. Progressive airway wall remodelling and emphysema in pIgR(-/-) mice are associated with an altered lung microbiome, bacterial invasion of the airway epithelium, NF-?B activation, leukocyte infiltration and increased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-12 and neutrophil elastase. Re-derivation of pIgR(-/-) mice in germ-free conditions or treatment with the anti-inflammatory phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor roflumilast prevents COPD-like lung inflammation and remodelling. These findings show that pIgR/SIgA deficiency in the airways leads to persistent activation of innate immune responses to resident lung microbiota, driving progressive small airway remodelling and emphysema.
Project description:Although airway inflammation can persist for years after smoking cessation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the mechanisms of persistent inflammation are largely unknown.We investigated relationships between bronchial epithelial remodeling, polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR) expression, secretory IgA (SIgA), airway inflammation, and mural remodeling in COPD.Lung tissue specimens and bronchoalveolar lavage were obtained from lifetime nonsmokers and former smokers with or without COPD. Epithelial structural changes were quantified by morphometric analysis. Expression of pIgR was determined by immunostaining and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Immunohistochemistry was performed for IgA, CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes, and cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus antigens. Total IgA and SIgA were measured by ELISA and IgA transcytosis was studied using cultured human bronchial epithelial cells.Areas of bronchial mucosa covered by normal pseudostratified ciliated epithelium were characterized by pIgR expression with SIgA present on the mucosal surface. In contrast, areas of bronchial epithelial remodeling had reduced pIgR expression, localized SIgA deficiency, and increased CD4(+) and CD8(+) lymphocyte infiltration. In small airways (<2 mm), these changes were associated with presence of herpesvirus antigens, airway wall remodeling, and airflow limitation in patients with COPD. Patients with COPD had reduced SIgA in bronchoalveolar lavage. Air-liquid interface epithelial cell cultures revealed that complete epithelial differentiation was required for normal pIgR expression and IgA transcytosis.Our findings indicate that epithelial structural abnormalities lead to localized SIgA deficiency in COPD airways. Impaired mucosal immunity may contribute to persistent airway inflammation and progressive airway remodeling in COPD.
Project description:Club cell secretory protein-16 (CC16) is the major secreted product of airway club cells, but its role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unclear. We measured CC16 airway expression in humans with and without COPD and CC16 function in a cigarette smoke (CS)-induced COPD murine model. Airway CC16 expression was measured in COPD patients, smokers without COPD and non-smokers. We exposed wildtype (WT) and CC16(-/-)mice to CS or air for up to 6?months, and measured airway CC16 expression, pulmonary inflammation, alveolar septal cell apoptosis, airspace enlargement, airway mucin 5AC (MUC5AC) expression, small airway remodelling and pulmonary function. Smokers and COPD patients had reduced airway CC16 immunostaining that decreased with increasing COPD severity. Exposing mice to CS reduced airway CC16 expression. CC16(-/-) mice had greater CS-induced emphysema, airway remodelling, pulmonary inflammation, alveolar cell apoptosis, airway MUC5AC expression, and more compliant lungs than WT mice. These changes were associated with increased nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) activation in CC16(-/-) lungs. CS-induced acute pulmonary changes were reversed by adenoviral-mediated over-expression of CC16. CC16 protects lungs from CS-induced injury by reducing lung NF-?B activation. CS-induced airway CC16 deficiency increases CS-induced pulmonary inflammation and injury and likely contributes to the pathogenesis of COPD.
Project description:Pulmonary inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by both innate and adaptive immune responses; however, their specific roles in the pathogenesis of COPD are unclear. Therefore, we investigated the roles of T and B lymphocytes and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in airway inflammation and remodelling, and lung function in an experimental model of COPD using mice that specifically lack these cells (Rag1-/- and Rorafl/fl Il7rCre [ILC2-deficient] mice). Wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice, Rag1-/- , and Rorafl/fl Il7rCre mice were exposed to cigarette smoke (CS; 12 cigarettes twice a day, 5 days a week) for up to 12 weeks, and airway inflammation, airway remodelling (collagen deposition and alveolar enlargement), and lung function were assessed. WT, Rag1-/- , and ILC2-deficient mice exposed to CS had similar levels of airway inflammation and impaired lung function. CS exposure increased small airway collagen deposition in WT mice. Rag1-/- normal air- and CS-exposed mice had significantly increased collagen deposition compared to similarly exposed WT mice, which was associated with increases in IL-33, IL-13, and ILC2 numbers. CS-exposed Rorafl/fl Il7rCre mice were protected from emphysema, but had increased IL-33/IL-13 expression and collagen deposition compared to WT CS-exposed mice. T/B lymphocytes and ILC2s play roles in airway collagen deposition/fibrosis, but not inflammation, in experimental COPD.
Project description:Airway surface dehydration, caused by an imbalance between secretion and absorption of ions and fluid across the epithelium and/or increased epithelial mucin secretion, impairs mucociliary clearance. Recent evidence suggests that this mechanism may be implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the role of airway surface dehydration in the pathogenesis of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced COPD remains unknown.We aimed to investigate in vivo the effect of airway surface dehydration on several CS-induced hallmarks of COPD in mice with airway-specific overexpression of the ?-subunit of the epithelial Na? channel (?ENaC).?ENaC-Tg mice and wild-type (WT) littermates were exposed to air or CS for 4 or 8 weeks. Pathological hallmarks of COPD, including goblet cell metaplasia, mucin expression, pulmonary inflammation, lymphoid follicles, emphysema and airway wall remodelling were determined and lung function was measured.Airway surface dehydration in ?ENaC-Tg mice aggravated CS-induced airway inflammation, mucin expression and destruction of alveolar walls and accelerated the formation of pulmonary lymphoid follicles. Moreover, lung function measurements demonstrated an increased compliance and total lung capacity and a lower resistance and hysteresis in ?ENaC-Tg mice, compared to WT mice. CS exposure further altered lung function measurements.We conclude that airway surface dehydration is a risk factor that aggravates CS-induced hallmarks of COPD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:COPD is characterised by reduced airway lumen dimensions and fewer peripheral airways. Most studies of airway properties sample airways based upon lumen dimension or at random, which may bias comparisons given reduced airway lumen dimensions and number in COPD. We sought to compare central airway wall dimensions on CT in COPD and controls using spatially matched airways, thereby avoiding selection bias of airways in the lung. METHODS:The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) COPD Study and Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcomes in COPD Study (SPIROMICS) recruited smokers with COPD and controls aged 50-79?years and 40-80?years, respectively. COPD was defined by current guidelines. Using CT image data, airway dimensions were measured for all central airway segments (generations 0-6) following 5 standardised paths into the lungs. Case-control airway comparisons were spatially matched by generation and adjusted for demographics, body size, smoking, CT dose, per cent emphysema, airway length and lung volume. RESULTS:Among 311 MESA COPD participants, airway wall areas at generations 3-6 were smaller in COPD compared with controls (all p<0.001). Among 1248 SPIROMICS participants, airway wall areas at generations 1-6 were smaller (all p<0.001), and this reduction was monotonic with increasing COPD severity (p<0.001). In both studies, sampling airways by lumen diameter or randomly resulted in a comparison of more proximal airways in COPD to more peripheral airways in controls (p<0.001) resulting in the appearance of thicker walls in COPD (p<0.02). CONCLUSIONS:Airway walls are thinner in COPD when comparing spatially matched central airways. Other approaches to airway sampling result in comparisons of more proximal to more distal airways and potentially biased assessment of airway properties in COPD.
Project description:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a chronic respiratory disease characterized by small airway remodeling and alveolar emphysema due to environmental stresses such as cigarette smoking (CS). Oxidative stress is commonly implicated in COPD pathology, but recent findings suggest that one oxidant-producing NADPH oxidase homolog, dual oxidase 1 (DUOX1), is downregulated in the airways of patients with COPD. We evaluated lung tissue sections from patients with COPD for small airway epithelial DUOX1 protein expression, in association with measures of lung function and small airway and alveolar remodeling. We also addressed the impact of DUOX1 for lung tissue remodeling in mouse models of COPD. Small airway DUOX1 levels were decreased in advanced COPD and correlated with loss of lung function and markers of emphysema and remodeling. Similarly, DUOX1 downregulation in correlation with extracellular matrix remodeling was observed in a genetic model of COPD, transgenic SPC-TNF-? mice. Finally, development of subepithelial airway fibrosis in mice due to exposure to the CS-component acrolein, or alveolar emphysema induced by administration of elastase, were in both cases exacerbated in Duox1-deficient mice. Collectively, our studies highlight that downregulation of DUOX1 may be a contributing feature of COPD pathogenesis, likely related to impaired DUOX1-mediated innate injury responses involved in epithelial homeostasis.
Project description:The inflammatory responses in chronic airway diseases leading to emphysema are not fully defined. We hypothesised that lung eosinophilia contributes to airspace enlargement in a mouse model and to emphysema in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).A transgenic mouse model of chronic type 2 pulmonary inflammation (I5/hE2) was used to examine eosinophil-dependent mechanisms leading to airspace enlargement. Human sputum samples were collected for translational studies examining eosinophilia and matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-12 levels in patients with chronic airways disease.Airspace enlargement was identified in I5/hE2 mice and was dependent on eosinophils. Examination of I5/hE2 bronchoalveolar lavage identified elevated MMP-12, a mediator of emphysema. We showed, in vitro, that eosinophil-derived interleukin (IL)-13 promoted alveolar macrophage MMP-12 production. Airspace enlargement in I5/hE2 mice was dependent on MMP-12 and eosinophil-derived IL-4/13. Consistent with this, MMP-12 was elevated in patients with sputum eosinophilia and computed tomography evidence of emphysema, and also negatively correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1?s.A mouse model of chronic type 2 pulmonary inflammation exhibited airspace enlargement dependent on MMP-12 and eosinophil-derived IL-4/13. In chronic airways disease patients, lung eosinophilia was associated with elevated MMP-12 levels, which was a predictor of emphysema. These findings suggest an underappreciated mechanism by which eosinophils contribute to the pathologies associated with asthma and COPD.
Project description:The principal determining factors influencing the development of the airway disease and emphysema components of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have not been clearly defined. Genetic variability in COPD patients might influence the varying degrees of involvement of airway disease and emphysema. Therefore, we investigated the genetic association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in COPD candidate genes for association with emphysema severity and airway wall thickness phenotypes. Polymorphisms in six candidate genes were analysed in 379 subjects of the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) Genetics Ancillary Study with quantitative chest computed tomography (CT) data. Genetic association with per cent of lung area below -950 HU (LAA950), airway wall thickness, and derived square root wall area (SRWA) of 10-mm internal perimeter airways were investigated. Three SNPs in EPHX1, five SNPs in SERPINE2 and one SNP in GSTP1 were significantly associated with LAA950. Five SNPs in TGFB1, two SNPs in EPHX1, one SNP in SERPINE2 and two SNPs in ADRB2 were associated with airway wall phenotypes in NETT. In conclusion, several COPD candidate genes showed evidence for association with airway wall thickness and emphysema severity using CT in a severe COPD population. Further investigation will be required to replicate these genetic associations for emphysema and airway wall phenotypes.
Project description:Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) caused by cigarette smoke and characterized by chronic inflammation, alveolar destruction (emphysema) and bronchiolar obstruction. Ozone is a gaseous constituent of urban air pollution resulting from photochemical interaction of air pollutants such as nitrogen oxide and organic compounds. While acute exposure to ozone induces airway hyperreactivity and neutrophilic inflammation, chronic ozone exposure in mice causes activation of oxidative pathways resulting in cell death and a chronic bronchial inflammation with emphysema, mimicking cigarette smoke-induced COPD. Therefore, the chronic exposure to ozone has become a model for studying COPD. We review recent data on mechanisms of ozone induced lung disease focusing on pathways causing chronic respiratory epithelial cell injury, cell death, alveolar destruction, and tissue remodeling associated with the development of chronic inflammation and AHR. The initial oxidant insult may result from direct effects on the integrity of membranes and organelles of exposed epithelial cells in the airways causing a stress response with the release of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA, and proteases. Mitochondrial ROS and mitochondrial DNA activate NLRP3 inflammasome and the DNA sensors cGAS and STING accelerating cell death pathways including caspases with inflammation enhancing alveolar septa destruction, remodeling, and fibrosis. Inhibitors of mitochondrial ROS, NLRP3 inflammasome, DNA sensor, cell death pathways, and IL-1 represent novel therapeutic targets for chronic airways diseases underlined by oxidative stress.
Project description:An increase in airway caliber (airway distensibility) with lung inflation is attenuated in COPD. Furthermore, some subjects have a decrease in airway caliber with lung inflation. We aimed to test the hypothesis that airway caliber increases are lower in subjects with emphysema-predominant (EP) compared with airway-predominant (AP) CT scan subtypes. Additionally, we compared clinical and CT scan features of subjects with (airway constrictors) and without a decrease in airway caliber.Based on GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) stages and CT scan subtypes, we created a control group (n = 46) and the following matched COPD groups (n = 23 each): GOLD-2-AP, GOLD-2-EP, GOLD-4-AP, and GOLD-4-EP. From the CT scans of all 138 subjects, we measured emphysema, lung volumes, and caliber changes in the third and fourth airway generations of two bronchi. We expressed airway distensibility (ratio of airway lumen diameter change to lung volume change from end tidal breathing to full inspiration) as a global or lobar measure based on normalization by whole-lung or lobar volume changes.Global distensibility in the third and fourth airway generations was significantly lower in the GOLD-2-EP and GOLD-4-EP groups than in control subjects. In GOLD-2 subjects, lobar distensibility of the right-upper-lobe fourth airway generation was significantly lower in those with EP than in those with AP. In multivariate analysis, emphysema was an independent determinant of global and lobar airway distensibility. Compared with nonconstrictors, airway constrictors experienced more dyspnea, were more hyperinflated, and had a higher percentage of emphysema.Distensibility of large- to medium-sized airways is reduced in subjects with an EP CT scan subtype. Emphysema seems to alter airway-parenchyma interdependence.ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT00608764; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.