Bacterial ecology of abattoir wastewater treated by an anaerobic digestor.
ABSTRACT: Wastewater from an anaerobic treatment plant at a slaughterhouse was analysed to determine the bacterial biodiversity present. Molecular analysis of the anaerobic sludge obtained from the treatment plant showed significant diversity, as 27 different phyla were identified. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Thermotogae, Euryarchaeota (methanogens), and msbl6 (candidate division) were the dominant phyla of the anaerobic treatment plant and represented 21.7%, 18.5%, 11.5%, 9.4%, 8.9%, and 8.8% of the total bacteria identified, respectively. The dominant bacteria isolated were Clostridium, Bacteroides, Desulfobulbus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfovibrio and Desulfotomaculum. Our results revealed the presence of new species, genera and families of microorganisms. The most interesting strains were characterised. Three new bacteria involved in anaerobic digestion of abattoir wastewater were published.
Project description:Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been studied extensively in the petroleum industry due to their role in corrosion, but very little is known about sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB), which drive the oxidization of sulfur-compounds produced by the activity of SRB in petroleum reservoirs. Here, we surveyed the community structure, diversity and abundance of SRB and SOB simultaneously based on 16S rRNA, dsrB and soxB gene sequencing, and quantitative PCR analyses, respectively in petroleum reservoirs with different physicochemical properties. Similar to SRB, SOB were found widely inhabiting the analyzed reservoirs with high diversity and different structures. The dominant SRB belonged to the classes Deltaproteobacteria and Clostridia, and included the Desulfotignum, Desulfotomaculum, Desulfovibrio, Desulfobulbus, and Desulfomicrobium genera. The most frequently detected potential SOB were Sulfurimonas, Thiobacillus, Thioclava, Thiohalomonas and Dechloromonas, and belonged to Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Epsilonproteobacteria. Among them, Desulfovibrio, Desulfomicrobium, Thioclava, and Sulfurimonas were highly abundant in the low-temperature reservoirs, while Desulfotomaculum, Desulfotignum, Thiobacillus, and Dechloromonas were more often present in high-temperature reservoirs. The relative abundances of SRB and SOB varied and were present at higher proportions in the relatively high-temperature reservoirs. Canonical correspondence analysis also revealed that the SRB and SOB communities in reservoirs displayed high niche specificity and were closely related to reservoir temperature, pH of the formation brine, and sulfate concentration. In conclusion, this study extends our knowledge about the distribution of SRB and SOB communities in petroleum reservoirs.
Project description:Here, we describe a three-step nested-PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) strategy to detect sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in complex microbial communities from industrial bioreactors. In the first step, the nearly complete 16S rRNA gene was amplified using bacterial primers. Subsequently, this product was used as a template in a second PCR with group-specific SRB primers. A third round of amplification was conducted to obtain fragments suitable for DGGE. The largest number of bands was observed in DGGE patterns of products obtained with primers specific for the Desulfovibrio-Desulfomicrobium group, indicating a large diversity of these SRBs. In addition, members of other phylogenetic SRB groups, i.e., Desulfotomaculum, Desulfobulbus, and Desulfococcus-Desulfonema-Desulfosarcina, were detected. Bands corresponding to Desulfobacterium and Desulfobacter were not detected in the bioreactor samples. Comparative sequence analysis of excised DGGE bands revealed the identity of the community members. The developed three-step PCR-DGGE strategy is a welcome tool for studying the diversity of sulfate-reducing bacteria.
Project description:Terephthalate (TA) is one of the top 50 chemicals produced worldwide. Its production results in a TA-containing wastewater that is treated by anaerobic processes through a poorly understood methanogenic syntrophy. Using metagenomics, we characterized the methanogenic consortium inside a hyper-mesophilic (that is, between mesophilic and thermophilic), TA-degrading bioreactor. We identified genes belonging to dominant Pelotomaculum species presumably involved in TA degradation through decarboxylation, dearomatization, and modified ?-oxidation to H(2)/CO(2) and acetate. These intermediates are converted to CH(4)/CO(2) by three novel hyper-mesophilic methanogens. Additional secondary syntrophic interactions were predicted in Thermotogae, Syntrophus and candidate phyla OP5 and WWE1 populations. The OP5 encodes genes capable of anaerobic autotrophic butyrate production and Thermotogae, Syntrophus and WWE1 have the genetic potential to oxidize butyrate to CO(2)/H(2) and acetate. These observations suggest that the TA-degrading consortium consists of additional syntrophic interactions beyond the standard H(2)-producing syntroph-methanogen partnership that may serve to improve community stability.
Project description:A combination of fluorescence in situ hybridization, microprofiles, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal DNA fragments, and 16S rRNA gene cloning analysis was applied to investigate successional development of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) community structure and in situ sulfide production activity within a biofilm growing under microaerophilic conditions (dissolved oxygen concentration in the bulk liquid was in the range of 0 to 100 microM) and in the presence of nitrate. Microelectrode measurements showed that oxygen penetrated 200 microm from the surface during all stages of biofilm development. The first sulfide production of 0.32 micromol of H(2)S m(-2) s(-1) was detected below ca. 500 microm in the 3rd week and then gradually increased to 0.70 micromol H(2)S m(-2) s(-1) in the 8th week. The most active sulfide production zone moved upward to the oxic-anoxic interface and intensified with time. This result coincided with an increase in SRB populations in the surface layer of the biofilm. The numbers of the probe SRB385- and 660-hybridized SRB populations significantly increased to 7.9 x 10(9) cells cm(-3) and 3.6 x 10(9) cells cm(-3), respectively, in the surface 400 microm during an 8-week cultivation, while those populations were relatively unchanged in the deeper part of the biofilm, probably due to substrate transport limitation. Based on 16S rRNA gene cloning analysis data, clone sequences that related to Desulfomicrobium hypogeium (99% sequence similarity) and Desulfobulbus elongatus (95% sequence similarity) were most frequently found. Different molecular analyses confirmed that Desulfobulbus, Desulfovibrio, and Desulfomicrobium were found to be the numerically important members of SRB in this wastewater biofilm.
Project description:Several wastewater stabilization ponds (WSP) in Tunisia suffer periodically from the 'red-water' phenomenon due to blooming of purple sulfur bacteria, indicating that sulfur cycle is one of the main element cycles in these ponds. In this study, we investigated the microbial diversity of the El Menzeh WSP and focused in particular on the different functional groups of sulfur bacteria. For this purpose, we used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified fragments of the 16S rRNA gene and of different functional genes involved in microbial sulfur metabolism (dsrB, aprA, and pufM). Analyses of the 16S rRNA revealed a relatively high microbial diversity where Proteobacteria, Chlorobi, Bacteroidetes, and Cyanobacteria constitute the major bacterial groups. The dsrB and aprA gene analysis revealed the presence of deltaproteobacterial sulfate-reducing bacteria (i.e., Desulfobacter and Desulfobulbus), while the analysis of 16S rRNA, aprA, and pufM genes assigned the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria community to the photosynthetic representatives belonging to the Chlorobi (green sulfur bacteria) and the Proteobacteria (purple sulfur and non sulfur bacteria) phyla. These results point on the diversity of the metabolic processes within this wastewater plant and/or the availability of sulfate and diverse electron donors.
Project description:The microbial population structure and function of natural anaerobic communities maintained in lab-scale continuously stirred tank reactors at different lactate to sulfate ratios and in the absence of sulfate were analyzed using an integrated approach of molecular techniques and chemical analysis. The population structure, determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and by the use of oligonucleotide probes, was linked to the functional changes in the reactors. At the influent lactate to sulfate molar ratio of 0.35 mol mol(-1), i.e., electron donor limitation, lactate oxidation was mainly carried out by incompletely oxidizing sulfate-reducing bacteria, which formed 80-85% of the total bacterial population. Desulfomicrobium- and Desulfovibrio-like species were the most abundant sulfate-reducing bacteria. Acetogens and methanogenic Archaea were mostly outcompeted, although less than 2% of an acetogenic population could still be observed at this limiting concentration of lactate. In the near absence of sulfate (i.e., at very high lactate/sulfate ratio), acetogens and methanogenic Archaea were the dominant microbial communities. Acetogenic bacteria represented by Dendrosporobacter quercicolus-like species formed more than 70% of the population, while methanogenic bacteria related to uncultured Archaea comprising about 10-15% of the microbial community. At an influent lactate to sulfate molar ratio of 2 mol mol(-1), i.e., under sulfate-limiting conditions, a different metabolic route was followed by the mixed anaerobic community. Apparently, lactate was fermented to acetate and propionate, while the majority of sulfidogenesis and methanogenesis were dependent on these fermentation products. This was consistent with the presence of significant levels (40-45% of total bacteria) of D. quercicolus-like heteroacetogens and a corresponding increase of propionate-oxidizing Desulfobulbus-like sulfate-reducing bacteria (20% of the total bacteria). Methanogenic Archaea accounted for 10% of the total microbial community.
Project description:The microbial populations responsible for anaerobic degradation of phthalate isomers were investigated by enrichment and isolation of those microbes from anaerobic sludge treating wastewater from the manufacturing of terephthalic acid. Primary enrichments were made with each of three phthalate isomers (ortho-, iso-, and terephthalate) as the sole energy source at 37 degrees C with two sources of anaerobic sludge (both had been used to treat wastewater containing high concentrations of phthalate isomers) as the inoculum. Six methanogenic enrichment cultures were obtained which not only degraded the isomer used for the enrichment but also had the potential to degrade part of other phthalate isomers as well as benzoate with concomitant production of methane, presumably involving strictly syntrophic substrate degradation. Our 16S rRNA gene-cloning analysis combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that the predominant bacteria in the enrichment cultures were affiliated with a recently recognized non-sulfate-reducing subcluster (subcluster Ih) in the group 'Desulfotomaculum lineage I' or a clone cluster (group TA) in the class delta-PROTEOBACTERIA: Several attempts were made to isolate these microbes, resulting in the isolation of a terephthalate-degrading bacterium, designated strain JT, in pure culture. A coculture of the strain with the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanospirillum hungatei converted terephthalate to acetate and methane within 3 months of incubation, whereas strain JT could not degrade terephthalate in pure culture. During the degradation of terephthalate, a small amount of benzoate was transiently accumulated as an intermediate, indicative of decarboxylation of terephthalate to benzoate as the initial step of the degradation. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strain was a member of subcluster Ih of the group 'Desulfotomaculum lineage I', but it was only distantly related to other known species.
Project description:To better understand the relationship between the environmental variables and microbial communities of activated sludge, we took winter samples from different biological treatment units (anaerobic, oxic, etc) from the WWTP's of a number of Chinese cities. Differences in influent organic components and activated sludge microbial communities were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-throughput sequencing technology, respectively. Liquid nitrogen grinding pretreatment of samples was found to aid in the obtaining of a more bio-diversified sample. Influent type and dissolved oxygen concentration influenced the activated sludge microbial community structure. Nitrospira, Caldilineaceae and Anaerolineaceae were highly related to domestic wastewater treatment systems, whereas Thauera was the most abundant putative refractory aromatic hydrocarbon decomposer found in industrial wastewater treatment systems. Within the influent composition, we speculate that Thauera, Macellibacteroides and Desulfomicrobium are the key functional genera of the anaerobic environment of the textile dyeing industry wastewater treatment systems, whilst Thauera and Thiobacillus are key functional microbes in fine chemical wastewater treatment systems.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Biofuel production from conversion of biomass is indispensable in the portfolio of renewable energies. Complex microbial communities are involved in the anaerobic digestion process of plant material, agricultural residual products and food wastes. Analysis of the genetic potential and microbiology of communities degrading biomass to biofuels is considered to be the key to develop process optimisation strategies. Hence, due to the still incomplete taxonomic and functional characterisation of corresponding communities, new and unknown species are of special interest. RESULTS:Three mesophilic and one thermophilic production-scale biogas plants (BGPs) were taxonomically profiled using high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. All BGPs shared a core microbiome with the thermophilic BGP featuring the lowest diversity. However, the phyla Cloacimonetes and Spirochaetes were unique to BGPs 2 and 3, Fusobacteria were only found in BGP3 and members of the phylum Thermotogae were present only in the thermophilic BGP4. Taxonomic analyses revealed that these distinctive taxa mostly represent so far unknown species. The only exception is the dominant Thermotogae OTU featuring 16S rRNA gene sequence identity to Defluviitoga tunisiensis L3, a sequenced and characterised strain. To further investigate the genetic potential of the biogas communities, corresponding metagenomes were sequenced in a deepness of 347.5 Gbp in total. A combined assembly comprised 80.3 % of all reads and resulted in the prediction of 1.59 million genes on assembled contigs. Genome binning yielded genome bins comprising the prevalent distinctive phyla Cloacimonetes, Spirochaetes, Fusobacteria and Thermotogae. Comparative genome analyses between the most dominant Thermotogae bin and the very closely related Defluviitoga tunisiensis L3 genome originating from the same BGP revealed high genetic similarity. This finding confirmed applicability and reliability of the binning approach. The four highly covered genome bins of the other three distinct phyla showed low or very low genetic similarities to their closest phylogenetic relatives, and therefore indicated their novelty. CONCLUSIONS:In this study, the 16S rRNA gene sequencing approach and a combined metagenome assembly and binning approach were used for the first time on different production-scale biogas plants and revealed insights into the genetic potential and functional role of so far unknown species.
Project description:We simultaneously determined the phylogenetic identification and substrate uptake patterns of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) inhabiting a sewer biofilm with oxygen, nitrate, or sulfate as an electron acceptor by combining microautoradiography and fluorescent in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH) with family- and genus-specific 16S rRNA probes. The MAR-FISH analysis revealed that Desulfobulbus hybridized with probe 660 was a dominant SRB subgroup in this sewer biofilm, accounting for 23% of the total SRB. Approximately 9 and 27% of Desulfobulbus cells detected with probe 660 could take up [(14)C]propionate with oxygen and nitrate, respectively, as an electron acceptor, which might explain the high abundance of this species in various oxic environments. Furthermore, more than 40% of Desulfobulbus cells incorporated acetate under anoxic conditions. SRB were also numerically important members of H(2)-utilizing and (14)CO(2)-fixing microbial populations in this sewer biofilm, accounting for roughly 42% of total H(2)-utilizing bacteria hybridized with probe EUB338. A comparative 16S ribosomal DNA analysis revealed that two SRB populations, related to the Desulfomicrobium hypogeium and the Desulfovibrio desulfuricans MB lineages, were found to be important H(2) utilizers in this biofilm. The substrate uptake characteristics of different phylogenetic SRB subgroups were compared with the characteristics described to date. These results provide further insight into the correlation between the 16S rRNA phylogenetic diversity and the physiological diversity of SRB populations inhabiting sewer biofilms.