Crystal structure of a putative exo-?-1,3-galactanase from Bifidobacterium bifidum S17.
ABSTRACT: Given the current interest in second-generation biofuels, carbohydrate-active enzymes have become the most important tool to overcome the structural recalcitrance of the plant cell wall. While some glycoside hydrolase families have been exhaustively described, others remain poorly characterized, especially with regard to structural information. The family 43 glycoside hydrolases are a diverse group of inverting enzymes; the available structure information on these enzymes is mainly from xylosidases and arabinofuranosidase. Currently, only one structure of an exo-?-1,3-galactanase is available. Here, the production, crystallization and structure determination of a putative exo-?-1,3-galactanase from Bifidobacterium bifidum S17 (BbGal43A) are described. BbGal43A was successfully produced and showed activity towards synthetic galactosides. BbGal43A was subsequently crystallized and data were collected to 1.4?Å resolution. The structure shows a single-domain molecule, differing from known homologues, and crystal contact analysis predicts the formation of a dimer in solution. Further biochemical studies are necessary to elucidate the differences between BbGal43A and its characterized homologues.
Project description:Type II arabinogalactan (AG-II) is a suitable carbohydrate source for Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum, but the degradative enzymes have never been characterized. In this study, we characterized an exo-?-1,3-galactanase, BLLJ_1840, belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 43 from B. longum subsp. longum JCM1217. The recombinant BLLJ_1840 expressed in Escherichia coli hydrolyzed ?-1,3-linked galactooligosaccharides but not ?-1,4- and ?-1,6-linked galactooligosaccharides. The enzyme also hydrolyzed larch wood arabinogalactan (LWAG), which comprises a ?-1,3-linked galactan backbone with ?-1,6-linked galactan side chains. The kcat/Km ratio of dearabinosylated LWAG was 24-fold higher than that of ?-1,3-galactan. BLLJ_1840 is a novel type of exo-?-1,3-galactanase with a higher affinity for the ?-1,6-substituted ?-1,3-galactan than for nonsubstituted ?-1,3-galactan. BLLJ_1840 has 27% to 28% identities with other characterized exo--1,3-galactanases from bacteria and fungi. The homologous genes are conserved in several strains of B. longum subsp. longum and B. longum subsp. infantis but not in other bifidobacteria. Transcriptional analysis revealed that BLLJ_1840 is intensively induced with BLLJ_1841, an endo-?-1,6-galactanase candidate, in the presence of LWAG. This is the first report of exo-?-1,3-galactanase in bifidobacteria, which is an enzyme used for the acquisition of AG-II in B. longum subsp. longum.
Project description:A gene encoding an exo-beta-1,3-galactanase from Clostridium thermocellum, Ct1,3Gal43A, was isolated. The sequence has similarity with an exo-beta-1,3-galactanase of Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Pc1,3Gal43A). The gene encodes a modular protein consisting of an N-terminal glycoside hydrolase family 43 (GH43) module, a family 13 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM13), and a C-terminal dockerin domain. The gene corresponding to the GH43 module was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the gene product was characterized. The recombinant enzyme shows optimal activity at pH 6.0 and 50 degrees C and catalyzes hydrolysis only of beta-1,3-linked galactosyl oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the hydrolysis products demonstrated that the enzyme produces galactose from beta-1,3-galactan in an exo-acting manner. When the enzyme acted on arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), the enzyme produced oligosaccharides together with galactose, suggesting that the enzyme is able to accommodate a beta-1,6-linked galactosyl side chain. The substrate specificity of the enzyme is very similar to that of Pc1,3Gal43A, suggesting that the enzyme is an exo-beta-1,3-galactanase. Affinity gel electrophoresis of the C-terminal CBM13 did not show any affinity for polysaccharides, including beta-1,3-galactan. However, frontal affinity chromatography for the CBM13 indicated that the CBM13 specifically interacts with oligosaccharides containing a beta-1,3-galactobiose, beta-1,4-galactosyl glucose, or beta-1,4-galactosyl N-acetylglucosaminide moiety at the nonreducing end. Interestingly, CBM13 in the C terminus of Ct1,3Gal43A appeared to interfere with the enzyme activity toward beta-1,3-galactan and alpha-l-arabinofuranosidase-treated AGP.
Project description:Arabinogalactan proteins are proteoglycans found on the cell surface and in the cell walls of higher plants. The carbohydrate moieties of most arabinogalactan proteins are composed of ?-1,3-galactan main chains and ?-1,6-galactan side chains, to which other auxiliary sugars are attached. For the present study, an endo-?-1,3-galactanase, designated FvEn3GAL, was first purified and cloned from winter mushroom Flammulina velutipes. The enzyme specifically hydrolyzed ?-1,3-galactan, but did not act on ?-1,3-glucan, ?-1,3:1,4-glucan, xyloglucan, and agarose. It released various ?-1,3-galactooligosaccharides together with Gal from ?-1,3-galactohexaose in the early phase of the reaction, demonstrating that it acts on ?-1,3-galactan in an endo-fashion. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that FvEn3GAL is member of a novel subgroup distinct from known glycoside hydrolases such as endo-?-1,3-glucanase and endo-?-1,3:1,4-glucanase in glycoside hydrolase family 16. Point mutations replacing the putative catalytic Glu residues conserved for enzymes in this family with Asp abolished activity. These results indicate that FvEn3GAL is a highly specific glycoside hydrolase 16 endo-?-1,3-galactanase.
Project description:Exo-beta-1,3-galactanase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium (Pc1,3Gal43A) consists of a glycoside hydrolase family 43 catalytic domain and a substrate-binding domain that belongs to carbohydrate-binding module family 35. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of beta-1,3-galactan, which is the backbone of the arabinogalactan proteins; the C-terminal carbohydrate-binding module family 35 domain increases the local concentration of the enzyme around beta-1,3-galactan by its high affinity for the substrate. To enable phase determination using the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion method, selenomethionyl Pc1,3Gal43A was crystallized at 298 K using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The presence of selenium in the crystals was confirmed from the X-ray absorption spectrum. The crystals belonged to space group P2(1) and diffracted to 1.8 A resolution.
Project description:Glycans are major nutrients for the human gut microbiota (HGM). Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) comprise a heterogenous group of plant glycans in which a ?1,3-galactan backbone and ?1,6-galactan side chains are conserved. Diversity is provided by the variable nature of the sugars that decorate the galactans. The mechanisms by which nutritionally relevant AGPs are degraded in the HGM are poorly understood. Here we explore how the HGM organism Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron metabolizes AGPs. We propose a sequential degradative model in which exo-acting glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 43 ?1,3-galactanases release the side chains. These oligosaccharide side chains are depolymerized by the synergistic action of exo-acting enzymes in which catalytic interactions are dependent on whether degradation is initiated by a lyase or GH. We identified two GHs that establish two previously undiscovered GH families. The crystal structures of the exo-?1,3-galactanases identified a key specificity determinant and departure from the canonical catalytic apparatus of GH43 enzymes. Growth studies of Bacteroidetes spp. on complex AGP revealed 3 keystone organisms that facilitated utilization of the glycan by 17 recipient bacteria, which included B. thetaiotaomicron. A surface endo-?1,3-galactanase, when engineered into B. thetaiotaomicron, enabled the bacterium to utilize complex AGPs and act as a keystone organism.
Project description:An exo-?-(1?3)-D-galactanase (SGalase1) that specifically cleaves the ?-(1?3)-D-galactan backbone of arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) was isolated from culture filtrates of a soil Streptomyces sp. Internal peptide sequence information was used to clone and recombinantly express the gene in E. coli. The molecular mass of the isolated enzyme was ~45 kDa, similar to the 48.2 kDa mass predicted from the amino acid sequence. The pI, pH and temperature optima for the enzyme were ~7.45, 3.8 and 48 °C, respectively. The native and recombinant enzymes specifically hydrolysed ?-(1?3)-D-galacto-oligo- or poly-saccharides from the upstream (non-reducing) end, typical of an exo-acting enzyme. A second homologous Streptomyces gene (SGalase2) was also cloned and expressed. SGalase2 was similar in size (47.9 kDa) and enzyme activity to SGalase1 but differed in its pH optimum (pH 5). Both SGalase1 and SGalase2 are predicted to belong to the CAZy glycosyl hydrolase family GH 43 based on activity, sequence homology and phylogenetic analysis. The K(m) and V(max) of the native exo-?-(1?3)-D-galactanase for de-arabinosylated gum arabic (dGA) were 19 mg/ml and 9.7 ?mol D-Gal/min/mg protein, respectively. The activity of these enzymes is well suited for the study of type II galactan structures and provides an important tool for the investigation of the biological role of AGPs in plants. De-arabinosylated gum arabic (dGA) was used as a model to investigate the use of these enzymes in defining type II galactan structure. Exhaustive hydrolysis of dGA resulted in a limited number of oligosaccharide products with a trisaccharide of Gal(2)GlcA(1) predominating.
Project description:A type II arabinogalactan-degrading enzyme (FoGal1) was purified from Fusarium oxysporum 12S, and the corresponding cDNA was isolated. FoGal1 had high similarity to enzymes of glycoside hydrolase family 5. Treatment of larch wood arabinogalactan with the recombinant enzyme indicated that FoGal1 is a beta-1,6-galactanase that preferentially debranches beta-1,6-galactobiose from the substrate.
Project description:Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are a family of plant extracellular proteoglycans implicated in many physiological events. AGP is decorated with type II arabinogalactans (AGs) consisting of a ?-1,3-galactan backbone and ?-1,6-galactan side chains, to which other sugars are attached. Based on the fact that a type II AG-specific inhibitor, ?-Yariv reagent, perturbs growth and development, it has been proposed that type II AGs participate in the regulation of cell shape and tissue organization. However, the mechanisms by which type II AGs participate have not yet been established. Here, we describe a novel system that causes specific degradation of type II AGs in Arabidopsis, by which a gene encoding a fungal exo-?-1,3-galactanase that specifically hydrolyzes ?-1,3-galactan backbones of type II AGs is expressed under the control of a dexamethasone-inducible promoter. Dexamethasone treatment increased the galactanase activity, leading to a decrease in Yariv reagent-reactive AGPs in transgenic Arabidopsis. We detected the typical oligosaccharides released from type II AGs by Il3GAL in the soluble fraction, demonstrating that Il3GAL acted on type II AG in the transgenic plants. Additionally, this resulted in severe tissue disorganization in the hypocotyl and cotyledons, suggesting that the degradation of type II AGs affected the regulation of cell shape.
Project description:?-1,4-Galactanases are glycoside hydrolases that are involved in the degradation of pectin and belong to family 53 in the classification of glycoside hydrolases. Previous studies have elucidated the structures of several fungal and two bacterial galactanases, while biochemical studies have indicated differences in the product profiles of different members of the family. Structural studies of ligand complexes have to date been limited to the bacterial members of the family. Here, the first structure of a fungal galactanase in complex with a disaccharide is presented. Galactobiose binds to subsites -1 and -2, thus improving our understanding of ligand binding to galactanases.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The cotyledons of Lupinus angustifolius contain large amounts of cell wall storage polysaccharide (CWSP) composed mainly of (1-->4)-beta-linked D-galactose residues in the form of branches attached to a rhamnogalacturonan core molecule. An exo-(1-->4)-beta-galactanase with a very high specificity towards (1-->4)-beta-linked D-galactan has been isolated from L. angustifolius cotyledons, and shown to vary (activity and specific protein) in step with CWSP mobilization. This work aimed to confirm the hypothesis that galactan is the main polymer retrieved from the wall during mobilization at the ultrastructural level, using the purified exo-galactanase as a probe. METHODS: Storage mesophyll cell walls ('ghosts') were isolated from the cotyledons of imbibed but ungerminated lupin seeds, and also from cotyledons of seedlings after the mobilization of the CWSP. The pure exo-(1-->4)-beta-galactanase was coupled to colloidal gold particles and shown to be a specific probe for (1-->4)-beta-D-galactan. They were used to localize galactan in ultrathin sections of L. angustifolius cotyledonary mesophyll tissue during CWSP mobilization. KEY RESULTS: On comparing the morphologies of isolated cell walls, the post-mobilization 'ghosts' did not have the massive wall-thickenings of pre-mobilization walls. Compositional analysis showed that the post-mobilization walls were depleted in galactose and, to a lesser extent, in arabinose. When pre-mobilization ghosts were treated with the pure exo-galactanase, they became morphologically similar to the post-mobilization ghosts. They were depleted of approximately 70% of the galactose residues that would have been mobilized in vivo, and retained all the other sugar residues originally present. Sharply defined electron-transparent wall zones or pockets are associated with CWSP mobilization, being totally free of galactan, whereas wall areas immediately adjacent to them were apparently undepleted. CONCLUSIONS: The exo-(1-->4)-beta-galactanase is the principal enzyme involved in CWSP mobilization in lupin cotyledons in vivo. The storage walls dramatically change their texture during mobilization as most of the galactan is hydrolysed during seedling development.