Production of pyruvate from mannitol by mannitol-assimilating pyruvate decarboxylase-negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
ABSTRACT: Mannitol is contained in brown macroalgae up to 33% (w/w, dry weight), and thus is a promising carbon source for white biotechnology. However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a key cell factory, is generally regarded to be unable to assimilate mannitol for growth. We have recently succeeded in producing S. cerevisiae that can assimilate mannitol through spontaneous mutations of Tup1-Cyc8, each of which constitutes a general corepressor complex. In this study, we demonstrate production of pyruvate from mannitol using this mannitol-assimilating S. cerevisiae through deletions of all 3 pyruvate decarboxylase genes. The resultant mannitol-assimilating pyruvate decarboxylase-negative strain produced 0.86 g/L pyruvate without use of acetate after cultivation for 4 days, with an overall yield of 0.77 g of pyruvate per g of mannitol (the theoretical yield was 79%). Although acetate was not needed for growth of this strain in mannitol-containing medium, addition of acetate had a significant beneficial effect on production of pyruvate. This is the first report of production of a valuable compound (other than ethanol) from mannitol using S. cerevisiae, and is an initial platform from which the productivity of pyruvate from mannitol can be improved.
Project description:Saccharomyces cerevisiae normally cannot assimilate mannitol, a promising brown macroalgal carbon source for bioethanol production. The molecular basis of this inability remains unknown. We found that cells capable of assimilating mannitol arose spontaneously from wild-type S. cerevisiae during prolonged culture in mannitol-containing medium. Based on microarray data, complementation analysis, and cell growth data, we demonstrated that acquisition of mannitol-assimilating ability was due to spontaneous mutations in the genes encoding Tup1 or Cyc8, which constitute a general corepressor complex that regulates many kinds of genes. We also showed that an S. cerevisiae strain carrying a mutant allele of CYC8 exhibited superior salt tolerance relative to other ethanologenic microorganisms; this characteristic would be highly beneficial for the production of bioethanol from marine biomass. Thus, we succeeded in conferring the ability to assimilate mannitol on S. cerevisiae through dysfunction of Tup1-Cyc8, facilitating production of ethanol from mannitol.
Project description:Saccharomyces cerevisiae normally cannot assimilate mannitol, a promising brown macroalgal carbon source for bioethanol production. To date, the molecular mechanisms underlying this inability remain unknown. Here, we found that cells acquiring mannitol-assimilating ability appeared from wild-type S. cerevisiae strain during prolonged culture in mannitol medium. Our microarray analysis revealed that genes for putative mannitol dehydrogenase and hexose transporters were up-regulated in cells acquiring mannitol-assimilating ability. Take account of our other results including complementation analysis and cell growth data, we demonstrated that this acquisition of mannitol-assimilating ability was due to the spontaneous mutation in the gene encoding Tup1 or Cyc8. Tup1-Cyc8 is the general corepressor complex involved in the repression of many kinds of genes. Thus, it is suggested that the inability of wild-type S. cerevisiae to assimilate mannitol can be attributed to the transcriptional repression of a set of genes involved in mannitol utilization by Tup1-Cyc8 corepressor. In other words, Tup1-Cyc8 is a key regulator of mannitol metabolism in S. cerevisiae. We also showed that S. cerevisiae strain which carries mutant allele of TUP1 or CYC8 produced ethanol from mannitol efficiently. Especially, strain carrying mutant allele of CYC8 showed high tolerance to salt, which is superior to other ethanologenic microorganisms. This characteristic is highly beneficial to produce bioethanol from marine biomass. Taken together, Tup1-Cyc8 can be an ideal target to develop a yeast-algal bioethanol production system. To figure out how Mtl+ strains (cells acquiring ability to grow in mannitol medium) had acquired the ability to assimilate mannitol, we performed genome-wide analysis by using Nimblegen microarrays. Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells (wild-type BY4742 strain and two Mtl+ strains, MK3619 and MK3683) were grown at 30°C to the logarithmic phase in SC or SM media. Total RNA was purified and the 4 RNA samples (BY4742 cells in SC as control, MK3619 cells in SM, MK3683 cells in both SC and SM) were analyzed with Nimblegen microarrays.
Project description:Tup1-Cyc8 (also known as Tup1-Ssn6) is a general transcriptional corepressor. D-Mannitol (mannitol) and D-sorbitol (sorbitol) are the major polyols in nature. Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is unable to assimilate mannitol or sorbitol, but acquires the ability to assimilate mannitol due to a spontaneous mutation in TUP1 or CYC8. In this study, we found that spontaneous mutation of TUP1 or CYC8 also permitted assimilation of sorbitol. Some spontaneous nonsense mutations of CYC8 produced a truncated Cyc8 with a C-terminal polyglutamine. The effects were guanidine hydrochloride-sensitive and were dependent on Hsp104, but were complemented by introduction of CYC8, ruling out involvement of a prion. Assimilation of mannitol and sorbitol conferred by other mutations of TUP1 or CYC8 was guanidine hydrochloride-tolerant. It is physiologically reasonable that S. cerevisiae carries this mechanism to acquire the ability to assimilate major polyols in nature.
Project description:We constructed S. cerevisiae BY_DEH+ strain which is able to assimilate both 4-deoxy-L-erythro-5-hexoseulose uronate (DEH, a monouronic acid produced by digestion of alginate with exo-type alginate lyase) and mannitol from BY4742 strain and improved its ability to assimilate DEH through an adaptive evolution (Matsuoka et al. Sci. Rep. 2017, 7, 4206). To examine transcriptional responses of the yeast to DEH and mannitol, gene expressions of the evolved strain (BY_DEH++ strain) in DEH medium, mannitol medium, and glucose medum were analyzed. For revealing the mechanisms underlying the adaptive evolution, gene expressions of both BY_DEH+ strain and BY_DEH++ strain in both DEH medium and glucose medium were measured. Overall design: Cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) of BY_DEH+ strain cultured in DEH medium and glucose medium and BY_DEH++ strain cultured in DEH medium, mannitol medium, and glucose medium.
Project description:Acetate is the most abundant intermediate of organic matter degradation in anoxic rice field soil and is converted to CH(4) and/or CO(2). Aceticlastic methanogens are the primary microorganisms dissimilating acetate in the absence of sulfate and reducible ferric iron. In contrast, very little is known about bacteria capable of assimilating acetate under methanogenic conditions. Here, we identified active acetate-assimilating microorganisms by using a combined approach of frequent label application at a low concentration and comparative RNA-stable isotope probing with (13)C-labeled and unlabeled acetate. Rice field soil was incubated anaerobically at 25 degrees C for 12 days, during which (13)C-labeled acetate was added at a concentration of 500 muM every 3 days. (13)C-labeled CH(4) and CO(2) were produced from the beginning of the incubation and accounted for about 60% of the supplied acetate (13)C. RNA was extracted from the cells in each sample taken and separated by isopycnic centrifugation according to molecular weight. Bacterial and archaeal populations in each density fraction were screened by reverse transcription-PCR-mediated terminal restriction fragment polymorphism analysis. No differences in the bacterial populations were observed throughout the density fractions of the unlabeled treatment. However, in the heavy fractions of the (13)C treatment, terminal restriction fragments (T-RFs) of 161 bp and 129 bp in length predominated. These T-RFs were identified by cloning and sequencing of 16S rRNA as from a Geobacter sp. and an Anaeromyxobacter sp., respectively. Apparently these bacteria, which are known as dissimilatory iron reducers, were able to assimilate acetate under methanogenic conditions, i.e., when CO(2) was the predominant electron acceptor. We hypothesize that ferric iron minerals with low bioavailability might have served as electron acceptors for Geobacter spp. and Anaeromyxobacter spp. under these conditions.
Project description:The anoxygenic green sulfur bacteria (GSBs) assimilate CO(2) autotrophically through the reductive (reverse) tricarboxylic acid (RTCA) cycle. Some organic carbon sources, such as acetate and pyruvate, can be assimilated during the phototrophic growth of the GSBs, in the presence of CO(2) or HCO(3)(-). It has not been established why the inorganic carbonis required for incorporating organic carbon for growth and how the organic carbons are assimilated. In this report, we probed carbon flux during autotrophic and mixotrophic growth of the GSB Chlorobaculum tepidum. Our data indicate the following: (a) the RTCA cycle is active during autotrophic and mixotrophic growth; (b) the flux from pyruvate to acetyl-CoA is very low and acetyl-CoA is synthesized through the RTCA cycle and acetate assimilation; (c) pyruvate is largely assimilated through the RTCA cycle; and (d) acetate can be assimilated via both of the RTCA as well as the oxidative (forward) TCA (OTCA) cycle. The OTCA cycle revealed herein may explain better cell growth during mixotrophic growth with acetate, as energy is generated through the OTCA cycle. Furthermore, the genes specific for the OTCA cycle are either absent or down-regulated during phototrophic growth, implying that the OTCA cycle is not complete, and CO(2) is required for the RTCA cycle to produce metabolites in the TCA cycle. Moreover, CO(2) is essential for assimilating acetate and pyruvate through the CO(2)-anaplerotic pathway and pyruvate synthesis from acetyl-CoA.
Project description:In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A can occur via two routes. In pyruvate decarboxylase-negative (Pdc-) mutants, the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is the sole functional link between glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Such mutants therefore provide a useful experimental system with which to study regulation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. In this study, a possible in vivo inactivation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was investigated. When respiring, carbon-limited chemostat cultures of wild-type S. cerevisiae were pulsed with excess glucose, an immediate onset of respiro-fermentative metabolism occurred, accompanied by a strong increase of the glycolytic flux. When the same experiment was performed with an isogenic Pdc- mutant, only a small increase of the glycolytic flux was observed and pyruvate was the only major metabolite excreted. This finding supports the hypothesis that reoxidation of cytosolic NADH via pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase is a prerequisite for high glycolytic fluxes in S. cerevisiae. In Pdc- cultures, the specific rate of oxygen consumption increased by ca. 40% after a glucose pulse. Calculations showed that pyruvate excretion by the mutant was not due to a decrease of the pyruvate flux into the TCA cycle. We therefore conclude that rapid inactivation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (e.g., by phosphorylation of its E1 alpha subunit, a mechanism demonstrated in many higher organisms) is not a relevant mechanism in the response of respiring S. cerevisiae cells to excess glucose. Consistently, pyruvate dehydrogenase activities in cell extracts did not exhibit a strong decrease after a glucose pulse.
Project description:Acetogenic microorganisms utilize organic substrates such as sugars in addition to hydrogen (H2) + carbon dioxide (CO2). Recently, we reported that the thermophilic acetogenic microorganism Thermoanaerobacter kivui is among the few acetogens that utilize the sugar alcohol mannitol, dependent on a gene cluster encoding mannitol uptake, phosphorylation and oxidation of mannitol-1-phosphate to fructose-6-phosphate. Here, we studied mannitol metabolism with resting cells of T. kivui; and found that mannitol was "fermented" in a homoacetogenic manner, i.e., acetate was the sole product if HCO3 - was present. We found an acetate:mannitol ratio higher than 3, indicating the requirement of external CO2, and the involvement of the WLP as terminal electron accepting pathway. In the absence of CO2 (or bicarbonate, HCO3 -), however, the cells still converted mannitol to acetate, but slowly and with stoichiometric amounts of H2 formed in addition, resulting in a "mixed" fermentation. This showed that-in addition to the WLP-the cells used an additional electron sink-protons, making up for the "missing" CO2 as electron sink. Growth was 2.5-fold slower in the absence of external CO2, while the addition of formate completely restored the growth rate. A model for mannitol metabolism is presented, involving the major three hydrogenases, to explain how [H] make their way from glycolysis into the products acetate or acetate + H2.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Production of isoprenoids, a large and diverse class of commercially important chemicals, can be achieved through engineering metabolism in microorganisms. Several attempts have been made to reroute metabolic flux towards isoprenoid pathway in yeast. Most approaches have focused on the core isoprenoid pathway as well as on meeting the increased precursors and cofactor requirements. To identify unexplored genetic targets that positively influence the isoprenoid pathway activity, a carotenoid based genetic screen was previously developed and three novel mutants of a global TATA binding protein SPT15 was isolated for heightened isoprenoid flux in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.<h4>Results</h4>In this study, we investigated how one of the three spt15 mutants, spt15_Ala101Thr, was leading to enhanced isoprenoid pathway flux in S. cerevisiae. Metabolic flux analysis of the spt15_Ala101Thr mutant initially revealed a rerouting of the central carbon metabolism for the production of the precursor acetyl-CoA through activation of pyruvate-acetaldehyde-acetate cycle in the cytoplasm due to high flux in the reaction caused by pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC). This led to alternate routes of cytosolic NADPH generation, increased mitochondrial ATP production and phosphate demand in the mutant strain. Comparison of the transcriptomics of the spt15_Ala101Thr mutant cell with SPT15WT bearing cells shows upregulation of phosphate mobilization genes and pyruvate decarboxylase 6 (PDC6). Increasing the extracellular phosphate led to an increase in the growth rate and biomass but diverted flux away from the isoprenoid pathway. PDC6 is also shown to play a critical role in isoprenoid pathway flux under phosphate limitation conditions.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The study not only proposes a probable mechanism as to how a spt15_Ala101Thr mutant (a global TATA binding protein mutant) could increase flux towards the isoprenoid pathway, but also PDC as a new route of metabolic manipulation for increasing the isoprenoid flux in yeast.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The optimal prime solution for the cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit in adult cardiac surgery has not yet been defined. Mannitol is widely used in the priming solution for CPB despite the fact that there is no clear consensus on the role of mannitol in cardiac surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mannitol in the CPB prime solution. METHODS:This prospective, randomized, double-blind study included 40 patients with normal cardiac and renal functions, who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. One group received a prime based on Ringer's acetate (n = 20), and the other a prime consisting of Ringer's acetate with 200 mL mannitol (n = 20). Changes in osmolality, acid-base status, electrolytes, and renal-related parameters were monitored. RESULTS:No significant differences were found in osmolality between the Ringer's acetate group and the mannitol group at any time. The mannitol group showed a pronounced decrease in sodium, from 138.7 ± 2.8 mmol/L at anaesthesia onset, to 133.9 ± 2.6 mmol/L after the start of CPB (P < .001). No differences were seen in the renal parameters between the groups, apart from a short-term effect of mannitol on peroperative urine production (P = .003). CONCLUSION:We observed no effects on osmolality of a prime solution containing mannitol compared to Ringer's acetate-based prime in patients with normal cardiac and renal function. The use of mannitol in the prime resulted in a short-term, significant decrease in sodium level.