Effects of anthropogenic sound on digging behavior, metabolism, Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ATPase activity, and metabolism-related gene expression of the bivalve Sinonovacula constricta.
ABSTRACT: Anthropogenic sound has increased significantly in the past decade. However, only a few studies to date have investigated its effects on marine bivalves, with little known about the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms. In the present study, the effects of different types, frequencies, and intensities of anthropogenic sounds on the digging behavior of razor clams (Sinonovacula constricta) were investigated. The results showed that variations in sound intensity induced deeper digging. Furthermore, anthropogenic sound exposure led to an alteration in the O:N ratios and the expression of ten metabolism-related genes from the glycolysis, fatty acid biosynthesis, tryptophan metabolism, and Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (TCA cycle) pathways. Expression of all genes under investigation was induced upon exposure to anthropogenic sound at ~80 dB re 1 μPa and repressed at ~100 dB re 1 μPa sound. In addition, the activity of Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-ATPase in the feet tissues, which is directly related to muscular contraction and subsequently to digging behavior, was also found to be affected by anthropogenic sound intensity. The findings suggest that sound may be perceived by bivalves as changes in the water particle motion and lead to the subsequent reactions detected in razor clams.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The razor clam Sinonovacula constricta is a benthic intertidal bivalve species with important commercial value. Despite its economic importance, knowledge of its transcriptome is scarce. Next generation sequencing technologies offer rapid and efficient tools for generating large numbers of sequences, which can be used to characterize the transcriptome, to develop effective molecular markers and to identify genes associated with growth, a key breeding trait.<h4>Results</h4>Total RNA was isolated from the mantle, gill, liver, siphon, gonad and muscular foot tissues. High-throughput deep sequencing of S. constricta using 454 pyrosequencing technology yielded 859,313 high-quality reads with an average read length of 489 bp. Clustering and assembly of these reads produced 16,323 contigs and 131,346 singletons with average lengths of 1,376 bp and 458 bp, respectively. Based on transcriptome sequencing, 14,615 sequences had significant matches with known genes encoding 147,669 predicted proteins. Subsequently, previously unknown growth-related genes were identified. A total of 13,563 microsatellites (SSRs) and 13,634 high-confidence single nucleotide polymorphism loci (SNPs) were discovered, of which almost half were validated.<h4>Conclusion</h4>De novo sequencing of the razor clam S. constricta transcriptome on the 454 GS FLX platform generated a large number of ESTs. Candidate growth factors and a large number of SSRs and SNPs were identified. These results will impact genetic studies of S. constricta.
Project description:Benthic bivalves are important links between primary production and consumers, and are essential intermediates in the flow of energy through estuarine systems. However, information on the diet of filter feeding bivalves in estuarine ecosystems is uncertain, as estuarine waters contain particulate matter from a range of sources and as bivalves are opportunistic feeders. We surveyed bivalves at different distances from the creek mouth at the Yangtze estuarine marsh in winter and summer, and analyzed trophic dynamics using stable isotope (SI) and fatty acid (FA) techniques. Different bivalve species had different spatial distributions in the estuary. Glauconome chinensis mainly occurred in marshes near the creek mouth, while Sinonovacula constricta preferred the creek. Differences were found in the diets of different species. S. constricta consumed more diatoms and bacteria than G. chinensis, while G. chinensis assimilated more macrophyte material. FA markers showed that plants contributed the most (38.86 ± 4.25%) to particular organic matter (POM) in summer, while diatoms contributed the most (12.68 ± 1.17%) during winter. Diatoms made the largest contribution to the diet of S. constricta in both summer (24.73 ± 0.44%) and winter (25.51 ± 0.59%), and plants contributed no more than 4%. This inconsistency indicates seasonal changes in food availability and the active feeding habits of the bivalve. Similar FA profiles for S. constricta indicated that the bivalve had a similar diet composition at different sites, while different ?13C results suggested the diet was derived from different carbon sources (C4 plant Spartina alterniflora and C3 plant Phragmites australis and Scirpus mariqueter) at different sites. Species-specific and temporal and/or spatial variability in bivalve feeding may affect their ecological functions in intertidal marshes, which should be considered in the study of food webs and material flows in estuarine ecosystems.
Project description:We have sequenced and characterized the complete mitochondrial genome of the soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria, an important organism for environmental toxicology and aquaculture. Mya arenaria is located in the taxonomic order Myoida, which lacks any member with a completely annotated mitogenome. The M. arenaria mitochondrial genome is 17?947?bp in length. Like most marine bivalves, the circular mitogenome codes entirely on the heavy strand, with no introns. As with other bivalves, the gene order of the mitochondrion is highly rearranged. The mitogenome contains 12 protein-coding genes but ATP8 is missing, consistent with about half of all bivalve genera. Twenty-three tRNAs were identified. Phylogenetic analysis shows that M. arenaria is related most closely with the bivalves Sinonovacula constricta, and Moerella iridescens, of the infraclass Euheterodonta (unassigned). This, along with the close grouping of the phylogenetic trees, confirms a close tie between Myoida and Euheterodonta (unassigned).
Project description:To properly assess risk, an animal must focus its attention on relevant external stimuli; however, attention can be reallocated when distracting stimuli are present. This reallocation of attention may interfere with an individual's ability to effectively assess risk and may impede its response. Multiple stimuli presented together can have additive effects as distractors, and these include stimuli in different modalities. Although changes in noise and water flow are detectable by some bivalves, this has not been studied in the context of risk assessment or distraction. We experimentally exposed giant clams (Tridacna maxima) to changes in water particle movement through underwater sound (motorboat noise) and increased water flow to determine whether these stimuli, individually or together, modified risk assessment or caused distraction. We found that clams responded to sound, flow, and their combination by increasing frequency of mantle retractions (a potential anti-predator response) when exposed to a stimulus. Sound alone did not change risk assessment in either the latency to close or to reemerge following closure. However, when exposed to both stimuli simultaneously, clams increased their latency to close. We suggest that clams perceive sound and flow in an additive way, and are thus distracted. Interestingly, and uniquely, clams discriminate these multimodal stimuli through a single sensory modality. For sessile clams, anthropogenic noise is detectable, yet unavoidable, suggesting that they be especially vulnerable to marine noise pollution.
Project description:Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) not only play essential roles in bone development but also are involved in embryonic growth, organogenesis cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the previous studies on the functions of shellfish BMPs genes are still very limited. To better understand its molecular structure and biological function, BMP7 of the razor clam Sinonovacula constricta (Sc-BMP7) was cloned and characterized in this study. The full length of Sc-BMP7 is 2252 bp, including an open reading frame (ORF) of 1257 bp encoding 418 amino acids. The protein sequence included a signal peptide (1-32 aa), a prodomain (38-270 aa) and a TGF-? domain (317-418 aa). The quantitative expression of eleven adult tissues showed that Sc-BMP7 was significantly higher expressed in the gill, foot, and mantle (P < 0.05), but lower in hemocytes and hepatopancreas. In the early development stages, low expression was detected in the stages of unfertilized mature eggs, fertilized eggs, 4-cell embryos, blastula, gastrulae, whereas it increased after the stage of trochophore and demonstrated the highest expression in umbo larvae (P < 0.01). In shell repair experiment, Sc-BMP7 showed increasing expression level after 12 h. The higher expression of Sc-BMP7 was detected while Ca2+ concentration was reduced in seawater. After inhibiting Sc-BMP7 expression using RNA interference (RNAi) technology, expression of Sc-BMP7 mRNA and protein were significantly down-regulated (P < 0.05) in the central zone of mantle (nacre formation related tissue) and the pallial zone of mantle (prismatic layer formation related tissue). Association analysis identified two shared SNPs in exon of Sc-BMP7 gene from 246 individuals of two groups. These results indicated that BMP7 might be involved in shell formation and growth. These results would contribute to clarify the role of Sc-BMP7 in the regulation of growth and shell formation, and provide growth-related markers for molecular marker assisted breeding of this species.
Project description:We explore the possibility of using the varnish (Nutallia obscurata) and Manila (Venerupis philippinarum) clams as biomonitors of microplastics (MPs) pollution. A short review is first provided on the use of bivalves for biomonitoring MPs in aquatic ecosystems. From the conclusions drawn from our review we determine if the sediment dwelling varnish and Manila clam could possibly be good choices for this purpose. We sampled 8 intertidal sites located within two distinct regions of coastal British Columbia, Burrard Inlet (5 sites) and Baynes Sound (3 sites). Each intertidal region had its own particular use; within Burrard Inlet, BMP a heavily used marine park, CP, EB, J, and AP, popular local beaches, and within Baynes Sound, Met and NHB, two intertidal regions heavily exploited by the shellfish industry and RU an intertidal region with limited aquaculture activity. Microfragments were recovered from bivalves collected from all intertidal regions except for AP. Microspheres were recovered primarily from bivalves sampled from Baynes Sound at NHB where high numbers of spheres within sediments had previously been reported. BMP and Met had the highest number of particles present within individual clams which were predominantly high density polyethylene (HDPE) and a polypropylene composite (PPC). Both polymers are extensively used by the shellfish industry in all gear types, as well as in industrial and recreational marine activities. The spatial distribution of recovered MPs was indicative of the anthropogenic use of the intertidal region suggesting these bivalves, for microfragments and microspheres, may be suitable as biomonitors and could prove to be useful tools for determining whether reduction policies for plastics use are having a positive effect on their release into marine environments.