ALX/FPR2 Modulates Anti-Inflammatory Responses in Mouse Submandibular Gland.
ABSTRACT: Activation of the G-protein coupled formyl peptide receptor 2 (ALX/FPR2) by the lipid mediators lipoxin A4 and resolvin D1 (RvD1) promotes resolution of inflammation. Our previous in vitro studies indicate that RvD1 activation of ALX/FPR2 resolves cytokine-mediated inflammatory responses in mammalian cells. However, the impact of ALX/FPR2 activation on salivary gland function in vivo is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether submandibular glands (SMG) from ALX/FPR2(-/-) mice display enhanced inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) stimulation. For these studies, C57BL/6 and ALX/FPR2(-/-) mice at age 8-12-week-old were treated with LPS by i.p for 24?h. Salivary gland structure and function were analyzed by histopathological assessment, saliva flow rate, quantitative PCR, Western blot analyses and immunofluorescence. Our results showed the following events in the ALX/FPR2(-/-) mice treated with LPS: a) upregulated inflammatory cytokines and decreased M3R (Muscarinic Acetylcholine receptor M3) and AQP5 (Aquaporin 5) protein expression, b) decreased saliva secretion, c) increased apoptosis, d) alteration of tight junction and neuronal damage. Overall, our data suggest that the loss of ALX/FPR2 results in unresolved acute inflammation and SMG dysfunction (xerostomia) in response to LPS that is similar to human salivary gland dysfunction induced by bacterial infection.
Project description:Our previous results showed that the specialized pro-resolving mediator (SPM) Resolvin D1 (RvD1) promotes resolution of inflammation in salivary glands in non-obese diabetic (NOD)/ShiLtJ, a mouse model for Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Additionally, mice lacking the RvD1 receptor ALX/FPR2 show defective innate and adaptive immune responses in salivary glands. Particularly, ALX/FPR2 KO mice exhibit exacerbated inflammation in their salivary glands in response to systemic LPS treatment. Moreover, female ALX/FPR2 KO mice show increased autoantibody production and loss of salivary gland function with age. Together, these studies suggest that an underlying SPM dysregulation could be contributing to SS progression. Therefore, we investigated whether SPM production is altered in NOD/ShiLtJ using metabololipidomics and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Our results demonstrate that SPM levels were broadly elevated in plasma collected from NOD/ShiLtJ female mice after disease onset, whereas these drastic changes did not occur in male mice. Moreover, gene expression of enzymes involved in SPM biosynthesis were altered in submandibular glands (SMG) from NOD/ShiLtJ female mice after disease onset, with 5-LOX and 12/15-LOX being downregulated and upregulated, respectively. Despite this dysregulation, the abundances of the SPM products of these enzymes (ie, RvD1 and RvD2) were unaltered in freshly isolated SMG cells suggesting that other cell populations (eg, lymphocytes) may be responsible for the overabundance of SPMs that we observed. The elevation of SPMs noted here appeared to be sex mediated, meaning that it was observed only in one sex (females). Given that SS primarily affects females (roughly 90% of diagnosed cases), these results may provide some insights into the mechanisms underlying the observed sexual dimorphism.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Early brain injury (EBI) has been thought to be a key factor affecting the prognosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Many pathologies are involved in EBI, with inflammation and neuronal death being crucial to this process. Resolvin D1 (RvD1) has shown superior anti-inflammatory properties by interacting with lipoxin A4 receptor/formyl peptide receptor 2 (ALX/FPR2) in various diseases. However, it remains not well described about its role in the central nervous system (CNS). Thus, the goal of the present study was to elucidate the potential functions of the RvD1-ALX/FPR2 interaction in the brain after SAH. METHODS:We used an in vivo model of endovascular perforation and an in vitro model of hemoglobin (Hb) exposure as SAH models in the current study. RvD1 was used at a concentration of 25 nM in our experiments. Western blotting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), immunofluorescence, and other chemical-based assays were performed to assess the cellular localizations and time course fluctuations in ALX/FPR2 expression, evaluate the effects of RvD1 on Hb-induced primary microglial activation and neuronal damage, and confirm the role of ALX/FPR2 in the function of RvD1. RESULTS:ALX/FPR2 was expressed on both microglia and neurons, but not astrocytes. RvD1 exerted a good inhibitory effect in the microglial pro-inflammatory response induced by Hb, possibly by regulating the IRAK1/TRAF6/NF-?B or MAPK signaling pathways. RvD1 could also potentially attenuate Hb-induced neuronal oxidative damage and apoptosis. Finally, the mRNA expression of IRAK1/TRAF6 in microglia and GPx1/bcl-xL in neurons was reversed by the ALX/FPR2-specific antagonist Trp-Arg-Trp-Trp-Trp-Trp-NH2 (WRW4), indicating that ALX/FPR2 could mediate the neuroprotective effects of RvD1. CONCLUSIONS:The results of the present study indicated that the RvD1-ALX/FPR2 interaction could potentially play dual roles in the CNS, as inhibiting Hb promoted microglial pro-inflammatory polarization and ameliorating Hb induced neuronal oxidant damage and death. These results shed light on a good therapeutic target (ALX/FPR2) and a potential effective drug (RvD1) for the treatment of SAH and other inflammation-associated brain diseases.
Project description:Sjögren's syndrome is a chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by inflammation of salivary glands resulting in impaired secretory function. Our present studies indicate that chronic exposure of salivary epithelium to TNF-α and/or IFN-γ alters tight junction integrity, leading to secretory dysfunction. Resolvins of the D-series (RvDs) are endogenous lipid mediators derived from DHA that regulate excessive inflammatory responses leading to resolution and tissue homeostasis. In this study, we addressed the hypothesis that activation of the RvD1 receptor ALX/FPR2 in salivary epithelium prevents and/or resolves the TNF-α-mediated disruption of acinar organization and enhances monolayer formation. Our results indicate that 1) the RvD1 receptor ALX/FPR2 is present in fresh, isolated cells from mouse salivary glands and in cell lines of salivary origin; and 2) the agonist RvD1 (100 ng/ml) abolished tight junction and cytoskeletal disruption caused by TNF-α and enhanced cell migration and polarity in salivary epithelium. These effects were blocked by the ALX/FPR2 antagonist butyloxycarbonyl-Phe-Leu-Phe-Leu-Phe. The ALX/FPR2 receptor signals via modulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathways since, in our study, blocking PI3K activation with LY294002, a potent and selective PI3K inhibitor, prevented RvD1-induced cell migration. Furthermore, Akt gene silencing with the corresponding siRNA almost completely blocked the ability of Par-C10 cells to migrate. Our findings suggest that RvD1 receptor activation promotes resolution of inflammation and tissue repair in salivary epithelium, which may have relevance in the restoration of salivary gland dysfunction associated with Sjögren's syndrome.
Project description:Ischemic injury initiates a sterile inflammatory response that ultimately participates in the repair and recovery of tissue perfusion. Macrophages are required for perfusion recovery during ischemia, in part because they produce growth factors that aid in vascular remodeling. The input signals governing this pro-revascularization phenotype remain of interest. Here we found that hindlimb ischemia increases levels of resolvin D1 (RvD1), an inflammation-resolving lipid mediator that targets macrophages via its receptor, ALX/FPR2. Exogenous RvD1 enhances perfusion recovery during ischemia, and mice deficient in <i>Alx/Fpr2</i> have an endogenous defect in this process. Mechanistically, RNA sequencing revealed that RvD1 induces a transcriptional program in macrophages characteristic of a pro-revascularization phenotype. Vascularization of ischemic skeletal muscle, as well as cutaneous wounds, is impaired in mice with myeloid-specific deficiency of <i>Alx/Fpr2</i>, and this is associated with altered expression of pro-revascularization genes in skeletal muscle and macrophages isolated from skeletal muscle. Collectively, these results uncover a role of ALX/FPR2 in revascularization that may be amenable to therapeutic targeting in diseases associated with altered tissue perfusion and repair.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Resolvin D1 (RvD1) limits neutrophil recruitment during acute inflammation and is derived from omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid to promote catabasis. The contribution of its specific receptors, the lipoxin A(4)/Annexin-A1 receptor formyl-peptide receptor 2 (FPR2/ALX) and the orphan receptor G-protein-coupled receptor 32 (GPR32) are of considerable interest. METHODS AND RESULTS:RvD1 reduced human polymorphonuclear leukocytes recruitment to endothelial cells under shear conditions as quantified using a flow chamber system. Receptor-specific antibodies blocked these anti-inflammatory actions of RvD1, with low (1 nmol/L) concentrations sensitive to GPR32 blockade, while the higher (10 nmol/L) concentration appeared FPR2/ALX-specific. Interestingly, polymorphonuclear leukocytes surface expression of FPR2/ALX but not GPR32 increased following activation with pro-inflammatory stimuli, corresponding with secretory vesicle mobilization. Lipid mediator metabololipidomics carried out with 24-hour exudates revealed that RvD1 in vivo gave a significant reduction in the levels of a number of pro-inflammatory mediators including prostaglandins and leukotriene B(4). These actions of RvD1 were abolished in fpr2 null mice. CONCLUSIONS:Pro-resolving lipid mediators and their receptors, such as RvD1 and the 2 G-protein-coupled receptors, studied here regulate resolution and may provide new therapeutic strategies for diseases with a vascular inflammatory component.
Project description:AIMS:The main objectives of these two phase I studies were to investigate safety and tolerability as well as the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile of the novel potent and selective formyl peptide receptor type 2 (FPR2)/Lipoxin A4 receptor (ALX) agonist ACT-389949. A challenge model was used to assess the drug's anti-inflammatory potential, with the aim of selecting a dosing regimen for future patient studies. METHODS:Two double-blind, randomized phase I studies investigated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ACT-389949 at different doses and dosing regimens. Drug exposure was correlated with target engagement markers such as receptor internalization and cytokine measurements. The effect of FPR2/ALX agonism on neutrophil migration was studied in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhalation model. RESULTS:ACT-389949 was well tolerated. Maximum concentrations were reached around 2 h after dosing, with a mean terminal half-life of 29.3 h [95% confidence interval (CI) 25.5, 33.7]. After multiple-dose administration, exposure increased by 111% (95% CI 89, 136), indicating drug accumulation. Administration of ACT-389949 resulted in a dose-dependent, long-lasting internalization of FPR2/ALX into leukocytes. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were dose-dependently but transiently upregulated only after the first dose. No pharmacological effect on neutrophil count was observed in the LPS challenge test performed at steady state. CONCLUSIONS:FPR2/ALX agonism with ACT-389949 was shown to be safe and well tolerated in healthy subjects. Receptor internalization and downstream mediators pointed towards a desensitization of the system, which may explain the lack of effect on neutrophil recruitment in the LPS challenge model.
Project description:Resolution of acute inflammation is an active process that involves the biosynthesis of specialized proresolving lipid mediators. Among them, resolvin D1 (RvD1) actions are mediated by two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), ALX/FPR2 and GPR32, that also regulate specific microRNAs (miRNAs) and their target genes in novel resolution circuits. We report the ligand selectivity of RvD1 activation of ALX/FPR2 and GPR32. In addition to RvD1, its aspirin-triggered epimer and RvD1 analogs each dose dependently and effectively activated ALX/FPR2 and GPR32 in GPCR-overexpressing ?-arrestin systems using luminescence and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing. To corroborate these findings in vivo, neutrophil infiltration in self-limited peritonitis was reduced in human ALX/FPR2-overexpressing transgenic mice that was further limited to 50% by RvD1 treatment with as little as 10 ng of RvD1 per mouse. Analysis of miRNA expression revealed that RvD1 administration significantly up-regulated miR-208a and miR-219 in exudates isolated from ALX/FPR2 transgenic mice compared with littermates. Overexpression of miR-208a in human macrophages up-regulated IL-10. In comparison, in ALX/FPR2 knockout mice, RvD1 neither significantly reduced leukocyte infiltration in zymosan-induced peritonitis nor regulated miR-208a and IL-10 in these mice. Together, these results demonstrate the selectivity of RvD1 interactions with receptors ALX/FPR2 and GPR32. Moreover, they establish a new molecular circuit that is operative in the resolution of acute inflammation activated by the proresolving mediator RvD1 involving specific GPCRs and miRNAs.
Project description:Understanding how proresolving agonists selectively activate FPR2/ALX is a crucial step in the clarification of proresolution molecular networks that can be harnessed for the design of novel therapeutics for inflammatory disease. FPR2/ALX, a G protein-coupled receptor belonging to the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) family, conveys the biological functions of a variety of ligands, including the proresolution mediators annexin A1 (AnxA1) and lipoxin A(4), as well as the activating and proinflammatory protein serum amyloid A. FPR2/ALX is the focus of intense screening for novel anti-inflammatory therapeutics, and the small molecule compound 43 was identified as a receptor ligand. Here, we used chimeric FPR1 and FPR2/ALX clones (stably transfected in HEK293 cells) to identify the N-terminal region and extracellular loop II as the FPR2/ALX domain required for AnxA1-mediated signaling. Genomic responses were also assessed with domain-specific effects emerging, so the N-terminal region is required for AnxA1 induction of JAG1 and JAM3, whereas it is dispensable for modulation of SGPP2. By comparison, serum amyloid A non-genomic responses were reliant on extracellular loops I and II, whereas the small molecule compound 43 activated extracellular loop I with downstream signaling dependent on transmembrane region II. In desensitization experiments, the N-terminal region was dispensable for AnxA1-induced FPR2/ALX down-regulation in both the homologous and heterologous desensitization modes.
Project description:Formyl peptide receptor 2-lipoxin receptor (FPR2/ALX) modulates the anti-inflammatory response and therefore may be a target for treating sepsis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between genetic variants of the FPR2/ALX gene and sepsis after severe trauma as well as to further analyze the functions of sepsis-related genetic polymorphisms.Three tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tag SNPs) that captured all common alleles across the FPR2/ALX genomic region were genotyped using pyrosequencing in an initial sample consisting of 275 patients with severe trauma. The rs11666254 polymorphism, which had statistical significance, was genotyped in an additional 371 patients, and logistic regression analysis was performed to determine associations between the FPR2/ALX gene polymorphism and sepsis susceptibility after severe trauma. The messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels of FPR2/ALX in the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated white blood cells of trauma patients were determined by performing quantitative polymerase chain reactions and Western blot analysis. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? production was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The effects of the promoter polymorphism rs11666254 on the transcription activity of FPR2/ALX were analyzed using a luciferase reporter assay.Among the three tag SNPs, only the rs11666254 polymorphism was found to be significantly associated with sepsis in trauma patients, and this association persisted after a pooled analysis of all 646 trauma patients, which showed that patients who carried the A allele of rs11666254 had a significantly higher risk of developing sepsis than individuals who carried the G allele. This SNP was also significantly associated with lower FPR2/ALX mRNA and protein expression as well as higher TNF-? production from the peripheral blood leukocyte response to bacterial lipoprotein stimulation. In addition, the rs11666254 polymorphism could significantly decrease the promoter activity of the FPR2/ALX gene.The rs11666254 polymorphism in the FPR2/ALX gene is a functional SNP that increases sepsis susceptibility in patients after traumatic injury.
Project description:Similar to the onset phase of inflammation, its resolution is a process that unfolds in a manner that is coordinated and regulated by a panel of mediators. Lipoxin A4 (LXA<sub>4</sub>) has been implicated as an anti-inflammatory, pro-resolving mediator. We hypothesized that LXA<sub>4</sub> attenuates or prevents an inflammatory response via the immunosuppressive activity of Stem Cells of the Apical Papilla (SCAP). Here, we report for the first time in vitro that in a SCAP population, lipoxin receptor ALX/FPR2 was constitutively expressed and upregulated after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide and/or TNF-α. Moreover, LXA<sub>4</sub> significantly enhanced proliferation, migration, and wound healing capacity of SCAP through the activation of its receptor, ALX/FPR2. Cytokine, chemokine and growth factor secretion by SCAP was inhibited in a dose dependent manner by LXA<sub>4</sub>. Finally, LXA<sub>4</sub> enhanced immunomodulatory properties of SCAP towards Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells. These findings provide the first evidence that the LXA<sub>4</sub>-ALX/FPR2 axis in SCAP regulates inflammatory mediators and enhances immunomodulatory properties. Such features of SCAP may also support the role of these cells in the resolution phase of inflammation and suggest a novel molecular target for ALX/FPR2 receptor to enhance a stem cell-mediated pro-resolving pathway.