High-Potential Electrocatalytic O2 Reduction with Nitroxyl/NO x Mediators: Implications for Fuel Cells and Aerobic Oxidation Catalysis.
ABSTRACT: Efficient reduction of O2 to water is a central challenge in energy conversion and many aerobic oxidation reactions. Here, we show that the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) can be achieved at high potentials by using soluble organic nitroxyl and nitrogen oxide (NO x ) mediators. When used alone, neither organic nitroxyls, such as 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyl-N-oxyl (TEMPO), nor NO x species, such as sodium nitrite, are effective ORR mediators. The combination of nitroxyl/NO x species, however, mediates sustained O2 reduction with overpotentials as low as 300 mV in acetonitrile containing trifluoroacetic acid. Mechanistic analysis of the coupled redox reactions supports a process in which the nitrogen oxide catalyst drives aerobic oxidation of a nitroxyl mediator to an oxoammonium species, which then is reduced back to the nitroxyl at the cathode. The electrolysis potential is dictated by the oxoammonium/nitroxyl reduction potential. The overpotentials accessible with this ORR system are significantly lower than widely studied molecular metal-macrocycle ORR catalysts and benefit from the mechanism-based specificity for four-electron reduction of oxygen to water mediated by NO x species, together with kinetically efficient reduction of oxidized NO x species by TEMPO and other organic nitroxyls.
Project description:Bicyclic nitroxyl derivatives, such as 2-azaadamantane N-oxyl (AZADO) and 9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane N-oxyl (ABNO), have emerged as highly effective alternatives to TEMPO-based catalysts for selective oxidation reactions (TEMPO = 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidine N-oxyl). Their efficacy is widely attributed to their smaller steric profile; however, electrocatalysis studies described herein show that the catalytic activity of nitroxyls is more strongly affected by the nitroxyl/oxoammonium redox potential than by steric effects. The inexpensive, high-potential TEMPO derivative, 4-acetamido-TEMPO (ACT), exhibits higher electrocatalytic activity than AZADO and ABNO for the oxidation of primary and secondary alcohols. Mechanistic studies provide insights into the origin of these unexpected reactivity trends. The superior activity of ACT is especially noteworthy at high pH, where bicyclic nitroxyls are inhibited by formation of an oxoammonium hydroxide adduct.
Project description:Organic synthesis boasts a wide array of reactions involving either radical species or ionic intermediates. The combination of radical and polar species, however, has not been explored to a comparable extent. Herein we present the hydrative aminoxylation of ynamides, a reaction which can proceed by either a polar-radical crossover mechanism or through a rare cationic activation. Common to both processes is the versatility of the persistent radical TEMPO and its oxidised oxoammonium derivative TEMPO+ . The unique mechanisms of these processes are elucidated experimentally and by in-depth DFT-calculations.
Project description:Pacman dinuclear CoII triphenylporphyrin-tri(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin 1 and dinuclear CoII bis-tri(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin 2, anchored at the two meso-positions of a benzene linker, are synthesized and examined as electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Both dinuclear Co bisporphyrins are more efficient and selective than corresponding mononuclear CoII tetra(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin 3 and CoII tetraphenylporphyrin 4 for the four-electron electrocatalytic reduction of O2 to water. Significantly, although the ORR selectivities of the two dinuclear Co bisporphyrins are similar to each other, 1 outperforms 2, in terms of larger catalytic ORR currents and lower overpotentials. Electrochemical studies showed different redox behaviors of the two Co sites of 1: the CoIII/CoII reduction of the Co-TPP (TPP = triphenylporphyrin) site is well-behind that of the Co-TPFP (TPFP = tri(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin) site by 440 mV. This difference indicated their different roles in the ORR: CoII-TPFP is likely the O2 binding and reduction site, while CoIII-TPP, which is generated by the oxidation of CoII-TPP on electrodes, may function as a Lewis acid to assist the O2 binding and activation. The positively charged CoIII-TPP will have through-space charge interactions with the negatively charged O2-adduct unit, which will reduce the activation energy barrier for the ORR. This effect of Co-TPP closely resembles that of the CuB site of metalloenzyme cytochrome c oxidase (CcO), which catalyzes the biological reduction of O2. This work represents a rare example of asymmetrical dinuclear metal catalysts, which can catalyze the 4e reduction of O2 with high selectivity and significantly improved activity.
Project description:A low cost and non-precious metal composite material g-C3N4-LaNiO3 (CNL) was synthesized as a bifunctional electrocatalyst for the air electrode of lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) batteries. The composition strategy changed the electron structure of LaNiO3 and g-C3N4, ensures high Ni(3+)/Ni(2+) ratio and more absorbed hydroxyl on the surface of CNL that can promote the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The composite catalyst presents higher activities than the individual components g-C3N4 and LaNiO3 for both ORR and OER. In non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries, CNL shows higher capacity, lower overpotentials and better cycling stability than XC-72 carbon and LaNiO3 catalysts. Our results suggest that CNL composite is a promising cathode catalyst for Li-O2 batteries.
Project description:Copper salts and organic aminoxyls, such as TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl), are versatile catalysts for aerobic alcohol oxidation. Previous reports in the literature contain conflicting proposals concerning the redox interactions that take place between copper(I) and copper(II) salts with the aminoxyl and hydroxylamine species, TEMPO and TEMPOH, respectively. Here, we reinvestigate these reactions in an effort to resolve the conflicting claims in the literature. Under anaerobic conditions, CuIIX2 salts [X = acetate (OAc), trifluoroacetate (TFA), and triflate (OTf)] are shown to promote the rapid proton-coupled oxidation of TEMPOH to TEMPO: CuIIX2 + TEMPOH ? CuIX + TEMPO + HX. In the reaction with acetate, however, slow reoxidation of CuIOAc occurs. This process requires both TEMPO and HOAc and coincides with the reduction of TEMPO to 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine. Analogous reactivity is not observed with trifluoroacetate and triflate species. Overall, the facility of the proton-coupled oxidation of TEMPOH by CuII salts suggests that this process could contribute to catalyst regeneration under aerobic oxidation conditions.
Project description:2,2'-Bipyridine-ligated copper complexes, in combination with TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl), are highly effective catalysts for aerobic alcohol oxidation. Considerable uncertainty and debate exist over the mechanism of alcohol oxidation mediated by Cu(II) and TEMPO. Here, we report experimental and density functional theory (DFT) computational studies that distinguish among numerous previously proposed mechanistic pathways. Oxidation of various classes of radical-probe substrates shows that long-lived radicals are not formed in the reaction. DFT computational studies support this conclusion. A bimolecular pathway involving hydrogen-atom-transfer from a Cu(II)-alkoxide to a nitroxyl radical is higher in energy than hydrogen transfer from a Cu(II)-alkoxide to a coordinated nitroxyl species. The data presented here reconcile a collection of diverse and seemingly contradictory experimental and computational data reported previously in the literature. The resulting Oppenauer-like reaction pathway further explains experimental trends in the relative reactivity of different classes of alcohols (benzylic versus aliphatic and primary versus secondary), as well as the different reactivity observed between TEMPO and bicyclic nitroxyls, such as ABNO (ABNO = 9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane N-oxyl).
Project description:Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) were found to be capable of tolerating a certain amount of oxygen (O2), but how they affect oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has not been clear. The present work investigated the impact of SRB on ORR in 3.5 wt% sodium chloride solution with the cyclic voltammetry method. The addition of SRB culture solution hampered both the reduction of O2 to superoxide (O2·-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to water (H2O), and the influence of SRB metabolites was much larger than that of bacterial cells. Sulfide and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), typical inorganic and organic metabolic products, had great impact on ORR. Sulfide played an important role in the decrease of cathodic current for H2O2 reduction due to its hydrolysis and chemical reaction activity with H2O2. EPS were sticky, easy to adsorb on the electrode surface and abundant in functional groups, which hindered the transformation of O2 into O2·- and favored the reduction of H2O2 to H2O.
Project description:A method for aerobic oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids has been developed using organic nitroxyl and NOx cocatalysts. KetoABNO (9-azabicyclo[3.3.1]nonan-3-one N-oxyl) and NaNO2 were identified as the optimal nitroxyl and NOx sources, respectively. The mildness of the reaction conditions enables sequential asymmetric hydroformylation of alkenes/aerobic aldehyde oxidation to access ?-chiral carboxylic acids without racemization. The scope, utility, and limitations of the oxidation method are further evaluated with a series of achiral aldehydes bearing diverse functional groups.
Project description:C60TEMPO10 catalytic system linked to a microspherical gold support through a covalent S-Au bond was developed. The C60TEMPO10@Au composite catalyst had a particle size of 0.5-0.8 ?m and was covered with the fullerenes derivative of 2.3 nm diameter bearing ten nitroxyl groups; the organic film showed up to 50 nm thickness. The catalytic composite allowed for the oxidation under mild conditions of various primary and secondary alcohols to the corresponding aldehyde and ketone analogues with efficiencies as high as 79-98%, thus giving values typical for homogeneous catalysis, while retaining at the same time all the advantages of heterogeneous catalysis, e.g., easy separation by filtration from the reaction mixture. The catalytic activity of the resulting system was studied by means of high pressure liquid chromatography. A redox mechanism was proposed for the process. In the catalytic cycle of the oxidation process, the TEMPO moiety was continuously regenerated in situ with an applied primary oxidant, for example, O2/Fe3+ system. The new intermediate composite components and the final catalyst were characterized by various spectroscopic methods and thermogravimetry. Graphical abstract?.
Project description:Aiming at a better understanding of correlations between the activity and selectivity of Au electrodes in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) under controlled transport conditions, we have investigated this reaction by combined electrochemical and in?situ FTIR measurements, performed in a flow cell set-up in an attenuated total reflection (ATR) configuration in acid and alkaline electrolytes. The formation of incomplete reduction products (hydrogen peroxyde/peroxyls) was detected by a collector electrode, the onset of OHad formation was probed by bulk CO oxidation. Using an electroless-deposited, annealed Au film on a Si prism as working electrode and three different electrolytes for comparison (sulfuric acid, perchloric acid, sodium hydroxide solution), we could derive detailed information on the anion adsorption behavior, and could correlate this with the ORR characteristics. The data reveal pronounced effects of the anions and the pH on the ORR characteristics, indicated e.?g., by a grossly different activity and selectivity for the 4-electron pathway to water/hydroxyls, with the onset ranging from ca. 1.0?V in alkaline electrolyte to 0.6?V in sulfuric acid electrolyte, and the selectivity for the 4-electron pathway ranging from 100?% (alkaline electrolyte, low overpotentials) to 40?% (acidic electrolytes, alkaline electrolyte at high overpotentials). In contrast, the effect of the ORR on the anion adsorption characteristics is small. Anion effects as well as correlations between anion adsorption and ORR are discussed.