Differential effects of Epigallocatechin-3-gallate containing supplements on correcting skeletal defects in a Down syndrome mouse model.
ABSTRACT: Down syndrome (DS), caused by trisomy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21), is characterized by a spectrum of phenotypes including skeletal abnormalities. The Ts65Dn DS mouse model exhibits similar skeletal phenotypes as humans with DS. DYRK1A, a kinase encoded on Hsa21, has been linked to deficiencies in bone homeostasis in DS mice and individuals with DS. Treatment with Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a known inhibitor of Dyrk1a, improves some skeletal abnormalities associated with DS in mice. EGCG supplements are widely available but the effectiveness of different EGCG-containing supplements has not been well studied.Six commercially available supplements containing EGCG were analyzed, and two of these supplements were compared with pure EGCG for their impact on skeletal deficits in a DS mouse model. The results demonstrate differential effects of commercial supplements on correcting skeletal abnormalities in Ts65Dn mice. Different EGCG-containing supplements display differences in degradation, polyphenol content, and effects on trisomic bone.This work suggests that the dose of EGCG and composition of EGCG-containing supplements may be important in correcting skeletal deficits associated with DS. Careful analyses of these parameters may lead to a better understanding of how to improve skeletal and other deficits that impair individuals with DS.
Project description:Down syndrome (DS) is caused by three copies of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) and results in phenotypes including intellectual disability and skeletal deficits. Ts65Dn mice have three copies of ~50% of the genes homologous to Hsa21 and display phenotypes associated with DS, including cognitive deficits and skeletal abnormalities. DYRK1A is found in three copies in humans with Trisomy 21 and in Ts65Dn mice, and is involved in a number of critical pathways including neurological development and osteoclastogenesis. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main polyphenol in green tea, inhibits Dyrk1a activity. We have previously shown that EGCG treatment (~10mg/kg/day) improves skeletal abnormalities in Ts65Dn mice, yet the same dose, as well as ~20mg/kg/day did not rescue deficits in the Morris water maze spatial learning task (MWM), novel object recognition (NOR) or balance beam task (BB). In contrast, a recent study reported that an EGCG-containing supplement with a dose of 2-3mg per day (~40-60mg/kg/day) improved hippocampal-dependent task deficits in Ts65Dn mice. The current study investigated if an EGCG dosage similar to that study would yield similar improvements in either cognitive or skeletal deficits. Ts65Dn mice and euploid littermates were given EGCG [0.4mg/mL] or a water control, with treatments yielding average daily intakes of ~50mg/kg/day EGCG, and tested on the multivariate concentric square field (MCSF)-which assesses activity, exploratory behavior, risk assessment, risk taking, and shelter seeking-and NOR, BB, and MWM. EGCG treatment failed to improve cognitive deficits; EGCG also produced several detrimental effects on skeleton in both genotypes. In a refined HPLC-based assay, its first application in Ts65Dn mice, EGCG treatment significantly reduced kinase activity in femora but not in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, or hippocampus. Counter to expectation, 9-week-old Ts65Dn mice exhibited a decrease in Dyrk1a protein levels in Western blot analysis in the cerebellum. The lack of beneficial therapeutic behavioral effects and potentially detrimental skeletal effects of EGCG found in Ts65Dn mice emphasize the importance of identifying dosages of EGCG that reliably improve DS phenotypes and linking those effects to actions of EGCG (or EGCG-containing supplements) in specific targets in brain and bone.
Project description:Cognitive impairment in Down syndrome (DS) has been linked to increased synaptic inhibition. The underlying mechanisms remain unknown, but memory deficits are rescued in DS mouse models by drugs targeting GABA receptors. Similarly, administration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)-containing extracts rescues cognitive phenotypes in Ts65Dn mice, potentially through GABA pathway. Some developmental and cognitive alterations have been traced to increased expression of the serine-threonine kinase DYRK1A on Hsa21. To better understand excitation/inhibition balance in DS, we investigated the consequences of long-term (1-month) treatment with EGCG-containing extracts in adult mBACtgDyrk1a mice that overexpress Dyrk1a. Administration of POL60 rescued components of GABAergic and glutamatergic pathways in cortex and hippocampus but not cerebellum. An intermediate dose (60 mg/kg) of decaffeinated green tea extract (MGTE) acted on components of both GABAergic and glutamatergic pathways and rescued behavioral deficits as demonstrated on the alternating paradigm, but did not rescue protein level of GABA-synthesizing GAD67. These results indicate that excessive synaptic inhibition in people with DS may be attributable, in large part, to increased DYRK1A dosage. Thus, controlling the level of active DYRK1A is a clear issue for DS therapy. This study also defines a panel of synaptic markers for further characterization of DS treatments in murine models.
Project description:Trisomy 21 (Ts21) affects craniofacial precursors in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). The resultant craniofacial features in all individuals with Ts21 may significantly affect breathing, eating and speaking. Using mouse models of DS, we have traced the origin of DS-associated craniofacial abnormalities to deficiencies in neural crest cell (NCC) craniofacial precursors early in development. Hypothetically, three copies of Dyrk1a (dual-specificity tyrosine-(Y)-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A), a trisomic gene found in most humans with DS and mouse models of DS, may significantly affect craniofacial structure. We hypothesized that we could improve DS-related craniofacial abnormalities in mouse models using a Dyrk1a inhibitor or by normalizing Dyrk1a gene dosage. In vitro and in vivo treatment with Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a Dyrk1a inhibitor, modulated trisomic NCC deficiencies at embryonic time points. Furthermore, prenatal EGCG treatment normalized some craniofacial phenotypes, including cranial vault in adult Ts65Dn mice. Normalization of Dyrk1a copy number in an otherwise trisomic Ts65Dn mice normalized many dimensions of the cranial vault, but did not correct all craniofacial anatomy. These data underscore the complexity of the gene–phenotype relationship in trisomy and suggest that changes in Dyrk1a expression play an important role in morphogenesis and growth of the cranial vault. These results suggest that a temporally specific prenatal therapy may be an effective way to ameliorate some craniofacial anatomical changes associated with DS.
Project description:Down syndrome (DS), caused by trisomy of chromosome 21, is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability. We recently discovered that green tea extracts containing epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) improve cognition in mice transgenic for Dyrk1a (TgDyrk1A) and in a trisomic DS mouse model (Ts65Dn). Interestingly, paired with cognitive stimulation, green tea has beneficial pro-cognitive effects in DS individuals. Dual Specificity Tyrosine-Phosphorylation-Regulated Kinase 1A (DYRK1A) is a major candidate to explain the cognitive phenotypes of DS, and inhibiting its activity is a promising pro-cognitive therapy. DYRK1A kinase activity can be normalized in the hippocampus of transgenic DYRK1A mice administering green tea extracts, but also submitting the animals to environmental enrichment (EE). However, many other mechanisms could also explain the pro-cognitive effects of green tea extracts and EE. To underpin the overall alterations arising upon DYRK1A overexpression and the molecular processes underneath the pro-cognitive effects, we used quantitative proteomics. We investigated the hippocampal (phospho)proteome in basal conditions and after treatment with a green tea extract containing EGCG and/or EE in TgDyrk1A and control mice. We found that Dyrk1A overexpression alters protein and phosphoprotein levels of key postsynaptic and plasticity-related pathways and that these alterations were rescued upon the cognitive enhancer treatments.
Project description:Down syndrome (DS), trisomy 21, is caused by increased dose of genes present on human chromosome 21 (HSA21). The gene-dose hypothesis argues that a change in the dose of individual genes or regulatory sequences on HSA21 is necessary for creating DS-related phenotypes, including cognitive impairment. We focused on a possible role for Kcnj6, the gene encoding Kir3.2 (Girk2) subunits of a G-protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channel. This gene resides on a segment of mouse Chromosome 16 that is present in one extra copy in the genome of the Ts65Dn mouse, a well-studied genetic model of DS. Kir3.2 subunit-containing potassium channels serve as effectors for a number of postsynaptic metabotropic receptors including GABAB receptors. Several studies raise the possibility that increased Kcnj6 dose contributes to synaptic and cognitive abnormalities in DS. To assess directly a role for Kcnj6 gene dose in cognitive deficits in DS, we produced Ts65Dn mice that harbor only 2 copies of Kcnj6 (Ts65Dn:Kcnj6++- mice). The reduction in Kcnj6 gene dose restored to normal the hippocampal level of Kir3.2. Long-term memory, examined in the novel object recognition test with the retention period of 24h, was improved to the level observed in the normosomic littermate control mice (2N:Kcnj6++). Significantly, both short-term and long-term potentiation (STP and LTP) was improved to control levels in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the Ts65Dn:Kcnj6++- mouse. In view of the ability of fluoxetine to suppress Kir3.2 channels, we asked if fluoxetine-treated DG slices of Ts65Dn:Kcnj6+++ mice would rescue synaptic plasticity. Fluoxetine increased STP and LTP to control levels. These results are evidence that increased Kcnj6 gene dose is necessary for synaptic and cognitive dysfunction in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS. Strategies aimed at pharmacologically reducing channel function should be explored for enhancing cognition in DS.
Project description:Down syndrome is the main genetic cause of intellectual disability and is due to triplication of human chromosome 21 (HSA21). Green tea extracts containing epigallocatechin-3-gallate (green tea) improve cognition both in mouse models and individuals with Down syndrome. We here analyzed the proteome and phosphoproteome alterations in a Down syndrome mouse model, the partial trisomic Ts65Dn mice, and the effect produced by the green tea extract and environmental enrichment (EE). Trisomic hippocampi presented a dysregulated proteome, especially when looking at the phosphorylation level in cognitive-related categories (synaptic proteins, neuronal projection, neuron development, microtubule), and GTPases/kinase activity and chromatin related categories. Green tea, EE, and their phospholipids in the plasma membrane and regulates signal transduction pathways, transcription factors, DNA methylation, mitochondrial function and phosphorylation, and autophagy to exert many of its beneficial biological actions Of interest for DS, it inhibits the activity of the Dual Specificity Tyrosine-Phosphorylation-Regulated Kinase 1A (DYRK1A), a DS candidate gene located in the 21q22.2 human chromosome region4,5. Previous work from our group showed that EGCG partially rescues the effects of overexpression of a DS candidate gene, DYRK1A, on the proteome and phosphoproteome of the hippocampus of TgDyrk1A mice6. However, the extent to which these mechanisms apply to a trisomy scenario is unknown. To get insight in these mechanisms we analyzed changes in protein abundances and phosphorylation in Ts65Dn mice, and their disomic counterparts in baseline conditions and upon three treatments known to improve cognition in Ts65Dn: i) green tea extract containing EGCG, ii) environmental enrichment (EE), and iii) their combination.
Project description:Down syndrome (DS) is the main genetic cause of intellectual disability due to triplication of human chromosome 21 (HSA21). Although there is no treatment for intellectual disability, environmental enrichment (EE) and the administration of green tea extracts containing epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) improve cognition in mouse models and individuals with DS. Using proteome, and phosphoproteome analysis in the hippocampi of a DS mouse model (Ts65Dn), we investigated the possible mechanisms underlying the effects of green tea extracts, EE and their combination. Our results revealed disturbances in cognitive-related (synaptic proteins, neuronal projection, neuron development, microtubule), GTPase/kinase activity and chromatin proteins. Green tea extracts, EE, and their combination restored more than 70% of the phosphoprotein deregulation in Ts65Dn, and induced possible compensatory effects. Our downstream analyses indicate that re-establishment of a proper epigenetic state and rescue of the kinome deregulation may contribute to the cognitive rescue induced by green tea extracts.
Project description:Down syndrome (DS) is caused by an extra copy of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21). Although it is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability (ID), there are, as yet, no effective pharmacotherapies. The Ts65Dn mouse model of DS is trisomic for orthologs of ?55% of Hsa21 classical protein coding genes. These mice display many features relevant to those seen in DS, including deficits in learning and memory (L/M) tasks requiring a functional hippocampus. Recently, the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, memantine, was shown to rescue performance of the Ts65Dn in several L/M tasks. These studies, however, have not been accompanied by molecular analyses. In previous work, we described changes in protein expression induced in hippocampus and cortex in control mice after exposure to context fear conditioning (CFC), with and without memantine treatment. Here, we extend this analysis to Ts65Dn mice, measuring levels of 85 proteins/protein modifications, including components of MAP kinase and MTOR pathways, and subunits of NMDA receptors, in cortex and hippocampus of Ts65Dn mice after failed learning in CFC and after learning was rescued by memantine. We show that, compared with wild type littermate controls, (i) of the dynamic responses seen in control mice in normal learning, >40% also occur in Ts65Dn in failed learning or are compensated by baseline abnormalities, and thus are considered necessary but not sufficient for successful learning, and (ii) treatment with memantine does not in general normalize the initial protein levels but instead induces direct and indirect responses in approximately half the proteins measured and results in normalization of the endpoint protein levels. Together, these datasets provide a first view of the complexities associated with pharmacological rescue of learning in the Ts65Dn. Extending such studies to additional drugs and mouse models of DS will aid in identifying pharmacotherapies for effective clinical trials.
Project description:Down Syndrome (DS) is caused by trisomy of chromosome 21 (Hsa21) and results in a spectrum of phenotypes including learning and memory deficits, and motor dysfunction. It has been hypothesized that an additional copy of a few Hsa21 dosage-sensitive genes causes these phenotypes, but this has been challenged by observations that aneuploidy can cause phenotypes by the mass action of large numbers of genes, with undetectable contributions from individual sequences. The motor abnormalities in DS are relatively understudied-the identity of causative dosage-sensitive genes and the mechanism underpinning the phenotypes are unknown. Using a panel of mouse strains with duplications of regions of mouse chromosomes orthologous to Hsa21 we show that increased dosage of small numbers of genes causes locomotor dysfunction and, moreover, that the Dyrk1a gene is required in three copies to cause the phenotype. Furthermore, we show for the first time a new DS phenotype: loss of motor neurons both in mouse models and, importantly, in humans with DS, that may contribute to locomotor dysfunction.
Project description:Growing evidence supports the implication of DYRK1A in the development of cognitive deficits seen in Down syndrome (DS) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We here demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of brain DYRK1A is able to correct recognition memory deficits in three DS mouse models with increasing genetic complexity [Tg(Dyrk1a), Ts65Dn, Dp1Yey], all expressing an extra copy of Dyrk1a Overexpressed DYRK1A accumulates in the cytoplasm and at the synapse. Treatment of the three DS models with the pharmacological DYRK1A inhibitor leucettine L41 leads to normalization of DYRK1A activity and corrects the novel object cognitive impairment observed in these models. Brain functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals that this cognitive improvement is paralleled by functional connectivity remodelling of core brain areas involved in learning/memory processes. The impact of Dyrk1a trisomy and L41 treatment on brain phosphoproteins was investigated by a quantitative phosphoproteomics method, revealing the implication of synaptic (synapsin 1) and cytoskeletal components involved in synaptic response and axonal organization. These results encourage the development of DYRK1A inhibitors as drug candidates to treat cognitive deficits associated with DS and AD.