A novel open-porous magnesium scaffold with controllable microstructures and properties for bone regeneration.
ABSTRACT: The traditional production methods of porous magnesium scaffolds are difficult to accurately control the pore morphologies and simultaneously obtain appropriate mechanical properties. In this work, two open-porous magnesium scaffolds with different pore size but in the nearly same porosity are successfully fabricated with high-purity Mg ingots through the titanium wire space holder (TWSH) method. The porosity and pore size can be easily, precisely and individually controlled, as well as the mechanical properties also can be regulated to be within the range of human cancellous bone by changing the orientation of pores without sacrifice the requisite porous structures. In vitro cell tests indicate that the scaffolds have good cytocompatibility and osteoblastic differentiation properties. In vivo findings demonstrate that both scaffolds exhibit acceptable inflammatory responses and can be almost fully degraded and replaced by newly formed bone. More importantly, under the same porosity, the scaffolds with larger pore size can promote early vascularization and up-regulate collagen type 1 and OPN expression, leading to higher bone mass and more mature bone formation. In conclusion, a new method is introduced to develop an open-porous magnesium scaffold with controllable microstructures and mechanical properties, which has great potential clinical application for bone reconstruction in the future.
Project description:Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) constitutes a preferred alternative material for orthopedic implants owing to its good mechanical properties and biocompatibility. However, the poor osseointegration property of PEEK implants has limited their clinical applications. To address this issue, in this study, we investigated the mechanical and biological properties of fully porous PEEK scaffolds with different pore sizes both in vitro and in vivo. PEEK scaffolds with designed pore sizes of 300, 450, and 600 ?m and a porosity of 60% were manufactured via fused deposition modeling (FDM) to explore the optimum pore size. Smooth solid PEEK cylinders (PEEK-S) were used as the reference material. The mechanical, cytocompatibility, proliferative, and osteogenic properties of PEEK scaffolds were characterized in comparison to those of PEEK-S. In vivo dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, microcomputed tomography, and histological observation were performed after 4 and 12 weeks of implantation to evaluate the microvascular perfusion and bone formation afforded by the various PEEK implants using a New Zealand white rabbit model with distal femoral condyle defects. Results of in vitro testing supported the good biocompatibility of the porous PEEK scaffolds manufactured via FDM. In particular, the PEEK-450 scaffolds were most beneficial for cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation. Results of in vivo analysis further indicated that PEEK-450 scaffolds exhibited preferential potential for bone ingrowth and vascular perfusion. Together, our findings support that porous PEEK implants designed with a suitable pore size and fabricated via three-dimensional printing constitute promising alternative biomaterials for bone grafting and tissue engineering applications with marked potential for clinical applications.
Project description:Porous scaffolds with graded open porosity combining a morphology similar to that of bone with mechanical and biological properties are becoming an attractive candidate for bone grafts. In this work, scaffolds with a continuous cell-size gradient were studied from the aspects of pore properties, mechanical properties and bio-functional properties. Using a mathematical method named triply periodic minimal surfaces (TPMS), uniform and graded scaffolds with Gyroid and Diamond units were manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM) with Ti-6Al-4V, followed by micro-computer tomography (CT) reconstruction, mechanical testing and in vitro evaluation. It was found that gradient scaffolds were preferably replicated by SLM with continuous graded changes in surface area and pore size, but their pore size should be designed to be ? 450 ?m to ensure good interconnectivity. Both the Gyroid and Diamond structures have superior strength compared to cancellous bones, and their elastic modulus is comparable to the bones. In comparison, Gyroid exhibits better performances than Diamond in terms of the elastic modulus, ultimate strength and ductility. In vitro cell culture experiments show that the gradients provide an ideal growth environment for osteoblast growth in which cells survive well and distribute uniformly due to biocompatibility of the Ti-6Al-4V material, interconnectivity and suitable pore size.
Project description:In this paper, we take the elliptical pore structure which is similar to the microstructure of cancellous bone as the research object, four groups of bone scaffolds were designed from the perspective of pore size, porosity and pore distribution. The size of the all scaffolds were uniformly designed as 10 × 10 × 12 mm. Four groups of model samples were prepared by selective laser melting (SLM) and Ti6Al4V materials. The statics performance of the scaffolds was comprehensively evaluated by mechanical compression simulation and mechanical compression test, the manufacturing error of the scaffold samples were evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), and the permeability of the scaffolds were predicted and evaluated by simulation analysis of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The results show that the different distribution of porosity, pore size and pores of the elliptical scaffold have a certain influence on the mechanical properties and permeability of the scaffold, and the reasonable size and angle distribution of the elliptical pore can match the mechanical properties and permeability of the elliptical pore scaffold with human cancellous bone, which has great potential for research and application in the field of artificial bone scaffold.
Project description:The in vivo enrichment of dendritic cells (DCs) in implanted macroporous scaffolds is an emerging strategy to modulate the adaptive immune system. The pore architecture is potentially one of the key factors in controlling enrichment of DCs. However, there have been few studies examining the effects of scaffold pore structure on in vivo DC enrichment. Here we present the effects of surface porosity, pore size, and pore volume of macroporous poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) scaffolds encapsulating granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), an inflammatory chemoattractant, on the in vivo enrichment of DCs. Although in vitro cell seeding studies using PLG scaffolds without GM-CSF showed higher cell infiltration in scaffolds with higher surface porosity, in vivo results revealed higher DC enrichment in GM-CSF loaded PLG scaffolds with lower surface porosity despite a similar level of GM-CSF released. The diminished compressive modulus of high surface porosity scaffolds compared to low surface porosity scaffolds lead to the significant shrinkage of these scaffolds in vivo, suggesting that the mechanical strength of scaffolds was critical to maintain a porous structure in vivo for accumulating DCs. The pore volume was also found to be important in total number of recruited cells and DCs in vivo. Varying the pore size significantly impacted the total number of cells, but similar numbers of DCs were found as long as the pore size was above 10-32 ?m. Collectively, these results suggested that one can modulate in vivo enrichment of DCs by altering the pore architecture and mechanical properties of PLG scaffolds.
Project description:Nowadays, post-surgical or post-accidental bone loss can be substituted by custom-made scaffolds fabricated by additive manufacturing (AM) methods from metallic powders. However, the partially melted powder particles must be removed in a post-process chemical treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the chemical polishing with various acid baths on novel scaffolds' morphology, porosity and mechanical properties. In the first stage, Magics software (Materialise NV, Leuven, Belgium) was used to design a porous scaffolds with pore size equal to (A) 200 µm, (B) 500 µm and (C) 200 + 500 µm, and diamond cell structure. The scaffolds were fabricated from commercially pure titanium powder (CP Ti) using a SLM50 3D printing machine (Realizer GmbH, Borchen, Germany). The selective laser melting (SLM) process was optimized and the laser beam energy density in range of 91-151 J/mm³ was applied to receive 3D structures with fully dense struts. To remove not fully melted titanium particles the scaffolds were chemically polished using various HF and HF-HNO₃ acid solutions. Based on scaffolds mass loss and scanning electron (SEM) observations, baths which provided most uniform surface cleaning were proposed for each porosity. The pore and strut size after chemical treatments was calculated based on the micro-computed tomography (µ-CT) and SEM images. The mechanical tests showed that the treated scaffolds had Young's modulus close to that of compact bone. Additionally, the effect of pore size of chemically polished scaffolds on cell retention, proliferation and differentiation was studied using human mesenchymal stem cells. Small pores yielded higher cell retention within the scaffolds, which then affected their growth. This shows that in vitro cell performance can be controlled to certain extent by varying pore sizes.
Project description:3D-printing is a powerful manufacturing tool that can create precise microscale architectures across macroscale geometries. Within biomedical research, 3D-printing of various materials has been used to fabricate rigid scaffolds for cell and tissue engineering constructs with precise microarchitecture to direct cell behavior and macroscale geometry provides patient specificity. While 3D-printing hardware has become low-cost due to modeling and rapid prototyping applications, there is no common paradigm or platform for the controlled design and manufacture of 3D-printed constructs for tissue engineering. Specifically, controlling the tissue engineering features of pore size, porosity, and pore arrangement is difficult using currently available software. We have developed a MATLAB approach termed scafSLICR to design and manufacture tissue-engineered scaffolds with precise microarchitecture and with simple options to enable spatially patterned pore properties. Using scafSLICR, we designed, manufactured, and characterized porous scaffolds in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene with a variety of pore sizes, porosities, and gradients. We found that transitions between different porous regions maintained an open, connected porous network without compromising mechanical integrity. Further, we demonstrated the usefulness of scafSLICR in patterning different porous designs throughout large anatomic shapes and in preparing craniofacial tissue engineering bone scaffolds. Finally, scafSLICR is distributed as open-source MATLAB scripts and as a stand-alone graphical interface.
Project description:Porous scaffolds made of elastomeric materials are of great interest for soft tissue engineering. Poly(L-lactide-co-?-caprolactone) (PLCL) is a bio-resorbable elastomeric copolymer with tailorable properties, which make this material an appropriate candidate to be used as scaffold for vascular, tendon, and nerve healing applications. Here, extrusion was applied to produce porous scaffolds of PLCL, using NaCl particles as a leachable agent. The effects of the particle proportion and size on leaching performance, dimensional stability, mechanical properties, and ageing of the scaffolds were analyzed. The efficiency of the particle leaching and scaffold swelling when wet were observed to be dependent on the porogenerator proportion, while the secant moduli and ultimate tensile strengths were dependent on the pore size. Porosity, swelling, and mechanical properties of the extruded scaffolds were tailorable, varying with the proportion and size of porogenerator particles and showed similar values to human soft tissues like nerves and veins (E = 7-15 MPa, ?u = 7 MPa). Up to 300-mm length micro-porous PLCL tube with 400-µm thickness wall was extruded, proving extrusion as a high-throughput manufacturing process to produce tubular elastomeric bio-resorbable porous scaffolds of unrestricted length with tunable mechanical properties.
Project description:Wollastonite (CaSiO3; CSi) ceramic is a promising bioactive material for bone defect repair due to slightly fast degradation of its porous constructs in vivo. In our previous strategy some key features of CSi ceramic have been significantly improved by dilute magnesium doping for regulating mechanical properties and biodegradation. Here we demonstrate that 6?~?14% of Ca substituted by Mg in CSi (CSi-Mgx, x?=?6, 10, 14) can enhance the mechanical strength (>40?MPa) but not compromise biological performances of the 3D printed porous scaffolds with open porosity of 60?63%. The in vitro cell culture tests in vitro indicated that the dilute Mg doping into CSi was beneficial for ALP activity and high expression of osteogenic marker genes of MC3T3-E1 cells in the scaffolds. A good bone tissue regeneration response and elastoplastic response in mechanical strength in vivo were determined after implantation in rabbit calvarial defects for 6?12 weeks. Particularly, the CSi-Mg10 and CSi-Mg14 scaffolds could enhance new bone regeneration with a significant increase of newly formed bone tissue (18?~?22%) compared to the pure CSi (~14%) at 12 weeks post-implantation. It is reasonable to consider that, therefore, such CSi-Mgx scaffolds possessing excellent strength and reasonable degradability are promising for bone reconstruction in thin-wall bone defects.
Project description:Scaffolds used for bone tissue engineering need to have a variety of features to accommodate bone cells. The scaffold should mimic natural bone, it should have appropriate mechanical strength, support cell differentiation to the osteogenic lineage, and offer adequate porosity to allow vascularization and bone in-growth. In this work, we aim at developing a new process to fabricate such materials by creating a porous composite material made of silk fibroin and cellulose as a suitable scaffold of bone tissue engineering. Silk fibroin and cellulose are both dissolved together in N,N-dimethylacetamide/LiCl and molded to a porous structure using NaCl powder. The hydrogels are prepared by a sequential regeneration process: cellulose is solidified by water vapor treatment, while the remaining silk fibroin in the hydrogel is insolubilized by methanol, which leads to a cellulose framework structure embedded in a silk fibroin matrix. Finally, the hydrogels are soaked in water to dissolve the NaCl for making a porous structure. The cellulose composition results in improving the mechanical properties for the hydrogels in comparison to the silk fibroin control material. The pore size and porosity are estimated at around 350 µm and 70%, respectively. The hydrogels support the differentiation of MC3T3 cells to osteoblasts and are expected to be a good scaffold for bone tissue engineering.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The improvement of bone ingrowth into prosthesis and enhancement of the combination of the range between the bone and prosthesis are important for long-term stability of artificial joints. They are the focus of research on uncemented artificial joints. Porous materials can be of potential use to solve these problems.<h4>Objectives/purposes</h4>This research aims to observe the characteristics of the new porous Ti-25Nb alloy and its biocompatibility in vitro, and to provide basic experimental evidence for the development of new porous prostheses or bone implants for bone tissue regeneration.<h4>Methods</h4>The Ti-25Nb alloys with different porosities were fabricated using powder metallurgy. The alloys were then evaluated based on several characteristics, such as mechanical properties, purity, pore size, and porosity. To evaluate biocompatibility, the specimens were subjected to methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) colorimetric assay, cell adhesion and proliferation assay using acridine staining, scanning electron microscopy, and detection of inflammation factor interleukin-6 (IL-6).<h4>Results</h4>The porous Ti-25Nb alloy with interconnected pores had a pore size of 200 µm to 500 µm, which was favorable for bone ingrowth. The compressive strength of the alloy was similar to that of cortical bone, while with the elastic modulus closer to cancellous bone. MTT assay showed that the alloy had no adverse reaction to rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, with a toxicity level of 0 to 1. Cell adhesion and proliferation experiments showed excellent cell growth on the surface and inside the pores of the alloy. According to the IL-6 levels, the alloy did not cause any obvious inflammatory response.<h4>Conclusion</h4>All porous Ti-25Nb alloys showed good biocompatibility regardless of the percentage of porosity. The basic requirement of clinical orthopedic implants was satisfied, which made the alloy a good prospect for biomedical application. The alloy with 70% porosity had the optimum mechanical properties, as well as suitable pore size and porosity, which allowed more bone ingrowth.