The millipede family Cryptodesmidae in Indochina (Diplopoda, Polydesmida).
ABSTRACT: In addition to two species of the diplopod family Cryptodesmidae already reported from Indochina, Trichopeltis kometis (Attems, 1938) and Ophrydesmus anichkini Golovatch, 2015, the fauna of that region is supplemented by three species: Niponia nodulosa Verhoeff, 1931, a millipede hitherto known only from southern Japan and Taiwan, is now recorded from Vietnam; Trichopeltis cavernicola sp. n. from Laos, the sixth species in that tropical Asian genus, is the first presumed troglobite to be described amongst the Asian cryptodesmids and shows several distinct troglomorphic features; and Circulocryptus gen. n., monobasic, which joins the tribe Dyakryptini, but differs from all three contribal genera (two monobasic from Borneo, and another, oligotypic, from New Guinea) primarily in the gonopods of Circulocryptus faillei sp. n., from Vietnam, being especially elaborate and subcircular, the telopodites strongly twisted, and the solenomere lying much more basally.
Project description:The millipede Typhloglomeriscaucasica Golovatch, hitherto considered as a troglobite confined to several caves near Sochi, western Caucasus, Russia, is recorded epigeically in the same region, and is therefore a troglophile.
Project description:A new species of glomeridellid millipede is described from Guizhou Province, southern China: Tonkinomeris huzhengkuni sp. nov. This new epigean species differs very clearly in many structural details, being sufficiently distinct morphologically and disjunct geographically from T. napoensis Nguyen, Sierwald & Marek, 2019, the type and sole species of Tonkinomeris Nguyen, Sierwald & Marek, 2019, which was described recently from northern Vietnam. The genus Tonkinomeris is formally relegated from Glomeridae and assigned to the family Glomeridellidae, which has hitherto been considered strictly Euro-Mediterranean in distribution and is thus new to the diplopod faunas of China and Indochina. Tonkinomeris is re-diagnosed and shown to have perhaps the basalmost position in the family Glomeridellidae. Its relationships are discussed, both morphological and zoogeographical, within and outside the Glomeridellidae, which can now be considered as relict and basically Oriental in origin. Because of the still highly limited array of DNA-barcoding sequences of the COI mitochondrial gene available in the GenBank, the first molecular phylogenetic analysis of Glomerida attempted here shows our phylogram to be too deficient to consider meaningful.
Project description:Two new species of Glyphiulus are described and illustrated from northern Laos. The epigean Glyphiulus subbedosae Likhitrakarn, Golovatch & Panha, sp. n. is the second member of the granulatus-group to be found in that country and it seems to be especially similar to G. bedosae Golovatch, Geoffroy, Mauriès & VandenSpiegel, 2007. However, it differs from the latter species by a row of several strong setae near the median marginal ridge on the paraprocts, combined with the gnathochilarium being considerably less densely setose on the caudal face, and the anterior gonopods showing a pair of smaller, apical, but larger lateral teeth on the coxosternal plate. Glyphiulus semicostulifer Likhitrakarn, Golovatch & Panha, sp. n. is the fourth member of the javanicus-group to be discovered in Laos, taken from a cave. It seems to be particularly similar to G. costulifer Golovatch, Geoffroy, Mauriès & VandenSpiegel, 2007, but is distinguished by the more sparsely alveolate background fine structure of the metazonae, coupled with the gnathochilarium being considerably less densely setose on the caudal face, much stronger paramedian prongs and 4-segmented telopodites on ? coxae 1, the slightly longer and more slender apicoparamedian sternal projections on the anterior gonopods, and the much longer flagella of the posterior gonopods. An identification key to and a distribution map of Glyphiulus species in Laos are also presented.
Project description:The small, basically Oriental family Opisotretidae is rediagnosed, reclassified, and shown to comprise the following seven genera, all keyed: Carlotretus Hoffman, 1980, with two species, including Carlotretus triramus sp. n. from southern China; Corypholophus Attems, 1938, with two species, one in Vietnam, the other in the Ryukyus, Japan; Martensodesmus Golovatch, 1987, with eight species, all keyed, including Martensodesmus cattienensis sp. n. from southern Vietnam, as well as Martensodesmus bedosae sp. n. and Martensodesmus spiniger sp. n. from southern China; Opisotretus Attems, 1907, with seven species, all keyed, including Opisotretus beroni sp. n. and Opisotretus hagen sp. n., both from Papua New Guinea, Opisotretus deharvengi sp. n. from Sulawesi, Indonesia, and Opisotretus spinosus sp. n. from Nusakambangan Island, off Java, Indonesia; Opisthoporodesmus Silvestri, 1899, with six nominate species; Retrodesmus Chamberlin, 1945, with two species, i.e. the type-species Retrodesmus dammermani Chamberlin, 1945, from Java, Indonesia, revised from the holotype, and Retrodesmus cavernicola sp. n., from Papua New Guinea; and Solaenaulus Attems, 1940, with two species. Comments are presented on the family's possible relationships and palaeogeographic history. Instead of being considered as the sole component of the superfamily Opisotretoidea, the Opisotretidae is believed here to form one of the families of the diverse superfamily Trichopolydesmoidea, perhaps the sister-group to, if not immediately derived from, the pantropical family Fuhrmannodesmidae. The origin of Opisotretidae, previously dated as far back as the Triassic (220 Ma) in relation to the fragmentation of eastern Gondwanaland, mainly in the region of present-day Indonesia, could have had nothing to do with Gondwanaland. Opisotretids might have originated in mainland Southeast Asia well within the Cenozoic, with subsequent dispersals along the Himalayas in the West and across Indonesia (including New Guinea) in the East, also reaching as far north as the Ryukyus, Japan and Guangxi, southern China.
Project description:The hitherto monotypic diplopod genus Annamina contains now four species, including the revised type-species A. xanthoptera Attems, 1937, as well as A. attemsisp. n., A. irinaesp. n. and A. mikhaljovaesp. n., all from central or southern Vietnam. The genus is rediagnosed and a key to its constituent species given.
Project description:The genus Tonkinosoma Jeekel, 1953 has hitherto been known to contain only two species, both from northern Vietnam. T. flexipes Jeekel, 1953, the type species of the genus, is recorded from Guangxi, southern China, for the first time. T. tianisp. n., a presumed troglobite, is described from caves in Guizhou, southwestern China. A key is presented to all three species of the genus.
Project description:The East Asian millipede genus Riukiupeltis Verhoeff, 1939 is revised, and is restricted to a single species, Riukiupeltis jamashinai Verhoeff, 1939. Examination of the type specimens and freshly collected material from the Ryukyu Archipelago and Vietnam show that both subsequently allocated species, Riukiupeltis uenoi Murakami, 1975, and Riukiupeltis falcatus (originally Haplogonosoma falcatum Attems, 1953, reallocated by Jeekel 1968), do not belong to this genus; moreover, they are not even congeneric with each other. According to our morphological observations, including the gonopods, Riukiupeltis uenoi is closer to the widespread Chamberlinius hualienensis Wang, 1956, hence we propose the new combination Chamberlinius uenoi (Murakami, 1975), comb. n.Riukiupeltis falcatus, on the other hand, represents a separate, as yet monotypic, genus Simplogonomorphagen. n., distinct both from Haplogonosoma Brölemann, 1916 sensu Golovatch et al. (1995), and from Verhoeff's original Riukiupeltis. Additionally, Simplogonomorpha falcata (Attems, 1953), comb. n is re-described here based on fresh material from Vietnam. A key and colour habitus-illustrations to all three species are also provided here.
Project description:A new, critically endangered species of softshell turtle, Pelodiscusvariegatus sp. n. is described from north-central Vietnam and Hainan Island, China, distinguished by a unique set of genetic and morphological traits from all other congeners (P.axenaria, P.maackii, P.parviformis, P.sinensis, and unnamed genetic lineages). Morphologically, P.variegatus is characterized, among others, by its strong ventral ornamentation in all age classes.
Project description:Polydesmidae are represented in Taiwan by seven species in two genera. Neither of the genera is endemic to Taiwan, but six of the species are, including five new: Nipponesmus minorsp. n., Epanerchodus bispinosussp. n., Epanerchodus curtigonopussp. n., Epanerchodus flagellifersp. n. and Epanerchodus pinguissp. n. In addition, the diagnosis of the hitherto enigmatic genus Nipponesmus Chamberlin & Wang, 1953 is refined vis-à-vis the especially similar, Central Asian, Siberian and Eastern European genus Schizoturanius Verhoeff, 1931, chiefly based on new material of the type-species Nipponesmus shirinensis Chamberlin & Wang, 1953; this species is adequately redescribed and represents still another Taiwanese endemic. A key to all three currently known species of Nipponesmus Chamberlin & Wang, 1953 is given. The highly speciose Central to East Asian genus Epanerchodus Attems, 1901 is represented in Taiwan by five species, all keyed, including Epanerchodus orientalis Attems, 1901, which is long known to be highly variable in Japan and found particularly polymorphous and apparently allochthonous in Taiwan. The following synonymy is formalized: Epanerchodus orientalis orientalis Attems, 1901 = Epanerchodus orientalis takakuwai Verhoeff, 1913, syn. n. The genus Usbekodesmus Lohmander, 1932 is formally synonymized with Epanerchodus Attems, 1901, syn. n., resulting in the following new formal transfers: Epanerchodus redikorzevi (Lohmander, 1932), Epanerchodus swatensis (Golovatch, 1991), Epanerchodus varius (Geoffroy & Golovatch, 2004), Epanerchodus anachoretus (Golovatch, 1986), Epanerchodus buddhis (Golovatch, 1986), Epanerchodus occultus (Golovatch, 1986), Epanerchodus sacer (Golovatch, 1987), Epanerchodus theocraticus (Golovatch, 1990) and Epanerchodus theosophicus (Golovatch, 1986), all comb. n. ex Usbekodesmus. The distributions of all seven species of Polydesmidae occurring in Taiwan are mapped and discussed.
Project description:We provide an integrative taxonomic analysis of the Lipinia vittigera species complex from mainland Southeast Asia. Based on examination of external morphology, color pattern, and 681 base pairs of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) mitochondrial gene, we demonstrate the presence of four morphologically distinct lineages of Lipinia in Vietnam, Cambodia, Thailand, and Malaysia, showing a sequence divergence ranging 15.5%-20.4%. All discovered lineages are discretely diagnosable from one another by a combination of scalation traits and color patterns. A review of the published distribution data and a re-examination of available type material revealed the following results:(1) distribution of L. vittigera (Boulenger, 1894) sensu stricto is restricted to Sundaland and the Thai-Malay Peninsula south of the Isthmus of Kra; (2) L. microcercus (Boettger, 1901) stat. nov. is elevated to full species rank; the species has a wide distribution from central and southern Vietnam across Cambodia to eastern Thailand; we regard Lygosoma vittigerum kronfanum Smith, 1922 and Leiolopisma pranensis Cochran, 1930 as its junior synonyms; (3) Lipinia trivittata sp. nov. occurs in hilly areas of southern Vietnam, Cambodia, and eastern Thailand; and (4) Lipinia vassilievi sp. nov. is currently known only from a narrow area along the Vietnamese-Cambodian border in the foothills of the central Annamite Mountain Range. We further provide an identification key for Lipinia occurring in mainland Southeast Asia.