Entamoeba histolytica Cysteine Proteinase 5 Evokes Mucin Exocytosis from Colonic Goblet Cells via ?v?3 Integrin.
ABSTRACT: Critical to the pathogenesis of intestinal amebiasis, Entamoeba histolytica (Eh) induces mucus hypersecretion and degrades the colonic mucus layer at the site of invasion. The parasite component(s) responsible for hypersecretion are poorly defined, as are regulators of mucin secretion within the host. In this study, we have identified the key virulence factor in live Eh that elicits the fast release of mucin by goblets cells as cysteine protease 5 (EhCP5) whereas, modest mucus secretion occurred with secreted soluble EhCP5 and recombinant CP5. Coupling of EhCP5-?v?3 integrin on goblet cells facilitated outside-in signaling by activating SRC family kinases (SFK) and focal adhesion kinase that resulted in the activation/phosphorlyation of PI3K at the site of Eh contact and production of PIP3. PKC? was activated at the EhCP5-?v?3 integrin contact site that specifically regulated mucin secretion though the trafficking vesicle marker myristoylated alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS). This study has identified that EhCP5 coupling with goblet cell ?v?3 receptors can initiate a signal cascade involving PI3K, PKC? and MARCKS to drive mucin secretion from goblet cells critical in disease pathogenesis.
Project description:Mucinous colorectal adenocarcinoma (MCA) is characterized by a great mount of extracellular mucus fundamentally composed of Mucin2 (MUC2) which is significantly correlated with the high malignancy and strong invasive ability of MCA. However, rare is known about the underlying mechanism of the mucus accumulation in MCA. Our latest study demonstrated that SCF/c-KIT signaling was highly activated in MCA patients and mouse model, which up-regulated MUC2 transcription. In the present study, we paid a special interest in whether and how SCF/c-KIT signaling promoted mucus secretion by using wild-type (WT) C57BL mice and their littermates who harbor mutational c-kit gene (Wadsm/m), clinical colorectal cancer (CRC) samples, as well as human CRC cell lines. Our results clearly showed that the inner mucus layer of colon was thinner and the intracellular mucin residual was more in Wadsm/m mice than those in WT mice by Alcian blue and PAS staining, suggesting that the mucus secretion process was crippled when SCF/c-KIT signaling was hypo-activated. Inhibiting SCF/c-KIT signaling by Imatinib also resulted in weakened mucus secretion in WT mice. Intraperitoneal administration of MANS which competitively inhibits the activity of the vesicular transport protein MARCKS efficiently reduced mucus secretion in colonic goblet cells of WT mice. Significantly, phosphorylated MARCKS (p-MARCKS) was overtly decreased in colonic mucosa of Wadsm/m mice compared with WT mice, indicating that SCF/c-KIT signaling-regulated mucus secretion was probably mediated by MARCKS activation. Similar results were obtained in MCA patients and mouse model. Moreover, SCF/c-KIT signaling was activated or inhibited in HT-29 and LS174T CRC cells, which potently increased or decreased MARCKS activity, respectively. Finally, we found that PKC?, a known kinase for MARCKS, was activated in WT and MCA mice along with MARCKS. Inhibition or activation of SCF/c-KIT signaling resulted in decreased or increased PKC? activity respectively in vitro. In conclusion, we demonstrated that SCF/c-KIT signaling can promote the mucus secretion by activating PKC?-MARCKS, which provided a new insight into understanding the mechanism of mucus secretion of goblet cells and MCA development.
Project description:Enteric ?-defensins, termed cryptdins (Crps) in mice, and lysozymes secreted by Paneth cells contribute to innate host defense in the ileum. Antimicrobial factors including lysozymes and ?-defensins are often embedded in luminal glycosylated colonic Muc2 mucin secreted by goblet cells that form the protective mucus layer critical in gut homeostasis and pathogen invasion. In this study we investigated ileal innate immunity against Entamoeba histolytica (Eh), the causative agent of intestinal amebiasis, by inoculating parasites in closed ileal loops in Muc2+/+ and Muc2-/- littermates and quantifying Paneth cell localization (lysozyme expression) and function (Crps secretion). Relative to Muc2+/+ littermates, Muc2-/- showed disorganized mislocalization of Paneth cells that was diffusely distributed with elevated lysozyme secretion in the crypts and on villi in response to Eh Inhibiting Eh Gal-lectin binding with exogenous galactose and EhCP5- Eh had no effect on parasite-induced erratic Paneth cell lysozyme synthesis. Although basal ileal expression of Crp genes was unaffected in Muc2-/- mice in response to Eh there was robust release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and Crp peptide secretions in luminal exudates that was also present in the colon. Interestingly, Eh secreted cysteine proteinases cleaved the pro-region of Crp 4 but not the active form. These findings define Muc2 mucin as an essential component of ileal barrier function that regulates localization and function of Paneth cells critical in host defense against microbes.
Project description:<h4>Rationale</h4>Epithelial remodelling in asthma is characterised by goblet cell hyperplasia and mucus hypersecretion for which no therapies exist. Differentiated bronchial air-liquid interface cultures from asthmatic children display high goblet cell numbers. Epidermal growth factor and its receptor have been implicated in goblet cell hyperplasia.<h4>Objectives</h4>We hypothesised that EGF removal or tyrphostin AG1478 treatment of differentiating air-liquid interface cultures from asthmatic children would result in a reduction of epithelial goblet cells and mucus secretion.<h4>Methods</h4>In Aim 1 primary bronchial epithelial cells from non-asthmatic (n = 5) and asthmatic (n = 5) children were differentiated under EGF-positive (10 ng/ml EGF) and EGF-negative culture conditions for 28 days. In Aim 2, cultures from a further group of asthmatic children (n = 5) were grown under tyrphostin AG1478, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, conditions. All cultures were analysed for epithelial resistance, markers of differentiation using immunocytochemistry, ELISA for MUC5AC mucin secretion and qPCR for MUC5AC mRNA.<h4>Results</h4>In cultures from asthmatic children the goblet cell number was reduced in the EGF negative group (p = 0.01). Tyrphostin AG1478 treatment of cultures from asthmatic children had significant reductions in goblet cells at 0.2 ?g/ml (p = 0.03) and 2 ?g/ml (p = 0.003) as well as mucus secretion at 2 ?g/ml (p = 0.04).<h4>Conclusions</h4>We have shown in this preliminary study that through EGF removal and tyrphostin AG1478 treatment the goblet cell number and mucus hypersecretion in differentiating air-liquid interface cultures from asthmatic children is significantly reduced. This further highlights the epidermal growth factor receptor as a potential therapeutic target to inhibit goblet cell hyperplasia and mucus hypersecretion in asthma.
Project description:Excess mucus in the airways leads to obstruction in diseases such as chronic bronchitis, asthma, and cystic fibrosis. Mucins, the highly glycosolated protein components of mucus, are stored in membrane-bound granules housed in the cytoplasm of airway epithelial "goblet" cells until they are secreted into the airway lumen via an exocytotic process. Precise mechanism(s) of mucin secretion, including the specific proteins involved in the process, have yet to be elucidated. Previously, we have shown that the Myristoylated Alanine-Rich C Kinase Substrate (MARCKS) protein regulates mucin secretion by orchestrating translocation of mucin granules from the cytosol to the plasma membrane, where the granules dock, fuse and release their contents into the airway lumen. Associated with MARCKS in this process are chaperone (Heat Shock Protein 70 [HSP70], Cysteine string protein [CSP]) and cytoskeletal (actin, myosin) proteins. However, additional granule-associated proteins that may be involved in secretion have not yet been elucidated.Here, we isolated mucin granules and granule membranes from primary cultures of well differentiated human bronchial epithelial cells utilizing a novel technique of immuno-isolation, based on the presence of the calcium activated chloride channel hCLCA1 (the human ortholog of murine Gob-5) on the granule membranes, and verified via Western blotting and co-immunoprecipitation that MARCKS, HSP70, CSP and hCLCA1 were present on the granule membranes and associated with each other. We then subjected the isolated granules/membranes to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to identify other granule associated proteins.A number of additional cytoskeletal (e.g. Myosin Vc) and regulatory proteins (e.g. Protein phosphatase 4) associated with the granules and could play a role in secretion were discovered. This is the first description of the airway goblet cell "granulome."
Project description:A hallmark of enteroaggregative <i>Escherichia coli</i> (EAEC) infection is the formation of an intestinal biofilm, which comprises a mucus layer with immersed bacteria. Pic is an autotransporter secreted by EAEC, and other <i>E. coli</i> pathotypes, and has been involved in two apparently contradictory phenotypes, as a mucus secretagogue and as a mucinase. Here, we investigated this Pic dual activity, mucus secretagogue capability and mucinolytic activity, in human goblet cells that secrete MUC2 and MUC5AC. Pic induced mucus hypersecretion directly in the goblet cells, without other intestinal cell types involved. At the same time, Pic exhibited strong proteolytic activity on the secreted mucins. These activities were independent since a mutation in the serine protease motif (PicS258I) abolished mucin degradation while maintaining the mucus secretagogue activity intact. Furthermore, deoxycholic acid (DCA)-induced mucins were proteolytically degraded when goblet cells were co-incubated with DCA/Pic, while co-incubation with DCA/PicS258I induced a synergistic effect on mucus hypersecretion. Pic was more efficient degrading MUC5AC than MUC2, but no degradation was detected with Pic inactivated at the active site by mutation or pharmacological inhibition. Remarkably, Pic cleaved MUC2 and MUC5AC in the C-terminal domain, leaving N-terminal subproducts, impacting the feature of gel-forming mucins and allowing mucus layer penetration by EAEC. Astonishingly, Pic stimulated rapid mucin secretion in goblet-like cells by activating the intracellular calcium pathway resulting from the PLC signal transduction pathway, leading to the production of DAG and releasing IP<sub>3</sub>, a second messenger of calcium signaling. Therefore, the dual activity of Pic, as a mucus secretagogue and a mucinase, is relevant in the context of carbon source generation and mucus layer penetration, allowing EAEC to live within the layer of mucus but also access epithelial cells.
Project description:Inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system such as rhinosinusitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or bronchial asthma are strongly associated with overproduction and hypersecretion of mucus lining the epithelial airway surface. 1,8-cineol, the active ingredient of the pharmaceutical drug Soledum, is commonly applied for treating such inflammatory airway diseases. However, its potential effects on mucus overproduction still remain unclear.In the present study, we successfully established ex vivo cultures of human nasal turbinate slices to investigate the effects of 1,8-cineol on mucus hypersecretion in experimentally induced rhinosinusitis. The presence of acetyl-?-tubulin-positive cilia confirmed the integrity of the ex vivo cultured epithelium. Mucin-filled goblet cells were also detectable in nasal slice cultures, as revealed by Alcian Blue and Periodic acid-Schiff stainings. Treatment of nasal slice cultures with lipopolysaccharides mimicking bacterial infection as observed during late rhinosinusitis led to a significantly increased number of mucin-filled goblet cells. Notably, the number of mucin-filled goblet cells was found to be significantly decreased after co-treatment with 1,8-cineol. On a molecular level, real time PCR-analysis further showed 1,8-cineol to significantly reduce the expression levels of the mucin genes MUC2 and MUC19 in close association with significantly attenuated NF-?B-activity. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time a 1,8-cineol-dependent reduction of mucin-filled goblet cells and MUC2-gene expression associated with an attenuated NF-?B-activity in human nasal slice cultures. Our findings suggest that these effects partially account for the clinical benefits of 1,8-cineol-based therapy during rhinosinusitis. Therefore, topical application of 1,8-cineol may offer a novel therapeutic approach to reduce bacteria-induced mucus hypersecretion.
Project description:MUC5AC, a major gel-forming mucin expressed in the lungs, is secreted at increased rates in response to infectious agents, implying that mucins exert a protective role against inhaled pathogens. However, epidemiological and pathological studies suggest that excessive mucin secretion causes airways obstruction and inflammation. To determine whether increased MUC5AC secretion alone produces airway obstruction and/or inflammation, we generated a mouse model overexpressing Muc5ac mRNA ~20-fold in the lungs, using the rCCSP promoter. The Muc5ac cDNA was cloned from mouse lungs and tagged internally with GFP. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis demonstrated an approximate 18-fold increase in Muc5ac protein, which formed high-molecular-weight polymers. Histopathological studies and cell counts revealed no airway mucus obstruction or inflammation in the lungs of Muc5ac-transgenic (Muc5ac-Tg) mice. Mucus clearance was preserved, implying that the excess Muc5ac secretion produced an "expanded" rather than more concentrated mucus layer, a prediction confirmed by electron microscopy. To test whether the larger mucus barrier conferred increased protection against pathogens, Muc5ac-Tg animals were challenged with PR8/H1N1 influenza viruses and showed significant decreases in infection and neutrophilic responses. Plaque assay experiments demonstrated that Muc5ac-Tg BALF and purified Muc5ac reduced infection, likely via binding to ?2,3-linked sialic acids, consistent with influenza protection in vivo. In conclusion, the normal mucus transport and absence of a pulmonary phenotype in Muc5ac-Tg mice suggests that mucin hypersecretion alone is not sufficient to trigger luminal mucus plugging or airways inflammation/goblet cell hyperplasia. In contrast, increased Muc5ac secretion appears to exhibit a protective role against influenza infection.
Project description:Cigarette smoke represents a major risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a respiratory condition associated with airflow obstruction, mucus hypersecretion, chronic inflammation, and upregulation of inflammatory mediators such as the monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1). MCP-1 through its receptor CCR2 induces chemotaxis and activates (44/42)MAPK, a kinase known to play a key role in mucin regulation in bronchial epithelium. In the present study we used differentiated primary cultures of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells to test whether MCP-1 through its receptor CCR2 induces mucin upregulation. We have provided evidence that NHBE cells release MCP-1 to the epithelial surface and express the CCR2B isoform of the receptor mainly at the apical pole. In addition, we found that MCP-1 has a novel function in airway epithelium, increasing the two major airway mucins MUC5AC and MUC5B, an effect mediated, at least in part, by a cascade of events initiated by interaction of its receptor CCR2B with G(q) subunits in caveolae, followed by PLC?, PKC, and (44/42)MAPK activation. We also have shown that MCP-1 is able to induce its own expression using the same receptor but through a different pathway that involves RhoA GTPase. Furthermore, we found that a single exposure to MCP-1 is enough to induce MCP-1 secretion and sustained mucin upregulation up to 7 days after initial exposure, an effect mediated by CCR2B as confirmed using short hairpin RNA. These results agree with our data in smoker's airway epithelium, where CCR2B is present in MUC5AC- and MUC5B-expressing cells and augmented MCP-1 expression is associated with increased MUC5AC and MUC5B immunolabeling, suggesting that the mechanisms described in primary cell cultures in the present study are operative in vivo. Therefore, therapeutic approaches targeting MCP-1/CCR2B may be useful in preventing not only influx of inflammatory cells to the airways but also mucus hypersecretion and goblet cell hyperplasia.
Project description:Entamoeba histolytica (Eh) is an extracellular protozoan parasite of humans that invades the colon to cause life-threatening intestinal and extra-intestinal amebiasis. Colonized Eh is asymptomatic, however, when trophozoites adhere to host cells there is a considerable inflammatory response that is critical in the pathogenesis of amebiasis. The host and/or parasite factors that trigger the inflammatory response to invading Eh are not well understood. We recently identified that Eh adherence to macrophages induces inflammasome activation and in the present study we sought to determine the molecular events upon contact that coordinates this response. Here we report that Eh contact-dependent activation of ?5?1 integrin is critical for activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. Eh-macrophage contact triggered recruitment of ?5?1 integrin and NLRP3 into the intercellular junction, where ?5?1 integrin underwent activation by an integrin-binding cysteine protease on the parasite surface, termed EhCP5. As a result of its activation, ?5?1 integrin induced ATP release into the extracellular space through opening of pannexin-1 channels that signalled through P2X7 receptors to deliver a critical co-stimulatory signal that activated the NLRP3 inflammasome. Both the cysteine protease activity and integrin-binding domain of EhCP5 were required to trigger ?5?1 integrin that led to ATP release and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. These findings reveal engagement of ?5?1 integrin across the parasite-host junction is a key regulatory step that initiates robust inflammatory responses to Eh. We propose that ?5?1 integrin distinguishes Eh direct contact and functions with NLRP3 as pathogenicity sensor for invasive Eh infection.
Project description:We have reported previously that myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS) is a key regulatory molecule controlling mucin secretion by airway epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo. The results of those studies supported a mechanism whereby MARCKS, upon phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC), translocates from plasma membrane to cytoplasm, where its binding to membranes of intracellular mucin granules is a key component of the secretory pathway. It remains unknown how MARCKS is targeted to and/or preferentially attaches to mucin granule membranes. We hypothesized that the chaperone cysteine string protein (CSP) may play an important role in this process. CSP was shown to associate with membranes of intracellular mucin granules in well-differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells in vitro, as determined by ultrastructural immunohistochemistry and Western blotting of isolated granule membranes. CSP in these cells complexed with MARCKS, as shown by co-immunoprecipitation. Given reported associations between CSP and a second chaperone, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), a role for HSP70 in the MARCKS-dependent secretory mechanism also was investigated. HSP70 appeared to form a trimeric complex with MARCKS and CSP associated with mucin granule membranes within airway epithelial cells. Transfection of the HBE1 human bronchial epithelial cell line with siRNAs targeting sequences of MARCKS, CSP, or HSP70 resulted, in each case, in significant knockdown of expression of these proteins and subsequent attenuation of mucin secretion. The results provide the first evidence that CSP and HSP70, and their interactions with MARCKS, are involved in mucin secretion.