Approaching soft X-ray wavelengths in nanomagnet-based microwave technology.
ABSTRACT: Seven decades after the discovery of collective spin excitations in microwave-irradiated ferromagnets, there has been a rebirth of magnonics. However, magnetic nanodevices will enable smart GHz-to-THz devices at low power consumption only, if such spin waves (magnons) are generated and manipulated on the sub-100?nm scale. Here we show how magnons with a wavelength of a few 10?nm are exploited by combining the functionality of insulating yttrium iron garnet and nanodisks from different ferromagnets. We demonstrate magnonic devices at wavelengths of 88?nm written/read by conventional coplanar waveguides. Our microwave-to-magnon transducers are reconfigurable and thereby provide additional functionalities. The results pave the way for a multi-functional GHz technology with unprecedented miniaturization exploiting nanoscale wavelengths that are otherwise relevant for soft X-rays. Nanomagnonics integrated with broadband microwave circuitry offer applications that are wide ranging, from nanoscale microwave components to nonlinear data processing, image reconstruction and wave-based logic.
Project description:On-chip signal processing at microwave frequencies is key for modern mobile communication. When one aims at small footprints, low power consumption, reprogrammable filters, and delay lines, magnons in low-damping ferrimagnets offer great promise. Ferromagnetic grating couplers have been reported to be specifically useful as microwave-to-magnon transducers. However, their interconversion efficiency is unknown and real-space measurements of the emitted magnon wavelengths have not yet been accomplished. Here, we image with subwavelength spatial resolution the magnon emission process into ferrimagnetic yttrium iron garnet (YIG) at frequencies up to 8 GHz. We evidence propagating magnons of a wavelength of 98.7 nm underneath the gratings, which enter the YIG without a phase jump. Counterintuitively, the magnons exhibit an even increased amplitude in YIG, which is unexpected and due to a further wavelength conversion process. Our results are of key importance for magnonic components, which efficiently control microwave signals on the nanoscale.
Project description:Magnetic damping is a key metric for emerging technologies based on magnetic nanoparticles, such as spin torque memory and high-resolution biomagnetic imaging. Despite its importance, understanding of magnetic dissipation in nanoscale ferromagnets remains elusive, and the damping is often treated as a phenomenological constant. Here, we report the discovery of a giant frequency-dependent nonlinear damping that strongly alters the response of a nanoscale ferromagnet to spin torque and microwave magnetic field. This damping mechanism originates from three-magnon scattering that is strongly enhanced by geometric confinement of magnons in the nanomagnet. We show that the giant nonlinear damping can invert the effect of spin torque on a nanomagnet, leading to an unexpected current-induced enhancement of damping by an antidamping torque. Our work advances the understanding of magnetic dynamics in nanoscale ferromagnets and spin torque devices.
Project description:Exchange magnons are essential for unprecedented miniaturization of GHz electronics and magnon-based logic. However, their efficient excitation via microwave fields is still a challenge. Current methods including nanocontacts and grating couplers require advanced nanofabrication tools which limit the broad usage. Here, we report efficient emission and detection of exchange magnons using micron-sized coplanar waveguides (CPWs) into which we integrated ferromagnetic (m) layers. We excited magnons in a broad frequency band with wavelengths ? down to 100 nm propagating over macroscopic distances in thin yttrium iron garnet. Applying time- and spatially resolved Brillouin light scattering as well as micromagnetic simulations we evidence a significant wavelength conversion process near mCPWs via tunable inhomogeneous fields. We show how optimized mCPWs can form microwave-to-magnon transducers providing phase-coherent exchange magnons with ? of 37 nm. Without any nanofabrication they allow one to harvest the advantages of nanomagnonics by antenna designs exploited in conventional microwave circuits.
Project description:Wave control in the solid state has opened new avenues in modern information technology. Surface-acoustic-wave-based devices are found as mass market products in 100 millions of cellular phones. Spin waves (magnons) would offer a boost in today's data handling and security implementations, i.e., image processing and speech recognition. However, nanomagnonic devices realized so far suffer from the relatively short damping length in the metallic ferromagnets amounting to a few 10 micrometers typically. Here we demonstrate that nm-thick YIG films overcome the damping chasm. Using a conventional coplanar waveguide we excite a large series of short-wavelength spin waves (SWs). From the data we estimate a macroscopic of damping length of about 600 micrometers. The intrinsic damping parameter suggests even a record value about 1 mm allowing for magnonics-based nanotechnology with ultra-low damping. In addition, SWs at large wave vector are found to exhibit the non-reciprocal properties relevant for new concepts in nanoscale SW-based logics. We expect our results to provide the basis for coherent data processing with SWs at GHz rates and in large arrays of cellular magnetic arrays, thereby boosting the envisioned image processing and speech recognition.
Project description:Miniaturization of magnonic devices for wave-like computing requires emission of short-wavelength spin waves, a key feature that cannot be achieved with microwave antennas. In this paper, we propose a tunable source of short-wavelength spin waves based on highly localized and strongly pinned magnetic domain walls in ferroelectric-ferromagnetic bilayers. When driven into oscillation by a microwave spin-polarized current, the magnetic domain walls emit spin waves with the same frequency as the excitation current. The amplitude of the emitted spin waves and the range of attainable excitation frequencies depend on the availability of domain wall resonance modes. In this respect, pinned domain walls in magnetic nanowires are particularly attractive. In this geometry, spin wave confinement perpendicular to the nanowire axis produces a multitude of domain wall resonances enabling efficient spin wave emission at frequencies up to 100 GHz and wavelengths down to 20 nm. At high frequency, the emission of spin waves in magnetic nanowires becomes monochromatic. Moreover, pinning of magnetic domain wall oscillators onto the same ferroelectric domain boundary in parallel nanowires guarantees good coherency between spin wave sources, which opens perspectives towards the realization of Mach-Zehnder type logic devices and sensors.
Project description:Microwave electromagnetic radiation that ranges from one meter to one millimetre wavelengths is finding numerous applications for wireless communication, navigation and detection, which makes materials able to tune microwave radiation getting widespread interest. Here we offer a new way to tune GHz frequency radiation by using spin-crossover complexes that are known to change their various physical properties under the influence of diverse external stimuli. As a result of electronic re-configuration process, microwave absorption properties differ for high spin and low spin forms of the complex. The evolution of a microwave absorption spectrum for the switchable compound within the region of thermal transition indicates that the high-spin and the low-spin forms are characterized by a different attenuation of electromagnetic waves. Absorption and reflection coefficients were found to be higher in the high-spin state comparing to the low-spin state. These results reveal a considerable potential for the implementation of spin-crossover materials into different elements of microwave signal switching and wireless communication.
Project description:The recent discovery of spin current transmission through antiferromagnetic insulating materials opens up vast opportunities for fundamental physics and spintronics applications. The question currently surrounding this topic is: whether and how could THz antiferromagnetic magnons mediate a GHz spin current? This mismatch of frequencies becomes particularly critical for the case of coherent ac spin current, raising the fundamental question of whether a GHz ac spin current can ever keep its coherence inside an antiferromagnetic insulator and so drive the spin precession of another ferromagnet layer coherently? Utilizing element- and time-resolved x-ray pump-probe measurements on Py/Ag/CoO/Ag/Fe75Co25/MgO(001) heterostructures, here we demonstrate that a coherent GHz ac spin current pumped by the Py ferromagnetic resonance can transmit coherently across an antiferromagnetic CoO insulating layer to drive a coherent spin precession of the Fe75Co25 layer. Further measurement results favor thermal magnons rather than evanescent spin waves as the mediator of the coherent ac spin current in CoO.
Project description:Low-energy eigenmode excitations of ferromagnets are spin waves or magnons that can be triggered and guided in magnonic circuits without Ohmic losses and hence are attractive for communicating and processing information. Here we present new types of spin waves that carry a definite and electrically controllable orbital angular momentum (OAM) constituting twisted magnon beams. We show how twisted beams emerge in magnonic waveguides and how to topologically quantify and steer them. A key finding is that the topological charge associated with OAM of a particular beam is tunable externally and protected against magnetic damping. Coupling to an applied electric field via the Aharanov-Casher effect allows for varying the topological charge. This renders possible OAM-based robust, low-energy consuming multiplex magnonic computing, analogously to using photonic OAM in optical communications, and high OAM-based entanglement studies, but here at shorter wavelengths, lower energy consumption, and ready integration in magnonic circuits.
Project description:Magnons are the elementary excitations of a magnetically ordered system. In ferromagnets, only a single band of low-energy magnons needs to be considered, but in ferrimagnets the situation is more complex owing to different magnetic sublattices involved. In this case, low lying optical modes exist that can affect the dynamical response. Here we show that the spin Seebeck effect (SSE) is sensitive to the complexities of the magnon spectrum. The SSE is caused by thermally excited spin dynamics that are converted to a voltage by the inverse spin Hall effect at the interface to a heavy metal contact. By investigating the temperature dependence of the SSE in the ferrimagnet gadolinium iron garnet, with a magnetic compensation point near room temperature, we demonstrate that higher-energy exchange magnons play a key role in the SSE.
Project description:Spin waves, and their quanta magnons, are prospective data carriers in future signal processing systems because Gilbert damping associated with the spin-wave propagation can be made substantially lower than the Joule heat losses in electronic devices. Although individual spin-wave signal processing devices have been successfully developed, the challenging contemporary problem is the formation of two-dimensional planar integrated spin-wave circuits. Using both micromagnetic modeling and analytical theory, we present an effective solution of this problem based on the dipolar interaction between two laterally adjacent nanoscale spin-wave waveguides. The developed device based on this principle can work as a multifunctional and dynamically reconfigurable signal directional coupler performing the functions of a waveguide crossing element, tunable power splitter, frequency separator, or multiplexer. The proposed design of a spin-wave directional coupler can be used both in digital logic circuits intended for spin-wave computing and in analog microwave signal processing devices.