Updated molecular genetics and pathogenesis of ichthiyoses.
ABSTRACT: Research into the molecular genetics and pathomechanisms of ichthyoses have advanced considerably, resulting in the identification of several causative genes and molecules underlying the disease. In 2009, the First Ichthyosis Consensus Conference was held to establish a consensus for the nomenclature and classification of inherited ichthyoses, by which an international consensus for the classification of inherited ichthyosis was achieved. In this review, the pathogeneses of various ichthyoses are summarized based on their revised classification and terminology. Skin barrier defects are involved in the pathogenesis of various types of ichthyosis. The known causative molecules underlying ichthyosis include ABCA12, lipoxygenase-3, 12R-lipoxygenase, CYP4F22, ichthyin and steroid sulfatase, all of which are thought to be related to the intercellular lipid layers. ABCA12 is a known keratinocyte lipid transporter associated with lipid transport in lamellar granules and a loss of ABCA12 function leads to defective lipid transport in the keratinocytes, resulting in the most severe, harlequin ichthyosis phenotype. Other causative molecules for ichthyoses are transglutaminase 1, keratins and filaggrin. Transglutaminase 1 plays a role in cornified cell envelope formation. Keratins 1, 10 and 2 are involved in the keratin network of suprabasal keratinocytes and filaggrin is essential for the formation of keratohyalin granules. It is important to obtain information concerning genetic defects and to elucidate ichthyotic disease pathomechanisms for the establishment of an effective therapy and beneficial genetic counseling, including a prenatal diagnosis for families affected by ichthyotic disease.
Project description:Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the keratinocyte lipid transporter ABCA12. The patients often die in the first 1 or 2 weeks of life, although HI survivors' phenotypes improve within several weeks after birth. In order to clarify the mechanisms of phenotypic recovery, we studied grafted skin and keratinocytes from Abca12-disrupted (Abca12(-/-)) mice showing abnormal lipid transport. Abca12(-/-) neonatal epidermis showed significantly reduced total ceramide amounts and aberrant ceramide composition. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting of Abca12(-/-) neonatal epidermis revealed defective profilaggrin/filaggrin conversion and reduced protein expression of the differentiation-specific molecules, loricrin, kallikrein 5, and transglutaminase 1, although their mRNA expression was up-regulated. In contrast, Abca12(-/-) skin grafts kept in a dry environment exhibited dramatic improvements in all these abnormalities. Increased transepidermal water loss, a parameter representing barrier defect, was remarkably decreased in grafted Abca12(-/-) skin. Ten-passage sub-cultured Abca12(-/-) keratinocytes showed restoration of intact ceramide distribution, differentiation-specific protein expression and profilaggrin/filaggrin conversion, which were defective in primary-cultures. Using cDNA microarray analysis, lipid transporters including four ATP-binding cassette transporters were up-regulated after sub-culture of Abca12(-/-) keratinocytes compared with primary-culture. These results indicate that disrupted keratinocyte differentiation during the fetal development is involved in the pathomechanism of HI and, during maturation, Abca12(-/-) epidermal keratinocytes regain normal differentiation processes. This restoration may account for the skin phenotype improvement observed in HI survivors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ichthyoses are a group of rare skin disorders lacking effective treatments. Although genetic mutations are progressively delineated, comprehensive molecular phenotyping of ichthyotic skin could suggest much-needed pathogenesis-based therapy. OBJECTIVE:We sought to profile the molecular fingerprint of the most common orphan ichthyoses. METHODS:Gene, protein, and serum studies were performed on skin and blood samples from 29 patients (congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma, n = 9; lamellar ichthyosis, n = 8; epidermolytic ichthyosis, n = 8; and Netherton syndrome, n = 4), as well as age-matched healthy control subjects (n = 14), patients with psoriasis (n = 30), and patients with atopic dermatitis (AD; n = 16). RESULTS:Using criteria of a fold change of greater than 2 and a false discovery rate of less than 0.05, 132 differentially expressed genes were shared commonly among all ichthyoses, including many IL-17 and TNF-?-coregulated genes, which are considered hallmarks of psoriasis (defensin beta 4A, kynureninase, and vanin 3). Although striking upregulation of TH17 pathway genes (IL17F and IL36B/G) resembling that seen in patients with psoriasis was common to all patients with ichthyoses in a severity-related manner, patients with Netherton syndrome showed the greatest T-cell activation (inducible costimulator [ICOS]) and a broader immune phenotype with TH1/IFN-?, OASL, and TH2/IL-4 receptor/IL-5 skewing, although less than seen in patients with AD (all P < .05). Ichthyoses lacked the epidermal differentiation and tight junction alterations of patients with AD (loricrin, filaggrin, and claudin 1) but showed characteristic alterations in lipid metabolism genes (ELOVL fatty acid elongase 3 and galanin), with parallel reductions in extracellular lipids and corneocyte compaction in all ichthyoses except epidermolytic ichthyosis, suggesting phenotypic variations. Transepidermal water loss, a functional barrier measure, significantly correlated with IL-17-regulated gene expression (IL17F and IL36A/IL36B/IL36G). CONCLUSION:Similar to patients with AD and psoriasis, in whom cytokine dysregulation and barrier impairment orchestrate disease phenotypes, psoriasis-like immune dysregulation and lipid alterations characterize the ichthyoses. These data support the testing of IL-17/IL-36-targeted therapeutics for patients with ichthyosis similar to those used in patients with psoriasis.
Project description:Ichthyoses are a heterogeneous group of inherited cornification disorders characterized by generalized dry skin, scaling and/or hyperkeratosis. Ichthyosis vulgaris is the most common form of ichthyosis in humans and caused by genetic variants in the FLG gene encoding filaggrin. Filaggrin is a key player in the formation of the stratum corneum, the uppermost layer of the epidermis and therefore crucial for barrier function. During terminal differentiation of keratinocytes, the precursor profilaggrin is cleaved by several proteases into filaggrin monomers and eventually processed into free amino acids contributing to the hydration of the cornified layer. We studied a German Shepherd dog with a novel form of ichthyosis. Comparing the genome sequence of the affected dog with 288 genomes from genetically diverse non-affected dogs we identified a private heterozygous variant in the ASPRV1 gene encoding "aspartic peptidase, retroviral-like 1", which is also known as skin aspartic protease (SASPase). The variant was absent in both parents and therefore due to a de novo mutation event. It was a missense variant, c.1052T>C, affecting a conserved residue close to an autoprocessing cleavage site, p.(Leu351Pro). ASPRV1 encodes a retroviral-like protease involved in profilaggrin-to-filaggrin processing. By immunofluorescence staining we showed that the filaggrin expression pattern was altered in the affected dog. Thus, our findings provide strong evidence that the identified de novo variant is causative for the ichthyosis in the affected dog and that ASPRV1 plays an essential role in skin barrier formation. ASPRV1 is thus a novel candidate gene for unexplained human forms of ichthyoses.
Project description:To explore the usefulness of protein profiling for characterization of ichthyoses, we here determined the profile of human epidermal stratum corneum by shotgun proteomics. Samples were analyzed after collection on tape circles from six anatomic sites (forearm, palm, lower leg, forehead, abdomen, upper back), demonstrating site-specific differences in profiles. Additional samples were collected from the forearms of subjects with ichthyosis vulgaris (filaggrin (FLG) deficiency), recessive X-linked ichthyosis (steroid sulfatase (STS) deficiency) and autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis type lamellar ichthyosis (transglutaminase 1 (TGM1) deficiency). The ichthyosis protein expression patterns were readily distinguishable from each other and from phenotypically normal epidermis. In general, the degree of departure from normal was lower from ichthyosis vulgaris than from lamellar ichthyosis, parallel to the severity of the phenotype. Analysis of samples from families with ichthyosis vulgaris and concomitant modifying gene mutations (STS deficiency, GJB2 deficiency) permitted correlation of alterations in protein profile with more complex genetic constellations.
Project description:Ichthyosis with confetti (IWC) is an autosomal dominant congenital ichthyosis also known as ichthyosis variegata or congenital reticular ichthyosiform erythroderma. It manifests at birth with generalized ichthyosiform erythroderma or with a collodion baby picture. The erythrodermic and ichthyotic phenotype persists during life and its severity may modify. However, the hallmark of the disease is the appearance, in childhood or later in life, of healthy skin confetti-like spots, which increase in number and size with time. IWC is a very rare genodermatosis, with a prevalence <1/1,000,000 and only 40 cases reported worldwide. The most important associated clinical features include ear deformities, mammillae hypoplasia, palmoplantar keratoderma, hypertrichosis and ectropion. IWC is due to dominant negative mutations in the KRT10 and KRT1 genes, encoding for keratins 10 and keratin 1, respectively. In this context, healthy skin confetti-like spots represent "repaired" skin due to independent events of reversion of keratin gene mutations via mitotic recombination. In most cases, IWC clinical suspicion is delayed until the detection of white skin spots. Clinical features, which may represent hint to the diagnosis of IWC even before appearance of confetti-like spots, include ear and mammillae hypoplasia, the progressive development of hypertrichosis and, in some patients, of adherent verrucous plaques of hyperkeratosis. Altogether the histopathological finding of keratinocyte vacuolization and the nuclear staining for keratin 10 and keratin 1 by immunofluorescence are pathognomonic. Nevertheless, mutational analysis of KRT10 or KRT1 genes is at present the gold standard to confirm the diagnosis. IWC has to be differentiated mainly from congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma. Differential diagnosis also includes syndromic ichthyoses, in particular Netherton syndrome, and the keratinopathic ichthyoses. Most of reported IWC cases are sporadic, but familial cases with autosomal dominant mode of inheritance have been also described. Therefore, knowledge of the mutation is the only way to properly counsel the couples. No specific and satisfactory therapy is currently available for IWC. Like for other congenital ichthyoses, topical treatments (mainly emollients and keratolytics) are symptomatic and offer only temporary relief. Among systemic treatments, retinoids, in particular acitretin, improve disease symptoms in most patients. Although at present there is no curative therapy for ichthyoses, treatments have improved considerably over the years and the best therapy for each patient is always the result of both physician and patient efforts.
Project description:ATP-binding cassette transporter family A member 12 (ABCA12) is a keratinocyte transmembrane lipid transporter that plays a critical role in preserving the skin permeability barrier. Biallelic loss of function of the ABCA12 gene is causative of some forms of recessive congenital ichthyosis, an intractable disease marked by dry, thickened and scaly skin on the whole body. Genetic diagnosis is essential, although the results may occasionally be inconclusive, because some patients with low ABCA12 expression have one mutant allele and one apparently intact allele. Aside from aberrant splicing or deletion mutations, one possible explanation for such discrepancy is loss of promoter function. This study aims to elucidate the promoter region of ABCA12 and to locate the essential elements therein, thus providing the necessary information for genetic diagnostic screening of congenital ichthyosis. Close examination of the 2980-bp upstream regions of the ABCA12 gene revealed that a palindromic motif (tgagtca) at -2084 to -2078 is essential for the promoter function, and a short fragment of -2200/-1934 alone has potent promoter activity. Identification of the key promoter element of ABCA12 in this study may provide relevant information for genetic diagnosis of recessive congenital ichthyosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyoses (ARCI) have been associated with different phenotypes including: harlequin ichthyosis (HI), congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (CIE), and lamellar ichthyosis (LI). While pathogenic variants in all ARCI genes are associated with LI and CIE phenotypes, the unique gene associated with HI is ABCA12. In HI, the most severe ARCI form, pathogenic variants in both ABCA12 gene alleles usually have a severe impact on protein function. The presence of at least one non-truncating variant frequently causes a less severe congenital ichthyosis phenotype (LI and CIE). METHODS:We report the case of a 4-year-old Ecuadorian boy with a severe skin disease. Genetic diagnosis was performed by NGS. In silico predictions were performed using Alamut software v2.11. A review of the literature was carried out to identify all patients carrying ABCA12 splice-site and missense variants, and to explore their genotype-phenotype correlations. RESULTS:Genetic testing revealed a nonsense substitution, p.(Arg2204*), and a new missense variant, p.(Val1927Leu), in the ABCA12 gene. After performing in silico analysis and a comprehensive review of the literature, we conclude that p.(Val1927Leu) affects a well conserved residue which could either disturb the protein function or alter the splicing process, both alternatives could explain the severe phenotype of our patient. CONCLUSION:This case expands the spectrum of ABCA12 reported disease-causing variants which is important to unravel genotype-phenotype correlations and highlights the importance of missense variants in the development of HI.
Project description:Secondary infections and impaired desquamation complicate certain inherited ichthyoses, but their cellular basis remains unknown. In healthy human epidermis, the antimicrobial peptides cathelicidin (LL-37) and human ?-defensin 2 (HBD2), as well as the desquamatory protease kallikrein-related peptidase 7 (KLK7), are delivered to the stratum corneum (SC) interstices by lamellar body (LB) exocytosis.To assess whether abnormalities in the LB secretory system could account for increased risk of infections and impaired desquamation in inherited ichthyoses with known abnormalities in LB assembly (Harlequin ichthyosis [HI]), secretion (epidermolytic ichthyosis [EI]), or postsecretory proteolysis (Netherton syndrome [NS]).Samples from library material were taken from patients with HI, EI, NS, and other ichthyoses, but with a normal LB secretory system, and in healthy controls and were evaluated by electron microscopy and immunohistochemical analysis from July 1, 2010, through March 31, 2013.Changes in LB secretion and in the fate of LB-derived enzymes and antimicrobial peptides in ichthyotic patients vs healthy controls.In healthy controls and patients with X-linked ichthyosis, neutral lipid storage disease with ichthyosis, and Gaucher disease, LB secretion is normal, and delivery of LB-derived proteins and LL-37 immunostaining persists high into the SC. In contrast, proteins loaded into nascent LBs and their delivery to the SC interstices decrease markedly in patients with HI, paralleled by reduced immunostaining for LL-37, HBD2, and KLK7 in the SC. In patients with EI, the cytoskeletal abnormality impairs the exocytosis of LB contents and thus results in decreased LL-37, HBD2, and KLK7 secretion, causing substantial entombment of these proteins within the corneocyte cytosol. Finally, in patients with NS, although abundant enzyme proteins loaded in parallel with accelerated LB production, LL-37 disappears, whereas KLK7 levels increase markedly in the SC.Together, these results suggest that diverse abnormalities in the LB secretory system account for the increased risk of secondary infections and impaired desquamation in patients with HI, EI, and NS.
Project description:Ichthyoses, including inherited disorders of lipid metabolism, display a permeability barrier abnormality in which the severity of the clinical phenotype parallels the prominence of the barrier defect. The pathogenesis of the cutaneous phenotype represents the consequences of the mutation for epidermal function, coupled with a "best attempt" by affected epidermis to generate a competent barrier in a terrestrial environment. A compromised barrier in normal epidermis triggers a vigorous set of metabolic responses that rapidly normalizes function, but ichthyotic epidermis, which is inherently compromised, only partially succeeds in this effort. Unraveling mechanisms that account for barrier dysfunction in the ichthyoses has identified multiple, subcellular, and biochemical processes that contribute to the clinical phenotype. Current treatment of the ichthyoses remains largely symptomatic: directed toward reducing scale or corrective gene therapy. Reducing scale is often minimally effective. Gene therapy is impeded by multiple pitfalls, including difficulties in transcutaneous drug delivery, high costs, and discomfort of injections. We have begun to use information about disease pathogenesis to identify novel, pathogenesis-based therapeutic strategies for the ichthyoses. The clinical phenotype often reflects not only a deficiency of pathway end product due to reduced-function mutations in key synthetic enzymes but often also accumulation of proximal, potentially toxic metabolites. As a result, depending upon the identified pathomechanism(s) for each disorder, the accompanying ichthyosis can be treated by topical provision of pathway product (eg, cholesterol), with or without a proximal enzyme inhibitor (eg, simvastatin), to block metabolite production. Among the disorders of distal cholesterol metabolism, the cutaneous phenotype in Congenital Hemidysplasia with Ichthyosiform Erythroderma and Limb Defects (CHILD syndrome) and X-linked ichthyosis reflect metabolite accumulation and deficiency of pathway product (ie, cholesterol). We validated this therapeutic approach in two CHILD syndrome patients who failed to improve with topical cholesterol alone, but cleared with dual treatment with cholesterol plus lovastatin. In theory, the ichthyoses in other inherited lipid metabolic disorders could be treated analogously. This pathogenesis (pathway)-driven approach possesses several inherent advantages: (1) it is mechanism-specific for each disorder; (2) it is inherently safe, because natural lipids and/or approved drugs often are utilized; and (3) it should be inexpensive, and therefore it could be used widely in the developing world.
Project description:Harlequin ichthyosis (HI) is a devastating skin disorder with an unknown underlying cause. Abnormal keratinocyte lamellar granules (LGs) are a hallmark of HI skin. ABCA12 is a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family, and members of the ABCA subfamily are known to have closely related functions as lipid transporters. ABCA3 is involved in lipid secretion via LGs from alveolar type II cells, and missense mutations in ABCA12 have been reported to cause lamellar ichthyosis type 2, a milder form of ichthyosis. Therefore, we hypothesized that HI might be caused by mutations that lead to serious ABCA12 defects. We identify 5 distinct ABCA12 mutations, either in a compound heterozygous or homozygous state, in patients from 4 HI families. All the mutations resulted in truncation or deletion of highly conserved regions of ABCA12. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that ABCA12 localized to LGs in normal epidermal keratinocytes. We confirmed that ABCA12 defects cause congested lipid secretion in cultured HI keratinocytes and succeeded in obtaining the recovery of LG lipid secretion after corrective gene transfer of ABCA12. We concluded that ABCA12 works as an epidermal keratinocyte lipid transporter and that defective ABCA12 results in a loss of the skin lipid barrier, leading to HI. Our findings not only allow DNA-based early prenatal diagnosis but also suggest the possibility of gene therapy for HI.