Validity and sensitivity to change of three scales for the radiographic assessment of knee osteoarthritis using images from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST).
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to assess the concurrent validity and sensitivity to change of three knee osteoarthritis (OA) grading scales. The Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) and the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) joint space narrowing (JSN) grading scales are well-established. The third scale, the compartmental grading scale for OA (CG) is a novel scale which grades JSN, femoral osteophytes, tibial erosion and subluxation to create a total score.One sample of 72 posteroanterior (PA) fixed-flexion radiographs displaying mild to moderate knee OA was selected from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST) to study validity. A second sample of 75 radiograph pairs, which showed an increase in OA severity over 30 months, was selected to study sensitivity to change. The three radiographic grading scales were applied to each radiograph in both samples. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were used to correlate the radiographic grades and the change in grades over 30 months with a Whole-organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (WORMS)-based composite score which included five articular features of knee OA.Correlations between the KL, OARSI JSN and CG grading scales and the magnetic resonance image (MRI)-based score were 0.836, 0.840 and 0.773 (P < 0.0001) respectively while correlations between change in the radiographic grading scales and change in the MRI-based score were 0.501, 0.525 and 0.492 (P < 0.0001).All three radiographic grading scales showed high validity and are suitable to assess knee OA severity. They showed moderate sensitivity to change; therefore caution should be taken when using ordinal radiographic grading scales to monitor knee OA over time.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Knee osteoarthritis (OA) onset and progression has been defined with transitions in Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade or Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) Joint Space Narrowing (JSN) grade. We quantitatively describe one-year transitions in KL grade and JSN, using fixed joint space width (fJSW), among knees with or at risk of OA. METHODS:Radiographic assessments from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) were used to identify transitions in KLG and JSN grade between consecutive annual visits. The fJSW was measured in the medial and lateral compartments. The distribution of change in fJSW for KLG and JSN transitions were described, and mean change in fJSW was estimated using mixed models. RESULTS:KL grade and JSN scores were available for about 20,000 annual transitions from 6047 knees contributed by 3389 participants. Knees that remained stable in KL or OARSI-JSN over 1 year had mean medial fJSW loss between -0.06 and -0.19 mm/year. Transition from KL grade 0 to 1, 0 to 2, and KL 1 to 2 were similar with respect to mean medial fJSW loss (0.18-0.28 mm). Greatest annual changes in medial fJSW corresponded to KL 0 to 3 (1.62 mm), KL 2 to 4 (1.23 mm) and JSN 0 to 2 (1.85 mm). CONCLUSIONS:Anchoring quantitatively measured loss of joint space width to transitions in KL grade and JSN provides reference values based on traditional definitions of knee OA onset and progression.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary magnesium (Mg) intake and radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA), joint space narrowing (JSN), and osteophytes (OST) respectively.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 1626 subjects were included in the study. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Radiographic knee OA was defined as Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) Grade 2 in at least one leg. JSN and OST were assessed individually according to the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) atlas. A multivariable logistic analysis model was applied to test the various associations after adjusting for potentially confounding factors.<h4>Results</h4>The relative odds of radiographic knee OA were decreased by 0.53 times in the third quintile of Mg intake [odds ratio (OR) 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.28-1.01], 0.40 times in the fourth quintile (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.17-0.94) and 0.34 times in the fifth quintile (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.11-1.00) compared with those in the lowest quintile, while P for trend was 0.111. The relative odds of JSN were decreased by 0.49 times in the third quintile of Mg intake (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.28-0.88) and 0.37 times in the fifth quintile (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.14-0.98) compared with those in the lowest quintile, while P for trend was 0.088. There was no significant relationship between dietary Mg intake and the presence of OST.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The findings of this cross-sectional study indicate that Mg intake is inversely associated with radiographic knee OA and JSN. It supports potential role of Mg in the prevention of knee OA.<h4>Level of evidence</h4>LevelIII, cross-sectional study.
Project description:Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common musculoskeletal disease in the world. In primary healthcare, knee OA is diagnosed using clinical examination and radiographic assessment. Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) atlas of OA radiographic features allows performing independent assessment of knee osteophytes, joint space narrowing and other knee features. This provides a fine-grained OA severity assessment of the knee, compared to the gold standard and most commonly used Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) composite score. In this study, we developed an automatic method to predict KL and OARSI grades from knee radiographs. Our method is based on Deep Learning and leverages an ensemble of residual networks with 50 layers. We used transfer learning from ImageNet with a fine-tuning on the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) dataset. An independent testing of our model was performed on the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST) dataset. Our method yielded Cohen's kappa coefficients of 0.82 for KL-grade and 0.79, 0.84, 0.94, 0.83, 0.84 and 0.90 for femoral osteophytes, tibial osteophytes and joint space narrowing for lateral and medial compartments, respectively. Furthermore, our method yielded area under the ROC curve of 0.98 and average precision of 0.98 for detecting the presence of radiographic OA, which is better than the current state-of-the-art.
Project description:To explore the association of baseline trabecular bone structure with incident tibiofemoral (TF) osteoarthritis (OA) and with increase in joint space narrowing (JSN) score.The Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST) includes subjects with or at risk for knee OA. Knee radiographs were scored for Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade and JSN at baseline, 30, 60 and 84 months. Knees (KL ? 1) at baseline were assessed for incident OA (KL ? 2) and increases in JSN score. For each knee image at baseline, a variance orientation transform method (VOT) was applied to subchondral tibial bone regions of medial and lateral compartments. Seventeen fractal parameters were calculated per region. Associations of each parameter with OA incidence and with medial and lateral JSN increases were explored using logistic regression. Analyses were stratified by digitized film (DF) vs computer radiography (CR) and adjusted for confounders.Of 894 knees with CR and 1158 knees with DF, 195 (22%) and 303 (26%) developed incident OA. Higher medial bone roughness was associated with increased odds of OA incidence at 60 and 84 months and also, medial and lateral JSN increases (primarily vertical). Lower medial and lateral anisotropy was associated with increased odds of medial and lateral JSN increase. Compared to DF, CR had more associations and also, similar results at overlapping scales.Baseline trabecular bone texture was associated with incident radiographic OA and increase of JSN scores independently of risk factors for knee OA. Higher roughness and lower anisotropy were associated with increased odds for radiographic OA change.
Project description:We assessed whether grip strength was related to various types of radiographic damage in Korean adults with osteoarthritis (OA).Data from 2,251 subjects enrolled in the Dong-gu study, who had no hand joint pain, were analyzed to investigate the relationship between grip strength and OA. Hand grip strength was measured using a hand-held dynamometer, and radiographs of the hand and knee were scored according to a semi-quantitative grading system. Multiple linear regressions were used to explore associations between grip strength and radiographic features of OA.Grip strength in men and women was negatively related to hand (both p < 0.001) and knee (men, p < 0.001; women, p = 0.010) OA after adjusting for confounders. Hand (men, p < 0.001; women, p = 0.001) and knee (both p < 0.001) joint space narrowing (JSN) showed the strongest associations with low grip strength, regardless of gender. Moreover, the severity of hand osteophytes in women (p = 0.001), and subchondral cysts (men, p < 0.001) was correlated with low grip strength in both genders.Among subjects without hand joint pain, low grip strength was associated significantly with hand and knee radiographic OA, regardless of gender. Among all types of OA radiographic damage, low grip strength showed the strongest association with JSN.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To test whether radiographically normal knees with contralateral radiographic knee osteoarthritis (OA), but without contralateral trauma history, display greater cartilage thickness loss than knees from subjects with bilaterally radiographically normal knees. METHODS:828 radiographically normal knees (Kellgren Lawrence grade [KLG] 0) from the Osteoarthritis Initiative [OAI] were studied; 150 case knees displayed definite radiographic knee OA (KLG ? 2) contralaterally, and had MRI double echo steady state (DESS) images available at 12 and 48 month follow-up. 678 reference knees displayed KLG0 at the contralateral side. Cartilage thickness change was determined in femorotibial subregions and location-independent cartilage thinning scores were computed. Case and reference knees were compared using ANCOVA. RESULTS:Of the 150 KLG0 case knees, 108 had a contralateral KLG2 knee (50 without, and 58 with joint space narrowing [JSN]), 31 a KLG3 and 11 a KLG4 knee. The cartilage thinning score tended to be greater in case than reference knees; the cartilage thinning score in KLG0 case knees with contralateral radiographic JSN (-858 ?m; [95% confidence interval -1016, -701 ?m]) was significantly greater (P = 0.0012) than that in bilaterally KLG0 reference knees (-634 ?m; [-673, -596 ?m]), whereas KLG0 knees with contralateral KLG2 without JSN only showed relatively small thinning scores (-530 ?m, [-631, -428 ?m]). Region-specific analysis suggested greater rates of cartilage loss in case than in reference knees in the lateral, rather than medial, femorotibial compartment. CONCLUSIONS:Radiographically normal knees with contralateral JSN may serve as a human model of early OA, for testing disease modifying drugs in clinical trials designed to prevent cartilage loss before the onset of radiographic change. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFICATION:NCT00080171.
Project description:Depressive symptoms are associated with increases in pain and functional limitations in knee osteoarthritis (OA). The aim was to determine whether depressive symptoms are also associated with greater structural knee OA progression. Four years of annual radiographic and clinical assessments from the Osteoarthritis Initiative were analyzed. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale was used to identify depressive symptoms (threshold = ?16) at the baseline visit. Propensity scores were used to match participants with and without baseline depressive symptoms on multiple potential confounders. Assessment of radiographic knee OA was based on changes in individual radiographic features, which included osteophyte (OST) grade and joint space narrowing (JSN) grade. Mixed effect models were used to examine structural progression between depressed and non-depressed participants with definitive radiographic knee OA. Depressive symptoms were significantly associated with a higher risk of OST progression (odds ratio [OR] = 1.74; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 3.00) and a non-significant lower risk of JSN progression (OR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.14, 1.15) 1 year after baseline. Conversely, there was a non-significant lower risk of OST progression (OR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.28, 1.79) and higher risk of JSN progression (OR = 1.89; 95% CI: 0.71, 5.06) from year 3 to year 4 of follow-up. However, the patterns of OST progression and JSN progression were not significantly different between the depressed and non-depressed (P = 0.25 and 0.15, respectively). The findings provide no evidence that depressive symptoms have a detectable effect on changes in radiographic disease severity in knee OA.
Project description:PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to relate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features at baseline with radiographically determined joint space narrowing (JSN) in the medial compartment of the knee after 2 years in a group of patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis at multiple joint sites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRI of the knee and standardized radiographs were obtained at baseline and after 2 years in 186 patients (81% female; aged 43-76 years; mean 60 years). MRI was analyzed for bone marrow lesions, cysts, osteophytes, hyaline cartilage defects, joint effusion, and meniscal pathology in the medial compartment. Radiographs were scored semiquantitatively for JSN in the medial tibiofemoral joint using the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) atlas. Radiological progression was defined as > or =1 grade increase. Associations between baseline magnetic resonance (MR) parameters and subsequent radiographic JSN changes were assessed using logistic regression. Relative risk (RR) was then calculated. RESULTS: Radiographic progression of JSN was observed in 17 (9.1%) of 186 patients. Eleven patients had a Kellgren and Lawrence (KL) score of > or =2. A significant association was observed between all patients and meniscal tears (RR 3.57; confidence interval (CI) 1.08-10.0) and meniscal subluxation (RR 2.73; CI 1.20-5.41), between KL < 2 and meniscal subluxation (RR 11.3; CI 2.49-29.49) and KL > or = 2 and meniscus tears (RR 8.91; CI 1.13-22.84) and radiographic JSN 2 years later. Follow-up MR in 15 of 17 patients with progressive JSN showed only new meniscal abnormalities and no progression of cartilage loss. CONCLUSION: Meniscal pathology (tears and/or meniscal subluxation) was the only MRI parameter to be associated with subsequent radiographic progression of JSN in the medial tibiofemoral compartment on a radiograph 2 years later, as assessed by the OARSI score.
Project description:Several studies have evaluated the association between serum adiponectin levels and knee and hand osteoarthritis (OA); mixed results have been reported. We investigated the relationship between OA and serum adiponectin levels according to the radiographic features of knee and hand OA. A total of 2402 subjects was recruited from the Dong-gu Study. Baseline characteristics were collected via a questionnaire, and X-rays of knee and hand joints were scored using a semi-quantitative grading system. The relationship between serum adiponectin levels and radiographic severity was evaluated by linear and logistic regression analysis. Subjects in the higher serum adiponectin levels tertiles were older and had a lower body mass index (BMI) than those in the lower tertiles. Regarding knee joint scores, serum adiponectin levels was positively associated with the total (P?<?0.001), osteophyte (P?=?0.003), and joint space narrowing (JSN) scores (P?<?0.001) after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, and physical activity. In terms of hand joint scores, no association was found between serum adiponectin levels and the total, osteophyte, JSN, subchondral cyst, sclerosis, erosion, or malalignment score after the above-mentioned adjustments. Similarly, subjects with serum adiponectin levels above the median had higher total radiographic scores in the knee joints, but not in the hand joints, after adjustment. An increased serum adiponectin levels was associated with a higher radiographic score in the knee joint, but not in the hand joint, suggesting the involvement of different pathophysiologic mechanisms in the development of OA between those joints.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Individuals with high bone mass (HBM) have a greater odds of prevalent radiographic hip osteoarthritis (OA), reflecting an association with bone-forming OA sub-phenotypes (e.g. osteophytosis, subchondral sclerosis). As the role of bone mineral density (BMD) in hip OA progression is unclear, we aimed to determine if individuals with HBM have increased incidence and/or progression of bone-forming OA sub-phenotypes.<h4>Methods</h4>We analysed an adult cohort with and without HBM (L1 and/or total hip BMD Z-score >?+?3.2) with pelvic radiographs collected at baseline and 8-year follow-up. Sub-phenotypes were graded using the OARSI atlas. Superior/inferior acetabular/femoral osteophyte and medial/superior joint space narrowing (JSN) grades were summed and ?osteophyte and ?JSN derived. Pain and functional limitations were quantified using the WOMAC questionnaire. Associations between HBM status and change in OA sub-phenotypes were determined using multivariable linear/logistic regression, adjusting for age, sex, height, total body fat mass, follow-up time and baseline sub-phenotype grade. Generalised estimating equations accounted for individual-level clustering.<h4>Results</h4>Of 136 individuals, 62% had HBM at baseline, 72% were female and mean (SD) age was 59 (10) years. HBM was positively associated with both ?osteophytes and ?JSN (adjusted mean grade differences between individuals with and without HBM ?<sub>osteophyte</sub>?=?0.30 [0.01, 0.58], p?=?0.019 and ?<sub>JSN</sub>?=?0.10 [0.01, 0.18], p?=?0.019). Incident subchondral sclerosis was rare. HBM individuals had higher WOMAC hip functional limitation scores (??=?8.3 [0.7, 15.98], p?=?0.032).<h4>Conclusions</h4>HBM is associated with the worsening of hip osteophytes and JSN over an average of 8 years, as well as increased hip pain and functional limitation.