Revascularization Treatment of Emergency Patients with Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Switzerland: Results from a Nationwide, Cross-Sectional Study in Switzerland for 2010-2011.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide and in Switzerland. When applied, treatment guidelines for patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) improve the clinical outcome and should eliminate treatment differences by sex and age for patients whose clinical situations are identical. In Switzerland, the rate at which STEMI patients receive revascularization may vary by patient and hospital characteristics. AIMS:To examine all hospitalizations in Switzerland from 2010-2011 to determine if patient or hospital characteristics affected the rate of revascularization (receiving either a percutaneous coronary intervention or a coronary artery bypass grafting) in acute STEMI patients. DATA AND METHODS:We used national data sets on hospital stays, and on hospital infrastructure and operating characteristics, for the years 2010 and 2011, to identify all emergency patients admitted with the main diagnosis of acute STEMI. We then calculated the proportion of patients who were treated with revascularization. We used multivariable multilevel Poisson regression to determine if receipt of revascularization varied by patient and hospital characteristics. RESULTS:Of the 9,696 cases we identified, 71.6% received revascularization. Patients were less likely to receive revascularization if they were female, and 80 years or older. In the multivariable multilevel Poisson regression analysis, there was a trend for small-volume hospitals performing fewer revascularizations but this was not statistically significant while being female (Relative Proportion = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.86 to 0.97) and being older than 80 years was still associated with less frequent revascularization. CONCLUSION:Female and older patients were less likely to receive revascularization. Further research needs to clarify whether this reflects differential application of treatment guidelines or limitations in this kind of routine data.
Project description:Few data are available concerning the impact of gender on temporal trends in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).All STEMI patients consecutively enrolled in the AMIS (Acute Myocardial Infarction in Switzerland) Plus project from 1997-2011 were included. Temporal trends in presentation, treatment and outcomes were analyzed using multiple logistic regressions with generalized estimations.Of 21,620 STEMI patients, 5786 were women and 15,834 men from 78 Swiss hospitals. Women were 8.6 years older, presented 48 minutes later with less pain, but more dyspnea, and more frequently had atrial fibrillation (5.5 vs. 3.9%, p<0.001), heart failure (Killip class >2) (9.7 vs. 7.3%, p<0.001), and moderate or severe comorbidities (24.8 vs. 18.2%, p<0.001). Women were less likely to undergo primary reperfusion treatment after adjustment for baseline characteristics and admission year (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.71-0.90, p<0.001) or receive early and discharge drugs, such as thienopyridines, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, and statins. In 1997, thrombolysis was performed in 51% of male and 39% of female patients; its use rapidly decreased during the 1990s and has now become negligible. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention increased from under 10% in both genders in 1997 to over 70% in females and over 80% in males since 2006. Patients admitted in cardiogenic shock increased by 8% per year in both genders. The incidence of both reinfarction and cardiogenic shock developing during hospitalization decreased significantly over 15 years while in-hospital mortality decreased from 10 to 5% in men and from 18 to 7% in women. This corresponds to a relative reduction of 5% per year for males (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.99, p=0.006) and 6% per year for female STEMI patients (OR 0.94, 95% CI 0.91-0.97, p<0.001). Despite higher crude in-hospital mortality, female gender per se was not an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.84-1.35, p=0.59).Substantial changes have occurred in presentation, treatment, and outcome of men and women with STEMI in Switzerland over the past 15 years. Although parallel trends were seen in both groups, ongoing disparities in certain treatments remain. However, these did not translate into worse risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality, suggesting that the gender gap in STEMI care may be closing.
Project description:Fibrinolytic therapy is still used in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) when the primary percutaneous coronary intervention cannot be provided in a timely fashion. Management strategies and outcomes in transferred fibrinolytic-treated STEMI patients have not been well assessed in real-world settings. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2008 to 2012, we identified 18 814 patients with STEMI who received fibrinolytic therapy and were transferred to a different facility within 24 hours. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included gastrointestinal bleeding, bleeding requiring transfusion, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), length of stay, and cost. The patients were divided into 3 groups: those who received medical therapy alone (n = 853; 4.5%), those who underwent coronary artery angiography without revascularization (n = 2573; 13.7%), and those who underwent coronary artery angiography with revascularization (n = 15 388; 81.8%). Rates of in-hospital mortality among the groups were 20% vs 6.6% vs 2.1%, respectively (P < 0.001); ICH was 8.5% vs 1.1% vs 0.6%, respectively (P < 0.001); and gastrointestinal bleeding was 1.1% vs 0.4% vs 0.4%, respectively (P = 0.011). Multivariate analysis identified increasing age, higher Charlson Comorbidity Index score, cardiogenic shock, cardiac arrest, and ICH as the independent predictors of not performing coronary artery angiography and/or revascularization in patients with STEMI initially treated with fibrinolytic therapy. The majority of STEMI patients transferred after receiving fibrinolytic therapy undergo coronary angiography. However, notable numbers of patients do not receive revascularization, especially patients with cardiogenic shock and following a cardiac arrest.
Project description:To assess temporal trends of in-hospital mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) enrolled in the Swiss nationwide registry (AMIS Plus) over the last 20 years with regard to gender, age and in-hospital treatment.All patients with AMI from 1997 to 2016 were stratified according to ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-STEMI (NSTEMI), and gender using logistic regression analyses.Among 51?725 patients, 30?398 (59%) had STEMI and 21?327 (41%) had NSTEMI; 73% were men (63.9±12.8 years) and 27% were women (71.7±12.5 years). Over 20 years, crude in-hospital STEMI mortality decreased from 9.8% to 5.5% in men and from 18.3% to 6.9% in women. In patients with NSTEMI, it decreased from 7.1% to 2.1% in men and from 11.0% to 3.6% in women. After adjustment for age, mortality decreased per additional admission year by 3% in men with STEMI (OR 0.97, 95%?CI 0.96 to 0.98, P<0.001), by 5% in women with STEMI (OR 0.95, 95%?CI 0.93 to 0.96, P<0.001), by 6% in men with NSTEMI (OR 0.94, 95%?CI 0.93 to 0.96, P<0.001) and by 5% in women with NSTEMI (OR 0.95, 95%?CI 0.93 to 0.97, P<0.001). In patients <60 years, a decrease in mortality was seen in women with STEMI (OR 0.94, 95%?CI 0.90 to 0.99, P=0.025) and NSTEMI (OR 0.87, 95%?CI 0.80 to 0.94, P<0.001) but not in men with STEMI (OR 1.01, 95%?CI 0.98 to 1.04, P=0.46) and NSTEMI (OR 0.98, 95%?CI 0.94 to 1.03, P=0.41). The mortality decrease in patients with AMI was closely associated with the increase in reperfusion therapy.From 1997 to 2016, in-hospital mortality of patients with AMI in Switzerland has halved and was more pronounced in women, particularly in the age category <60 years.NCT01305785; Results.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Studies of sex-based differences in older adults with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have yielded mixed results. We, therefore, sought to evaluate sex-based differences in presentation characteristics, treatments, functional impairments, and in-hospital complications in a large, well-characterized population of older adults (?75 years) hospitalized with AMI. METHODS AND RESULTS:We analyzed data from participants enrolled in SILVER-AMI (Comprehensive Evaluation of Risk Factors in Older Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction)-a prospective observational study consisting of 3041 older patients (44% women) hospitalized for AMI. Participants were stratified by AMI subtype (ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI] and non-STEMI [NSTEMI]) and subsequently evaluated for sex-based differences in clinical presentation, functional impairments, management, and in-hospital complications. Among the study sample, women were slightly older than men (NSTEMI: 82.1 versus 81.3, P<0.001; STEMI: 82.2 versus 80.6, P<0.001) and had lower rates of prior coronary disease. Women in the NSTEMI subgroup presented less frequently with chest pain as their primary symptom. Age-associated functional impairments at baseline were more common in women in both AMI subgroups (cognitive impairment, NSTEMI: 20.6% versus 14.3%, P<0.001; STEMI: 20.6% versus 12.4%, P=0.001; activities of daily living disability, NSTEMI: 19.7% versus 11.4%, P<0.001; STEMI: 14.8% versus 6.4%, P<0.001; impaired functional mobility, NSTEMI: 44.5% versus 30.7%, P<0.001; STEMI: 39.4% versus 22.0%, P<0.001). Women with AMI had lower rates of obstructive coronary disease (NSTEMI: P<0.001; STEMI: P=0.02), driven by lower rates of 3-vessel or left main disease than men (STEMI: 38.8% versus 58.7%; STEMI: 24.3% versus 32.1%), and underwent revascularization less commonly (NSTEMI: 55.6% versus 63.6%, P<0.001; STEMI: 87.3% versus 93.3%, P=0.01). Rates of bleeding were higher among women with STEMI (26.2% versus 15.6%, P<0.001) but not NSTEMI (17.8% versus 15.7%, P=0.21). Women had a higher frequency of bleeding following percutaneous coronary intervention with both NSTEMI (11.0% versus 7.8%, P=0.04) and STEMI (22.6% versus 14.8%, P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS:Among older adults hospitalized with AMI, women had a higher prevalence of age-related functional impairments and, among the STEMI subgroup, a higher incidence of overall bleeding events, which was driven by higher rates of nonmajor bleeding events and bleeding following percutaneous coronary intervention. These differences may have important implications for in-hospital and posthospitalization needs.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Since the late nineties, no study has assessed the trends in management and in-hospital outcome of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Switzerland. Our objective was to fill this gap. METHODS: Swiss hospital discharge database for years 1998 to 2008. AMI was defined as a primary discharge diagnosis code I21 according to the ICD10 classification. Invasive treatments and overall in-hospital mortality were assessed. RESULTS: Overall, 102,729 hospital discharges with a diagnosis of AMI were analyzed. The percentage of hospitalizations with a stay in an Intensive Care Unit decreased from 38.0% in 1998 to 36.2% in 2008 (p for trend?<?0.001). Percutaneous revascularizations increased from 6.0% to 39.9% (p for trend?<?0.001). Bare stents rose from 1.3% to 16.6% (p for trend?<?0.001). Drug eluting stents appeared in 2004 and increased to 23.5% in 2008 (p for trend?<?0.001). Coronary artery bypass graft increased from 1.0% to 3.0% (p for trend?<?0.001). Circulatory assistance increased from 0.2% to 1.7% (p for trend?<?0.001). Among patients managed in a single hospital (not transferred), seven-day and total in-hospital mortality decreased from 8.0% to 7.0% (p for trend?<?0.01) and from 11.2% to 10.1%, respectively. These changes were no longer significant after multivariate adjustment for age, gender, region, revascularization procedures and transfer type. After multivariate adjustment, differing trends in revascularization procedures and in in-hospital mortality were found according to the geographical region considered. CONCLUSION: In Switzerland, a steep rise in hospital discharges and in revascularization procedures for AMI occurred between 1998 and 2008. The increase in revascularization procedures could explain the decrease in in-hospital mortality rates.
Project description:There is controversy regarding in-hospital mortality, revascularization, and other adverse outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation (STEMI) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We queried the 2003 to 2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample databases to identify patients aged ?18 years with a primary diagnosis of STEMI. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the association of COPD with in-hospital clinical outcomes. Patients with COPD comprised 13.2% of 2,120,005 patients with STEMI. COPD was associated with older age, Medicare insurance, greater co-morbidities, and lower socioeconomic status. Compared with non-COPD patients, patients with COPD had higher inpatient mortality even after adjustment for multiple potential other factors (12.5% vs 8.6%, adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.13, 95% CI 1.11 to 1.15, p <0.001). Patients with COPD were more likely to develop new-onset heart failure (AOR 2.01, 95% CI 1.99 to 2.03), cardiogenic shock (AOR 1.24, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.26), and acute respiratory failure (AOR 2.46, 95% CI 2.43 to 2.50) during their hospital stay. Patients with COPD were less likely to undergo diagnostic angiographies and any revascularization procedures. The mean length of stay (6.0 vs 4.6 days; p <0.001) was greater in patients with COPD, as were hospital average hospital charges ($63,956 vs $58,536; p <0.001). In conclusion, among patients with STEMI, COPD is associated with a greater risk of in-hospital mortality, new-onset heart failure, acute respiratory failure, and cardiogenic shock.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who present without typical chest pain are associated with a poor outcome. However, whether angiographic characteristics are related to a higher risk of mortality in this population is unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether the higher mortality risk in patients with STEMI without chest pain could be explained by their "high-risk" angiographic characteristics. METHODS:We used data of 12,145 patients with STEMI who was registered in China Acute Myocardial Infarction registry from January 2013 to September 2014. We compared the infarct-related artery (IRA), thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow grade in the IRA, and other angiographic characteristics between patients without and those with chest pain. Multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify independent risk factor of in-hospital mortality. RESULTS:The 2922 (24.1%) patients with STEMI presented without typical chest pain. These patients had a higher TIMI flow grade (mean TIMI flow grade: 1.00 vs. 0.94, P?=?0.02) and a lower rate of IRA disease of the left anterior descending artery (44.6% vs. 51.2%, ??=?35.63, P?<?0.01) than did those with typical chest pain. Patients without chest pain were older, more likely to have diabetes, longer time to hospital and higher Killip classification, and less likely to receive optimal medication treatment and primary percutaneous coronary intervention and higher In-hospital mortality (3.3% vs. 2.2%, ??=?10.57, P?<?0.01). After adjusting for multi-variables, presentation without chest pain was still an independent predictor of in-hospital death among patients with STEMI (adjusted odds ratio: 1.36, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.83). CONCLUSIONS:Presentation without chest pain is common and associated with a higher in-hospital mortality risk in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Our results indicate that their poor prognosis is associated with baseline patient characteristics and delayed treatment, but not angiographic lesion characteristics. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT01874691, https://clinicaltrials.gov.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Regional differences in the treatment and outcomes of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) within the United States remain poorly understood. HYPOTHESIS:Treatment choice and outcomes in patients with STEMI differ between regions within the United States. METHODS:We used the 2003 to 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample databases to identify all patients age ≥ 40 years hospitalized with STEMI. Patients were divided into 4 groups according to region: Northeast, Midwest, South, and West. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify differences in treatment choice and outcomes (in-hospital mortality, acute stroke, and cardiogenic shock) among the 4 regions. RESULTS:Of 1,990,486 patients age ≥ 40 years with STEMI, 350,073 (17.6%) were hospitalized in the Northeast, 483,323 (24.3%) in the Midwest, 784,869 (39.4%) in the South, and 372,222 (18.7%) in the West. Compared with the Northeast, patients in the Midwest, South, and West were less likely to receive medical therapy alone and more likely to receive percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting. Risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality was higher in the Midwest (odds ratio [OR]: 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05-1.09, P <0.001), South (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.05, P = 0.001), and West (OR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.04-1.08, P <0.001), as compared with the Northeast. When adjusted further for regional variation in treatment selection, risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality was even higher in the Midwest, West, and South. CONCLUSIONS:Despite higher reperfusion and revascularization rates, STEMI patients in the Midwest, West, and South have paradoxically higher risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality as compared with patients in the Northeast.
Project description:Health care spending increases sharply at the end of life. Little is known about variation of cost of end of life care between regions and the drivers of such variation. We studied small-area patterns of cost of care in the last year of life in Switzerland.We used mandatory health insurance claims data of individuals who died between 2008 and 2010 to derive cost of care. We used multilevel regression models to estimate differences in costs across 564 regions of place of residence, nested within 71 hospital service areas. We examined to what extent variation was explained by characteristics of individuals and regions, including measures of health care supply.The study population consisted of 113,277 individuals. The mean cost of care during last year of life was 32.5k (thousand) Swiss Francs per person (SD=33.2k). Cost differed substantially between regions after adjustment for patient age, sex, and cause of death. Variance was reduced by 52%-95% when we added individual and regional characteristics, with a strong effect of language region. Measures of supply of care did not show associations with costs. Remaining between and within hospital service area variations were most pronounced for older females and least for younger individuals.In Switzerland, small-area analysis revealed variation of cost of care during the last year of life according to linguistic regions and unexplained regional differences for older women. Cultural factors contribute to the delivery and utilization of health care during the last months of life and should be considered by policy makers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Medicaid expansion among previously uninsured individuals has led to improved healthcare access. However, considerably lower reimbursement rates of Medicaid have raised concerns on the unintended consequence of lower utilization of life-saving therapies and inferior outcomes compared with private insurance. We examined the rates of revascularization and in-hospital mortality among Medicaid beneficiaries versus privately insured individuals hospitalized with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). METHODS AND RESULTS:We queried the National Inpatient Sample from 2012 to 2015 for STEMI hospitalizations with Medicaid or private insurance as primary payer. Hospitalizations with the following criteria were excluded: (1) age <18 or ?65 years, (2) transfer to another acute care facility, and (3) left against medical advice. Outcomes were compared in propensity score-matched cohort based on demographics, socioeconomic status (income based), clinical comorbidities, including drug and alcohol use, STEMI acuity (cardiac arrest and cardiogenic shock), and hospital characteristics. A total of 42 645 and 171 545 STEMI hospitalizations were identified as having Medicaid and private insurance, respectively. In unadjusted analyses, Medicaid beneficiaries with STEMI had lower rates of coronary revascularization (88.9% versus 92.3%; odds ratio, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.65-0.70) and higher rates of in-hospital mortality (4.9% versus 2.8%; odds ratio, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.72-1.91) compared with privately insured individuals ( P<0.001 for both). In propensity-matched cohort of 40 870 hospitalizations per group, similar results for lower rates of revascularization (89.1% versus 91.1%; odds ratio, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.76-0.84) and higher in-hospital mortality (4.9% versus 3.7%; odds ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.26-1.45) were observed in Medicaid compared with private insurance, despite extensive matching ( P<0.001 for both). CONCLUSIONS:Medicaid beneficiaries with STEMI had lower rates of revascularization, although small absolute difference, and higher in-hospital mortality compared with privately insured individuals. Further studies are needed to identify and understand the variation in STEMI outcomes by insurance status.