EUS hepaticogastrostomy for bilioenteric anastomotic strictures: a permanent access for repeated ambulatory dilations? Results from a pilot study.
ABSTRACT: Postsurgical benign bilioenteric anastomotic strictures are a major adverse event of biliary surgery and endoscopic treatment, including endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), is challenging in this setting. We present an innovative approach to treating this complication.Patients underwent endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-hepaticogastrostomy (HG) to treat nonmalignant biliary obstructions. A first endoscopy was performed to create the hepaticogastrostomy and to drain the biliary tree. The second step had a therapeutic purpose: antegrade dilation of the anastomosis.Four men and three women with benign bilioenteric anastomotic strictures were included. Patients presented with jaundice or recurrent cholangitis. A fully covered HG stent was successfully deployed during the first endoscopy. During the second step, repeat antegrade dilation was performed through the HG in four cases (1 - 4 dilations) followed by double pigtail stenting in three cases. In three other patients, the stenosis was not crossable and a double pigtail stent was placed to maintain biliary drainage. All patients had symptom relief at the end of follow-up (45 weeks, range 33 - 64).Dilation of anastomotic stenosis through a hepaticogastrostomy is feasible and may provide permanent biliary drainage or recurrent access to the biliary tree in patients with altered anatomy. Double pigtail stents might prevent migration.
Project description:Background and aims:Post liver transplant biliary anastomotic strictures have traditionally been treated with balloon dilation and multiple plastic stents. Fully covered self-expandable metallic stents may be used as an initial alternative or after multiple plastic stents failure. Refractory strictures can occur in 10-22% and require revisional surgery. Alternatively, cholangioscopy allows direct visualization and therapeutic approaches. We aimed to assess the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of balloon dilation combined with cholangioscopy-guided steroid injection for the treatment of refractory anastomotic biliary strictures. Methods:Three post-orthotopic liver transplant patients who failed standard treatment of their biliary anastomotic strictures underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with balloon dilation followed by cholangioscopy-guided steroid injection at a tertiary care center. Patients had follow-up with images and laboratorial tests to evaluate for residual stricture. Results:Technical success of balloon dilation?+?cholangioscopy-guided steroid injection was achieved in all patients. Cholangioscopy permitted accurate evaluation of bile ducts and precise localization for steroid injection. No adverse events occurred. Mean follow-up was 26 months. Two patients are stent free and remain well in follow-up, with no signs of biliary obstruction. No further therapeutic endoscopic procedures or revisional surgery were required. One patient did not respond to balloon dilation?+?cholangioscopy-guided steroid injection after 11 months of follow-up and required repeat balloon dilation of new strictures above the anastomosis. Conclusion:Cholangioscopy-guided steroid injection combined with balloon dilation in the treatment of refractory post liver transplant strictures is feasible and safe. This method may be used as a rescue alternative before surgical approach. Randomized controlled trials comparing balloon dilation?+?cholangioscopy-guided steroid injection to fully covered self-expandable metallic stents are needed to determine the role of this treatment for anastomotic biliary strictures.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Laparoscopic one anastomosis gastric bypass has become a prominent bariatric procedure. Yet, early and late complications, primarily leaks and strictures, are not uncommon. This study summarizes our experience with endoscopic treatment of laparoscopic one anastomosis gastric bypass complications. METHODS:This is a retrospective study of consecutive patients referred to our hospital from 2015 to 2017 with post laparoscopic one anastomosis gastric bypass complications. Therapy was tailored to each case, including fully covered self-expandable metal stents, fibrin glue, septotomy, internal drainage with pigtail stents, through-the-scope and pneumatic dilation. Success was defined as resuming oral nutrition without enteral or parenteral support or further surgical intervention. RESULTS:Nine patients presented with acute or early leaks: 5 (56%) had staple-line leaks, 3 (33%) had anastomotic leaks and 1 (11%) had both. All were treated with stents. Adjunctive endoscopic drainage was applied in 4 patients (44%). Overall 5 patients (56%) with acute/ early leaks recovered completely, including all 3 patients with anastomotic leak and the patient with both leaks but only 1/5 with staple line leak (20%). Complication rate in the leak group reached 22%. Eight patients presented with strictures, 7 at the anastomosis and one due to remnant stomach misalignment. All anastomotic strictures were dilated successfully. However, the patient with the pouch stricture required conversion to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass after 3 failed attempts of dilation. CONCLUSION:Endoscopic treatments of laparoscopic one anastomosis gastric bypass complications are relatively effective and safe. Anastomosis-related complications are more amenable to endoscopic treatment compared to staple line leaks.
Project description:The ureterointestinal anastomosis stricture (UAS) is a common complication of urinary diversion after radical cystectomy. For decades, open anastomotic revision remained the gold standard for the treatment of UAS. However, with the advancement in endoscopic technology, mini-invasive therapeutic approaches have been used in its management. Here, we report our experience with and long-term results of combined simultaneous antegrade and retrograde endoscopy (SARE) in the treatment of non-malignant UASs after urinary diversion in a consecutive series of patients.From March 2012 to January 2015, there were 32 consecutive patients with 32 non-malignant UASs following radical cystectomy and urinary diversion. Twenty-nine patients were treated with SARE technique and comprised the study group. Using simultaneous antegrade flexible ureteroscope combined with retrograde semi-rigid ureteroscope or nephroscope, partial or complete strictures were managed with laser incision and balloon dilation under direct visualization. A 7/12 Fr graded endopyelotomy stent was left for 3-6 months after the procedure. Success was defined as symptomatic improvement and radiographic resolution of obstruction.With a median followup of 22 months (6-36), the overall success rate for SARE was 69.0%. Twenty patients with partial stricture had a success rate of 85%, and 9 patients with complete stricture had a success rate of 33.3%. Renal function, hydronephrosis grade, stricture type, and stricture length were significant influences on the outcome (P < 0.05). No complication was observed.The SARE is a safe and effective treatment for UAS, and may be the only endoscopic treatment approach for complete UAS. While success rate for complete strictures is low compared to open revision, it should be considered as an initial approach given its low overall morbidity. For partial strictures, prudent patient selection results in higher success rates that are nearly comparable to open revision.
Project description:The optimal target of endoscopic dilation of postsurgical esophageal strictures is unknown. Our aim was to compare the dilation-free period of patients who underwent dilation up to 16 mm with patients who were dilated up to 17 or 18 mm.We retrospectively analyzed adult patients who received bougie/balloon dilation for a benign anastomotic stricture after esophagectomy. An anastomotic stricture was defined as dysphagia in combination with a luminal diameter of ?13 mm at endoscopy. We analyzed the dilation-free period using Kaplan-Meier and multivariable Cox regression analysis.Eighty-eight patients were dilated up to a maximum diameter of 16 mm and 91 patients to a diameter >16 mm. The stricture recurrence rate was 79.5 % in the 16 mm group and 68.1 % in the >16 mm group (p = 0.083). The overall dilation-free period had a median of 41.5 (range 8-3233) days and 92 (range 17-1745) days, respectively (p < 0.001). For patients who developed a stricture recurrence, the median dilation-free period was 28 (range 8-487) days and 63 (range 17-1013) days, respectively (p = 0.001). Cox regression analysis showed a reduced risk of stricture recurrence for patients who were dilated up to >16 mm: crude hazard ratio (HR) 0.57 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.41-0.81) and adjusted HR 0.48 (95 % CI 0.33-0.70).Endoscopic dilation over 16 mm resulted in a significant prolongation of the dilation-free period in comparison with dilation up to 16 mm in patients with benign anastomotic strictures after esophagectomy.
Project description:Benign biliary strictures comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases. The most common strictures amenable to endoscopic treatment are post-cholecystectomy, post-liver transplantation, related to primary sclerosing cholangitis and to chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic treatment of benign biliary strictures is widely used as first line therapy, since it is effective, safe, noninvasive and repeatable. Endoscopic techniques currently used are dilation, multiple plastic stents insertion and fully covered self-expandable metal stents. The main indication for dilation alone is primary sclerosing cholangitis related strictures. In the vast majority of the remaining cases, temporary placement of multiple plastic stents with/without dilation is considered the treatment of choice. Although this approach is effective, it requires multiple endoscopic sessions due to the short duration of stent patency. Fully covered self-expandable metal stents appear as a good alternative to plastic stents, since they have an increased radial diameter, longer stent patency, easier insertion technique and similar efficacy. Recent advances in endoscopic technique and various devices have allowed successful treatment in most cases. The development of novel endoscopic techniques and devices is still ongoing.
Project description:Complete esophageal obstruction (CEO) is a rare occurrence characterized by progressive esophageal stricture, which eventually causes lumen obliteration. With recent advances in flexible endoscopy, various innovative techniques exist for restoring luminal continuity. The primary aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of patients undergoing combined antegrade-retrograde endoscopic dilation for CEO at our institution. The secondary aim was to review and highlight emerging techniques, outcomes, and adverse events after endoscopic treatment of CEO.Our electronic endoscopy database was retrospectively reviewed to identify patients who underwent combined antegrade and retrograde endoscopy for CEO. Patient and procedural data collected included gender, age, technical success, pre- and post-dysphagia scores, and adverse events.Six patients (67 % male, mean age 71.6 years [range 63 - 80]) underwent technically successful esophageal reconstruction with combined antegrade-retrograde endoscopy. All patients noted improvement in dysphagia with mean pre-procedure dysphagia score of 4 reduced to 1.33 (range 0 - 3) post-procedure. There were no adverse events and mean follow-up time was 17.3 months (range 3 - 48).Combined antegrade and retrograde endoscopic therapy for CEO is feasible and safe. We present our experience with endoscopic management of complete esophageal obstruction, and highlight emerging techniques, outcomes and adverse events related to this minimally invasive modality.
Project description:The diagnosis of biliary strictures can be challenging. Endoscopy has an established role in the diagnosis and therapy of biliary strictures. However, the diagnostic yield from conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography tissue sampling is modest. Improvements in existing technologies as well as the implementation of novel technologies and techniques have the potential to improve the diagnostic performance of endoscopy and expand its therapeutic role. Recent studies have enabled greater clarity about the role of preoperative biliary drainage and the choice of stents in this setting as well as the utility of metal stents in benign and malignant disease.
Project description:Endoscopic treatment of benign biliary strictures (BBS) can be challenging.To evaluate the efficacy of fully covered self-expandable metal stents (FCSEMS) in BBS.Ninety-two consecutive patients with BBS (chronic pancreatitis (n?=?42), anastomotic after liver transplantation (n?=?36), and post biliary surgical procedure (n?=?14)) were included. FCSEMS were placed across strictures for 6 months before endoscopic extraction. Early success rate was defined as the absence of biliary stricture or as a minimal residual anomaly on post-stent removal endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Secondary outcomes were the final success and stricture recurrence rates as well as procedure-related morbidity.Stenting was successful in all patients. Stenting associated complications were minor and occurred in 22 (23.9%) patients. Migration occurred in 23 (25%) patients. Stent extraction was successful in all but two patients with proximal stent migration. ERCP after the 6 months stenting showed an early success in 84.9% patients (chronic pancreatitis patients: 94.7%, liver transplant: 87.9%, post-surgical: 61.5%) (p?=?0.01). Final success was observed in 57/73 (78.1%) patients with a median follow-up of 12?±?3.56 months. Recurrence of biliary stricture occurred in 16/73 (21.9%) patients.FCSEMS placement is efficient for patients with BBS, in particular for chronic pancreatitis patients. Stent extraction after 6 months indwelling, although generally feasible, may fail in a few cases.
Project description:Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PCS) is a progressive disease leading to secondary biliary cirrhosis. Patients are at increased risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma, which is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. Treatment of PCS includes medical therapy, endoscopic biliary dilation, percutaneous transhepatic stenting, extrahepatic biliary resection and liver transplantation. The most effective management of primary sclerosing cholangitis before the onset of cirrhosis remains unclear. Non-transplant surgical procedures have a limited but defined role in patients with PCS. Resection of the extrahepatic biliary tree in symptomatic non-cirrhotic patients improves hyperbilirubinaemia and prolongs both transplant-free and overall survival when compared with non-operative dilation and/or stenting. Surgical resection may also definitively establish or exclude a diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma in patients with dominant extrahepatic or perihilar strictures. Extrahepatic bile duct resection may also reduce the risk of cholangiocarcinoma. Extrahepatic biliary resection should be considered in selected non-cirrhotic patients with symptomatic biliary obstruction and dominant extrahepatic and/or perihilar strictures. Those patients in whom cholangiocarcinoma is suspected should also undergo resection.