Identification of three LRR-RKs involved in perception of root meristem growth factor in Arabidopsis.
ABSTRACT: A peptide hormone, root meristem growth factor (RGF), regulates root meristem development through the PLETHORA (PLT) stem cell transcription factor pathway, but it remains to be uncovered how extracellular RGF signals are transduced to the nucleus. Here we identified, using a combination of a custom-made receptor kinase (RK) expression library and exhaustive photoaffinity labeling, three leucine-rich repeat RKs (LRR-RKs) that directly interact with RGF peptides in Arabidopsis These three LRR-RKs, which we named RGFR1, RGFR2, and RGFR3, are expressed in root tissues including the proximal meristem, the elongation zone, and the differentiation zone. The triple rgfr mutant was insensitive to externally applied RGF peptide and displayed a short root phenotype accompanied by a considerable decrease in meristematic cell number. In addition, PLT1 and PLT2 protein gradients, observed as a gradual gradient decreasing toward the elongation zone from the stem cell area in wild type, steeply declined at the root tip in the triple mutant. Because RGF peptides have been shown to create a diffusion-based concentration gradient extending from the stem cell area, our results strongly suggest that RGFRs mediate the transformation of an RGF peptide gradient into a PLT protein gradient in the proximal meristem, thereby acting as key regulators of root meristem development.
Project description:Peptide-mediated cell-to-cell signaling has crucial roles in coordination and definition of cellular functions in plants. Peptide-receptor matching is important for understanding the mechanisms underlying peptide-mediated signaling. Here we report the structure-guided identification of root meristem growth factor (RGF) receptors important for plant development. An assay based on a signature ligand recognition motif (Arg-x-Arg) conserved in a subfamily of leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases (LRR-RKs) identified the functionally uncharacterized LRR-RK At4g26540 as a receptor of RGF1 (RGFR1). We further solved the crystal structure of RGF1 in complex with the LRR domain of RGFR1 at a resolution of 2.6 Å, which reveals that the Arg-x-Gly-Gly (RxGG) motif is responsible for specific recognition of the sulfate group of RGF1 by RGFR1. Based on the RxGG motif, we identified additional four RGFRs. Participation of the five RGFRs in RGF-induced signaling is supported by biochemical and genetic data. We also offer evidence showing that SERKs function as co-receptors for RGFs. Taken together, our study identifies RGF receptors and co-receptors that can link RGF signals with their downstream components and provides a proof of principle for structure-based matching of LRR-RKs with their peptide ligands.
Project description:Posttranslational modification can confer special functions to peptides. Based on exhaustive liquid chromatography mass spectrometry analysis targeting tyrosine-sulfated peptides, we identified an 18-aa tyrosine-sulfated glycopeptide in Arabidopsis cell suspension culture medium. This peptide, which we named PSY1, significantly promotes cellular proliferation and expansion at nanomolar concentrations. PSY1 is widely expressed in various Arabidopsis tissues, including shoot apical meristem, and is highly up-regulated by wounding. Perception of PSY1 depends on At1g72300, which is a leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase (LRR-RK) whose two paralogs are involved in the perception of phytosulfokine (PSK), which is a 5-aa tyrosine-sulfated peptide that primarily promotes cellular proliferation. Multiple loss-of-function mutations in these three paralogous LRR-RKs significantly enhanced phenotypes, compared with single disruptants, suggesting that these LRR-RKs have overlapping functions. Triple mutations in these LRR-RKs resulted in dwarfism because of decreases in cell number and cell size and caused insufficiency in tissue repair after wounding. The present results suggest that this paralogous LRR-RK family integrates growth-promoting signals mediated by two structurally distinct sulfated peptides: PSY1 and PSK.
Project description:In plants, leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR-RKs) perceive ligands, including peptides and small molecules, to regulate various physiological processes. TDIF, a member of the CLE peptide family, specifically interacts with the LRR-RK TDR to inhibit meristem differentiation into tracheary elements, and promotes cell proliferation. Here we report the crystal structure of the extracellular domain of TDR in complex with the TDIF peptide. The extracellular domain of TDR adopts a superhelical structure comprising 22 LRRs, and specifically recognizes TDIF by its inner concave surface. Together with our biochemical and sequence analyses, our structure reveals a conserved TDIF-recognition mechanism of TDR among plant species. Furthermore, a structural comparison of TDR with other plant LRR-RKs suggested the activation mechanism of TDR by TDIF. The structure of this CLE peptide receptor provides insights into the recognition mechanism of the CLE family peptides.
Project description:During plant growth, dividing cells in meristems must coordinate transitions from division to expansion and differentiation, thus generating three distinct developmental zones: the meristem, elongation zone and differentiation zone. Simultaneously, plants display tropisms, rapid adjustments of their direction of growth to adapt to environmental conditions. It is unclear how stable zonation is maintained during transient adjustments in growth direction. In Arabidopsis roots, many aspects of zonation are controlled by the phytohormone auxin and auxin-induced PLETHORA (PLT) transcription factors, both of which display a graded distribution with a maximum near the root tip. In addition, auxin is also pivotal for tropic responses. Here, using an iterative experimental and computational approach, we show how an interplay between auxin and PLTs controls zonation and gravitropism. We find that the PLT gradient is not a direct, proportionate readout of the auxin gradient. Rather, prolonged high auxin levels generate a narrow PLT transcription domain from which a gradient of PLT protein is subsequently generated through slow growth dilution and cell-to-cell movement. The resulting PLT levels define the location of developmental zones. In addition to slowly promoting PLT transcription, auxin also rapidly influences division, expansion and differentiation rates. We demonstrate how this specific regulatory design in which auxin cooperates with PLTs through different mechanisms and on different timescales enables both the fast tropic environmental responses and stable zonation dynamics necessary for coordinated cell differentiation.
Project description:Plant development is characterized by repeated initiation of meristems, regions of dividing cells that give rise to new organs. During lateral root (LR) formation, new LR meristems are specified to support the outgrowth of LRs along a new axis. The determination of the sequential events required to form this new growth axis has been hampered by redundant activities of key transcription factors. Here, we characterize the effects of three PLETHORA (PLT) transcription factors, PLT3, PLT5, and PLT7, during LR outgrowth. In plt3plt5plt7 triple mutants, the morphology of lateral root primordia (LRP), the auxin response gradient, and the expression of meristem/tissue identity markers are impaired from the "symmetry-breaking" periclinal cell divisions during the transition between stage I and stage II, wherein cells first acquire different identities in the proximodistal and radial axes. Particularly, PLT1, PLT2, and PLT4 genes that are typically expressed later than PLT3, PLT5, and PLT7 during LR outgrowth are not induced in the mutant primordia, rendering "PLT-null" LRP. Reintroduction of any PLT clade member in the mutant primordia completely restores layer identities at stage II and rescues mutant defects in meristem and tissue establishment. Therefore, all PLT genes can activate the formative cell divisions that lead to de novo meristem establishment and tissue patterning associated with a new growth axis.
Project description:In recent years, secreted peptides have been recognized as essential mediators of intercellular communication which governs plant growth, development, environmental interactions, and other mediated biological responses, such as stem cell homeostasis, cell proliferation, wound healing, hormone sensation, immune defense, and symbiosis, among others. Many of the known secreted peptide ligand receptors belong to the leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase (LRR-RK) family of membrane integral receptors, which contain more than 200 members within Arabidopsis making it the largest family of plant receptor kinases (RKs). Genetic and biochemical studies have provided valuable data regarding peptide ligands and LRR-RKs, however, visualization of ligand/LRR-RK complex structures at the atomic level is vital to understand the functions of LRR-RKs and their mediated biological processes. The structures of many plant LRR-RK receptors in complex with corresponding ligands have been solved by X-ray crystallography, revealing new mechanisms of ligand-induced receptor kinase activation. In this review, we briefly elaborate the peptide ligands, and aim to detail the structures and mechanisms of LRR-RK activation as induced by secreted peptide ligands within plants.
Project description:ROOT MERISTEM GROWTH FACTOR (RGF) 1 is an important peptide hormone that regulates root growth. Upon binding to its receptor, RGFR1, RGF1 regulates the expression of two transcription factors, PLETHORA 1 and 2 (PLT1/2), to influence root meristem development. Here, we show that the ubiquitin-specific proteases UBP12 and UBP13 are positive regulators of root meristem development and that UBP13 interacts directly with RGF1 receptor (RGFR1) and its close homolog RGFR2. The ubp12,13 double-mutant root is completely insensitive to exogenous applied RGF1. Consistent with this result, RGF1-induced ubiquitination and turnover of RGFR1 protein were accelerated in ubp12,13-mutant plants but were delayed in transgenic plants overexpressing UBP13 Genetic analysis showed that PLT2 or RGFR1 overexpression partially rescued the short-root phenotype and the reduced cortical root meristem cell number in ubp12,13 plants. Together, our results demonstrate that UBP12/13 are regulators of the RGF1-RGFR1-PLT1/2 signaling pathway and that UBP12/13 can counteract RGF1-induced RGFR1 ubiquitination, stabilize RGFR1, and maintain root cell sensitivity to RGF1.
Project description:Plant-unique membrane receptor kinases with leucine-rich repeat ectodomains (LRR-RKs) can sense small molecule, peptide, and protein ligands. Many LRR-RKs require SERK-family coreceptor kinases for high-affinity ligand binding and receptor activation. How one coreceptor can contribute to the specific binding of distinct ligands and activation of different LRR-RKs is poorly understood. Here we quantitatively analyze the contribution of SERK3 to ligand binding and activation of the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 and the peptide hormone receptor HAESA. We show that while the isolated receptors sense their respective ligands with drastically different binding affinities, the SERK3 ectodomain binds the ligand-associated receptors with very similar binding kinetics. We identify residues in the SERK3 N-terminal capping domain, which allow for selective steroid and peptide hormone recognition. In contrast, residues in the SERK3 LRR core form a second, constitutive receptor-coreceptor interface. Genetic analyses of protein chimera between BRI1 and SERK3 define that signaling-competent complexes are formed by receptor-coreceptor heteromerization in planta. A functional BRI1-HAESA chimera suggests that the receptor activation mechanism is conserved among different LRR-RKs, and that their signaling specificity is encoded in the kinase domain of the receptor. Our work pinpoints the relative contributions of receptor, ligand, and coreceptor to the formation and activation of SERK-dependent LRR-RK signaling complexes regulating plant growth and development.
Project description:Peptides are signaling molecules regulating various aspects of plant development, including the balance between cell division and differentiation in different meristems. Among those, CLAVATA3/Embryo Surrounding Region-related (CLE-ESR) peptide activity depends on leucine-rich-repeat receptor-like-kinases (LRR-RLK) belonging to the subclass XI. In legume plants, such as the Medicago truncatula model, specific CLE peptides were shown to regulate root symbiotic nodulation depending on the LRR-RLK SUNN (Super Numeric Nodules). Amongst the ten M. truncatula LRR-RLK most closely related to SUNN, only one showed a nodule-induced expression, and was so-called MtNRLK1 (Nodule-induced Receptor-Like Kinase 1). MtNRLK1 expression is associated to root and nodule vasculature as well as to the proximal meristem and rhizobial infection zone in the nodule apex. Except for the root vasculature, the MtNRLK1 symbiotic expression pattern is different than the one of MtSUNN. Functional analyses either based on RNA interference, insertional mutagenesis, and overexpression of MtNRLK1 however failed to identify a significant nodulation phenotype, either regarding the number, size, organization or nitrogen fixation capacity of the symbiotic organs formed.
Project description:Glucose produced from photosynthesis is a key nutrient signal regulating root meristem activity in plants; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we show that, by modulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, the conserved macroautophagy/autophagy degradation pathway contributes to glucose-regulated root meristem maintenance. In Arabidopsis thaliana roots, a short exposure to elevated glucose temporarily suppresses constitutive autophagosome formation. The autophagy-defective autophagy-related gene (atg) mutants have enhanced tolerance to glucose, established downstream of the glucose sensors, and accumulate less glucose-induced ROS in the root tips. Moreover, the enhanced root meristem activities in the atg mutants are associated with improved auxin gradients and auxin responses. By acting with AT4G39850/ABCD1 (ATP-binding cassette D1; Formerly PXA1/peroxisomal ABC transporter 1), autophagy plays an indispensable role in the glucose-promoted degradation of root peroxisomes, and the atg mutant phenotype is partially rescued by the overexpression of ABCD1. Together, our findings suggest that autophagy is an essential mechanism for glucose-mediated maintenance of the root meristem. Abbreviation: ABA: abscisic acid; ABCD1: ATP-binding cassette D1; ABO: ABA overly sensitive; AsA: ascorbic acid; ATG: autophagy related; CFP: cyan fluorescent protein; Co-IP: co-immunoprecipitation; DAB: 3',3'-diaininobenzidine; DCFH-DA: 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate; DR5: a synthetic auxin response element consists of tandem direct repeats of 11 bp that included the auxin-responsive TGTCTC element; DZ: differentiation zone; EZ, elongation zone; GFP, green fluorescent protein; GSH, glutathione; GUS: ?-glucuronidase; HXK1: hexokinase 1; H2O2: hydrogen peroxide; IAA: indole-3-acetic acid; IBA: indole-3-butyric acid; KIN10/11: SNF1 kinase homolog 10/11; MDC: monodansylcadaverine; MS: Murashige and Skoog; MZ: meristem zone; NBT: nitroblue tetrazolium; NPA: 1-N-naphtylphthalamic acid; OxIAA: 2-oxindole-3-acetic acid; PIN: PIN-FORMED; PLT: PLETHORA; QC: quiescent center; RGS1: Regulator of G-protein signaling 1; ROS: reactive oxygen species; SCR: SCARECROW; SHR, SHORT-ROOT; SKL: Ser-Lys-Leu; SnRK1: SNF1-related kinase 1; TOR: target of rapamycin; UPB1: UPBEAT1; WOX5: WUSCHEL related homeobox 5; Y2H: yeast two-hybrid; YFP: yellow fluorescent protein.